The beginnings of Russian law are documented by the Russo-Byzantine treaties of the 10th century and the oldest Russian law, the Russkaia Pravda. The tempestuous developments of the following centuries (the incessant wars among the princes, the Mongol invasion, the rise of the Novgorod republic) all left their marks on the legal system until the princes of Muscovy succeeded in reuniting the country. This resulted in the creation of major legislative monuments, such as the Codes of Ivan the Great of 1497 and of Ivan the Terrible of 1550. After the Time of Troubles the Council Code of the second Romanov Tsar, Aleksei, of 1649 became the starting point for the comprehensive Russian codification of the 19th century.
The Bohemian Land Law and the Beginning of the Hussite Revolution
In For the Common Good: The Bohemian Land Law and the Beginning of the Hussite Revolution Jeanne E. Grant presents an interpretation of the mentality of leading nobles within the Czech kingdom to understand their political actions in the Hussite Revolution. The nobles’ viewpoint derived from a confluence of legal, political, and religious ideas. Analyzing these ideas in the law book written by Ondřej z Dubé, manifestos, and political documents, Jeanne E. Grant shows that both Hussite and Catholic representatives of the kingdom who participated in the revolution adhered to consistent and widespread conceptions of their relationship to the kingdom, crown, and king that compelled them to defend the common good as they understood it.