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Les Grecs d'Istanbul au XIXe siècle

Histoire socioculturelle de la communauté de Péra

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Méropi Anastassiadou

This book traces the history of the Greek orthodox community of Pera (in Turkish Beyoğlu), a quarter situated at the heart of Istanbul. It is mostly based on parish archives and covers the period from 1804 to 1923. Demographic aspects, administrative organization, the profile of the élite, philanthropic projects and activities (education, charity) constitute the main axes. Through the case of this Christian population, one of the most prosperous in Eastern Mediterranean, the study highlights the functioning and the aspirations of non Muslim communities of the Ottoman Empire at the age of nationalism. Were these conscious of living through the end of an era ? Implicitly, the warning signs of the collapse of the imperial edifice are also sought to be identified.

Ce livre retrace l’histoire de la communauté grecque orthodoxe de Péra (en turc Beyoğlu), quartier situé au cœur d’Istanbul. Il s’appuie pour l’essentiel sur les archives paroissiales. Il couvre la période allant de 1804 à 1923. Les aspects démographiques, l’organisation administrative, le profil des élites, les projets et œuvres philanthropiques (éducation, charité) en constituent les principaux axes. À travers le cas de cette population chrétienne, une des plus prospères de l’Est méditerranéen, il s’agit de cerner le fonctionnement et les aspirations des communautés non musulmanes de l’Empire ottoman à l’âge des nationalismes. Celles-ci avaient-elles conscience de vivre la fin d’une époque ? En filigrane, l’ouvrage cherche à identifier les signes précurseurs de l’effondrement de l’édifice impérial.

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Nabil Matar

British Captives from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1563-1760 provides the first study of British captives in the North African Atlantic and Mediterranean, from the reign of Elizabeth I to George II. Based on extensive archival research in the United Kingdom, Nabil Matar furnishes the names of all captives while examining the problems that historians face in determining the numbers of early modern Britons in captivity.

Matar also describes the roles which the monarchy, parliament, trading companies, and churches played (or did not play) in ransoming captives. He questions the emphasis on religious polarization in piracy and shows how much financial constraints, royal indifference, and corruption delayed the return of captives. As rivarly between Britain and France from 1688 on dominated the western Mediterranean and Atlantic, Matar concludes by showing how captives became the casus belli that justified European expansion.

Law and Empire

Ideas, Practices, Actors

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Edited by Jeroen Duindam, Jill Diana Harries, Caroline Humfress and Hurvitz Nimrod

Law and Empire provides a comparative view of legal practices in Asia and Europe, from Antiquity to the eighteenth century. It relates the main principles of legal thinking in Chinese, Islamic, and European contexts to practices of lawmaking and adjudication. In particular, it shows how legal procedure and legal thinking could be used in strikingly different ways. Rulers could use law effectively as an instrument of domination; legal specialists built their identity, livelihood and social status on their knowledge of law; and non-elites exploited the range of legal fora available to them. This volume shows the relevance of legal pluralism and the social relevance of litigation for premodern power structures.

Història de Jacob Xalabín / History of Yakub Çelebi

A Critical Edition, with an Introduction, Notes, and English Translation

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Edited by Juan Carlos Bayo Julve and Barry Taylor

The Història de Jacob Xalabín, an anonymous novel written in Catalan c.1400, focuses on the figure of the Ottoman prince Yakub Çelebi, son of Murad I and half-brother of Bayezid I. It ends with the first detailed account of the battle of Kosovo of 1389, which left a lasting mark on the history of the Balkans.
This text, mixing historical and fictional elements, is one of the earliest depictions in Western Literature of the rising Ottoman empire. Because of this, it is most relevant for Mediterranean studies and debates about orientalism. Juan Carlos Bayo has prepared a new critical edition of this novel, with an introduction and notes, and Barry Taylor offers its first translation ever into the English language. The volume is completed with an appendix of texts and documents on the Turkish connections of the Crown of Aragon.

