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Responsibilities to Protect

Perspectives in Theory and Practice

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Edited by David Whetham and Bradley J. Strawser

Following the humanitarian horrors of the 1990s, the international community began to seek consensus on a new norm to help address the tension between upholding the sovereign right of states to administer their own internal affairs, and the pressing need for civilian populations to be protected from their own government in certain situations. The result was the responsibility to protect initiative from the UN, accepted as an emerging norm and based on existing legal structures although not itself necessarily accepted as law.

This volume looks not only at the humanitarian-inspired interventions of the past 15 years, such as those that took place under the Force for Good banner of the UK Government under New Labour, but also looks at what this has meant for the people actually involved in doing them. What responsibilities do states have towards their own soldiers when sending them to protect ‘other’ people? Should that responsibility extend to moral and psychological protection as well as physical protection, and if so, how? How far does the duty go when considering the protection of one’s own citizens who have deliberately placed themselves in harm’s way, such as journalists who have chosen to leave the safety of a protected area? What happens when institutions are faced with the choice of protecting their people or their reputation? What does it feel like for the inhabitants of a state who become ‘protected’ by the international community?

The book brings together international scholars and practitioners to address these concerns from both sides of the coin, recognising that international initiatives have practical implications.

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Sigrid Mehring

Although working on the sidelines of armed conflicts, physicians are often at the centre of attention. First Do No harm: Medical Ethics in International Humanitarian Law was born from the occasionally controversial role of physicians in recent armed conflicts and the legal and ethical rules that frame their actions. While international humanitarian, human rights and criminal law provide a framework of rights and obligations that bind physicians in armed conflicts, the reference to ‘medical ethics’ in the laws of armed conflict adds an extra-legal layer. In analysing both the legal and the ethical framework for physicians in armed conflict, the book is invaluable to practitioners and legal scholars alike.

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Edited by David W. Lovell

‘Operational incidents’ denotes misconduct, misdeeds or mishaps that occur on military operations, whether concerning the mistreatment of enemy soldiers, offences against civilians, conflict of varying levels within one’s own forces, or accidents that lead to injury or death within a theatre of operations. Alleged breaches of IHL or the disciplinary regulations of particular militaries require at the very least an initial assessment to determine the facts and then, if warranted, a more substantial investigation. The need for robust investigations, however, is not always matched by the will and the ability to undertake them. There is at last a sufficient body of experience on which we can reflect, in this volume, on such investigations, their challenges, and their likely evolution.

An Introduction to the Law of International Criminal Tribunals

A Comparative Study. Second Revised Edition

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Geert-Jan Knoops

In An Introduction to the Law of International Criminal Tribunals Geert-Jan Alexander Knoops offers an overview of the basic topics in international criminal law (ICL).

It discusses main characteristics of International Criminal Tribunals (ICTs), as well as definitions of international crimes. The book will delve into issues of jurisdiction and complementarity, liability principles and specialized defences. Other topics are: due process rights, evidence, trials in absentia and State cooperation. A new chapter is devoted to the geopolitical effects of international criminal prosecutions.

The second revised edition includes a chapter on the “new” crime of aggression and is updated with the most recent developments in ICL. The book is essential to everyone becoming familiar with the basic topics and challenges within ICL.

Edited by Jonas Ebbesson, Marie Jacobsson, Mark Adam Klamberg, David Langlet and Pål Wrange

The traditional conception of security as national security against military threats has changed radically since the adoption of the UN Charter in 1945. The perceived nature and sources of threats have been widened as well as the objects of protection, now including individuals, societies, the environment as such and the whole globe. In International Law and Changing Perceptions of Security the contributors reflect on whether and how changing concepts and conceptions of security have affected different fields of international law, such as the use of force, the law of the sea, human rights, international environmental law and international humanitarian law.

The authors of this book have been inspired by Professor Said Mahmoudi to which this Liber Amoricum is dedicated.

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Claudie Barrat

In Status of NGOs in International Humanitarian Law, Claudie Barrat examines the legal framework applicable to NGOs in situations of armed conflict. The author convincingly demonstrates, contrary to convention, that in addition to the ICRC, the National Societies and the IFRC, numerous other NGOs referenced in humanitarian law treaties have a legal status in IHL and therefore legitimate claim to employ IHL provisions to respond to current challenges. On the basis of clear and thorough definitions of these entities, Barrat argues that existing NGOs meeting stringent definition can benefit from customary rights and obligations in both international and non-international armed conflict.