Society and Politics in an Ottoman Town

ʿAyntāb in the 17th Century

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Hülya Canbakal

This book deals with a provincial town attending to its day-to-day business against the backdrop of an exacting war fought far afield against the Habsburgs (1683-99). The dynamics of long-term economic growth were temporarily disturbed by the wartime economy while realignment in center-periphery relations affected the local power structure and practices of status management. Meanwhile, the local elite continued to dominate public life, hence the lives of commoners. This study opens a window onto this world through a close examination of the court records of the town.

The Sons of Bayezid

Empire Building and Representation in the Ottoman Civil War of 1402-13

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Dimitris Kastritsis

The civil war of 1402-1413 is one of the most complicated and fascinating periods in Ottoman history. It is often called the interregnum because of its political instability, but that term does not do justice to the fact that the civil war was a chapter of Ottoman history in its own right. This book is the first full-length study of that chapter, which began with Timur’s dismemberment of the early Ottoman Empire following his defeat of Bayezid “the Thunderbolt” at Ankara (1402). After Timur’s departure, what was left of the Ottoman realm was contested by Bayezid’s sons in a series of bloody wars involving many internal factions and foreign powers. As part of those wars some of the earliest Ottoman historical literature was produced in the courts of the warring princes, especially Mehmed Çelebi, who was the final winner and needed to justify killing his brothers. This book is a detailed reconstruction of events based on the available sources, as well as a study of the period’s political culture as reflected in its historical narratives.

Living in the Ottoman Ecumenical Community

Essays in Honour of Suraiya Faroqhi

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Edited by Markus Koller and Vera Costantini

This book dedicated to Suraiya Faroqhi shows that the early modern world was not only characterized by its having been split up into states with closed frontiers. Writing history “from the bottom”, by treating the Ottoman Empire and other countries as “subjects of history”, reduces the importance of political borders for doing historical research. Each social, economic and religious group had its own world-view and in most of the cases the borders of these communities were not identical with the political frontiers. Regarding the Ottoman Empire and the other early modern states as systems of different ecumenical communities rather than only as political units offers a different approach to a better understanding of the various ways in which their subjects interacted. In this context the term ecumenical community designates social, religious and economic groups building up cross-border communities. Different ecumenical communities overlapped within the boundaries of a state or in a specific area and gave them their distinctive characters. This festschrift for Suraiya Faroqhi aims to describe some of the close contacts between various ecumenical communities within and beyond the Ottoman borders.

Studies in Atatürk's Turkey

The American Dimension

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Edited by George Harris and Nur Bilge Criss

Nearly all of the previous scholarship on Turkey and U.S. relations cover the Cold War period as well as current affairs with regard to security, strategy, and defense. Hence, the literature abounds with military orientation. This edited volume builds on a historical perspective and focuses on foreign relations, diplomacy, actors, mutual perceptions and reciprocity in diplomatic relations within the framework of the world conjuncture in the 1920s and 1930s. Relations with the U.S.A. have served as a balance in Turkey's Euro-Atlantic policy long before NATO was established. Likewise, re-building relations with the Republic of Turkey served U.S. interests in opening to the Near East and thus breaking away from its much lauded isolationist policy between the two world wars. Thus, the picture that emerges here is just as much a history of U.S. diplomacy as it is of Turkey.

Forging Urban Solidarities

Ottoman Aleppo 1640-1700

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Charles Wilkins

As with most empires of the Early Modern period (1500-1800), the Ottomans mobilized human and material resources for warmaking on a scale that was vast and unprecedented. The present volume examines the direct and indirect effects of warmaking on Aleppo, an important Ottoman administrative center and Levantine trading city, as the empire engaged in multiple conflicts, including wars with Venice (1644-69), Poland (1672-76) and the Hapsburg Empire (1663-64, 1683-99). Focusing on urban institutions such as residential quarters, military garrisons, and guilds, and using intensively the records of local law courts, the study explores how the routinization of direct imperial taxes and the assimilation of soldiers to civilian life challenged – and reshaped – the city’s social and political order.

Syria and Bilad al-Sham under Ottoman Rule

Essays in Honour of Abdul Karim Rafeq

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Edited by Peter Sluglett and Stefan Weber