EU Management of Global Emergencies

Legal Framework for Combating Threats and Crises

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Edited by Inge Govaere and Sara Poli

EU Management of Global Emergencies: Legal Framework for Combating Threats and Crises provides a thorough analysis of the role played by the European Union (EU) in combating some of the global emergencies that currently affect, or are likely to affect, our planet. In particular, the potential of a “regional” model for coping with such emergencies is examined, taking into account the perceived inefficacy of traditional prevention and reaction mechanisms provided both by individual States and international organisations. The expression “global emergencies” refers to all situations, irrespective of the subject matter involved, which are characterised by an unexpected state of crisis which affects one or more regions of the world and call for an urgent and coordinated response from competent bodies and institutions.

Furthermore, the book tests the role of the EU in managing global emergencies with respect to four broad areas: the economic and financial crises, the protection of the environment, terrorism and humanitarian aid, while maintaining focus on the legal framework within which the EU deals with such global emergencies in the light of the innovations brought about by the Lisbon Treaty.

With contributions by leading experts in each of the identified set of challenges, EU Management of Global Emergencies: Legal Framework for Combating Threats and Crises aims at increasing the understanding of : (a) the contribution of regional organizations such as the EU to the management of global emergencies; (b) the effectiveness of the EU external action and the actual involvement of the EU in global cooperation processes against global emergencies; (c) global standards of human rights protection in relation to measures adopted in crises; and (d) the coordination mechanisms between the EU and other international organisations with a global or regional membership, in the management of global emergencies.

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Military Contingents

Moving Beyond the Current Status Quo and Responsibility under International Law

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Róisín Sarah Burke

In Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by UN Military Contingents: Moving Beyond the Current Status Quo and Responsibility under International law Róisín Burke explores the legal, conceptual and practical difficulties of dealing with sexual offences committed by military contingent personnel deployed on UN peace operations. Some of the inadequacies of current legal frameworks for dealing with such abuses are examined. The book addresses the difficulties with applying international humanitarian law, human rights law and/or international criminal law in this context, and the broader issue of state/international organization responsibility. The book proposes policy options to increase accountability both for perpetrators and for troop contributing nations otherwise indifferent to the crimes of their national contingents.

EU Peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan

Legality and Accountability

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Martina Spernbauer

In EU Peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan: Legality and Accountability Martina Spernbauer offers a comprehensive account of the EU's peacebuilding toolbox in light of the Union's constitutional architecture under the Treaty of Lisbon. A detailed analysis of EU peacebuilding in Kosovo and Afghanistan, with a focus on the security and justice sectors, demonstrates that the Union's continuous dichotomy between the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and other Union policies is difficult to maintain for this multi-faceted, comprehensive policy framework, which lies at the interface of security, justice and development. Within this analysis, the central questions of compliance of EU external action with international law and international human rights law in particular under CFSP, as well as accountability towards third countries and their nationals are addressed.

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Ernst Hirsch Ballin

Ernst Hirsch Ballin discusses the significance of citizens’ rights against the backdrop of ongoing migration and urbanization in the beginning of the 21st century. The traditional view that each state has the sovereign power to give or withhold citizenship, puts the full enjoyment of human rights at risk whenever exclusion is based on differences in nationality. Citizens’ rights are the essential connecting link between human rights and life in a democratic society. Citizens have an individual right, as a citizen, to take part in the democratic process and in the structures of solidarity of the state where they are effectively at home. By recognizing everyone’s right to the citizenship of the state in which they can make these rights a reality, citizens’ rights can bridge the gap between the universality of human rights and the changing political and social settings of people’s lives. Limits on dual citizenship are counterproductive, European citizenship paves the way for transnational citizenship.

"Hirsch Ballin's book is very important for academics and practitioners in the field of citizenship. It embraces the complexity of citizenship with all its academic, practical and emotional meanings. Hopefully, Hirsch Ballin's work can serve as a compass for new directions in immigration and naturalisation debates." Katja Swider in: Journal of European Integration, Vol 38. nr. 4, 2016