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The State versus the Individual

The Unresolved Dilemma of Humanitarian Intervention

Katariina Simonen

Whether States, coalitions of States or inter-governmental organizations can engage in humanitarian intervention lawfully without the UN Security Council´s authorization has been debated at length. Following NATO´s intervention in Kosovo in 1999, the international lawgiver had to act. The result was the concept of the responsibility to protect. But the fundamental question of the legality of humanitarian intervention remained.

This book takes a new approach by combining legal theory and international law. Legal theory enables the concept of legal validity to be better understood and permits the question to be evaluated thoroughly in international law. The outcome is that the international lawgiver has to confront the hard problem whether or not there is enough interest for human rights protection.

Making Peoples Heard

Essays on Human Rights in Honour of Gudmundur Alfredsson

Edited by Asbjørn Eide, Jakob Th. Möller and Ineta Ziemele

A leading theme in this impressive collection of essays in honour of Professor Gudmundur Alfredsson is the advancement of international rules and mechanisms to empower individuals, groups and peoples everywhere to pursue their rights nationally, regionally and internationally. The book deals with the many areas of international law and national policies and practices in which important progress has been made since the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights for better protection of human rights in the modern world. It equally provides a critical discussion of the difficulties and failures in various areas and probes questions and issues that are pending solution at the national, regional or universal levels.

The book begins with the examination by several authors from their different perspectives (general international law, international human rights law and humanitarian law) of the existence and meaning of the right to peace. Subsequent chapters examine in detail the standard setting, monitoring and other ways of ensuring compliance by States and international organizations with the applicable human rights rules. A special chapter is devoted to the rights of indigenous peoples and minorities, an issue of particular interest and concern to Gudmundur Alfredsson. The contributors are academics or practitioners in the field of international law and human rights, nearly all of whom having in their own work been closely associated with Professor Alfredsson's various projects aimed at the promotion and protection of human rights.

"This is a remarkable book, written by insiders for one of the most prominent players in the international human rights system, particularly at the UN level. It can serve as a genuine commentary on many of the most burning issues within that system, ranging from the performance of the UN Human Rights Council and the situation of "UNmikistan" (Kosovo) to the latest developments of the law on minorities and indigenous peoples, both at the global and regional level."
H.E. Judge Bruno Simma, International Court of Justice.

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Edited by Yuki Tanaka, Timothy L.H. McCormack and Gerry Simpson

The aim of this new collection of essays is to engage in analysis beyond the familiar victor’s justice critiques. The editors have drawn on authors from across the world — including Australia, Japan, China, France, Korea, New Zealand and the United Kingdom — with expertise in the fields of international humanitarian law, international criminal law, Japanese studies, modern Japanese history, and the use of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. The diverse backgrounds of the individual authors allow the editors to present essays which provide detailed and original analyses of the Tokyo Trial from legal, philosophical and historical perspectives.

Several of the essays in the collection are based on the authors’ extensive archival research in Japan, Australia, the United States and New Zealand, providing rich insights into Japanese societal attitudes towards the Trial, biological experimentation by the Japanese Army in China, as well as the trial of Korean prison guards and prosecutions for rape and sexual assault in the post-war period. Some of the essays deal with particular participants in the Trial, examining the role of individual judges, and the selection of defendants and the decision not to prosecute the Emperor. Other essays analyse the Trial from a legal perspective, and address its impact on concepts such as command responsibility, conspiracy and war crimes. The majority of the essays seek to identify and address some of the ‘forgotten crimes’ in the Tokyo Trial. These include crimes committed in China and Korea (particularly the activities of the infamous Unit 731), crimes committed against comfort women, and crimes associated with the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the conventional firebombing of other Japanese cities and the illicit drug trade in China. Finally, the collection includes a number of essays which consider the importance of studying the Tokyo Trial and its contemporary relevance. These issues include an examination of the way in which academics have ‘written’ the Trial over the last 60 years, and an analysis of some of the lessons that can be drawn for international trials in the future.

Self-Determination, Dignity and End-of-Life Care

Regulating Advance Directives in International and Comparative Perspective

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Edited by Stefania Negri

This volume gathers the contributions of leading researchers in the fields of bioethics, medical law and human rights. By providing an interdisciplinary reading of advance directives regulation against the background of European and International law, this book aims to offer new insights into the most controversial legal issues surrounding the theme of dignity and autonomy at the end of life. Cross-cultural perspectives from Europe, the Americas, Australia and China offer a comparative analysis of legal approaches to end-of-life decision-making and care, including the hotly debated issues of euthanasia and assisted suicide, also giving an account of recent developments in domestic legislation and jurisprudence. Special focus is placed on the Italian legal system and its ongoing discussion on advance directives regulation.

Protecting Cultural Property in Armed Conflict

An Insight into the 1999 Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict

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Edited by Nout van Woudenberg and Liesbeth Lijnzaad

In 2009 it was ten years since the adoption of the Second Protocol to the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of an Armed Conflict. To celebrate this anniversary, a variety of contributions, focussing on the legal and cultural aspects of the Protocol are presented by Van Woudenberg and Lijnzaad. The innovative aspects of the Second Protocol such as enhanced protection, criminal responsibility and jurisdiction, and the protection of cultural property in armed conflicts not of an international character are addressed. Some country-specific studies are included. It is hoped that this publication will inspire States to accede to the Protocol and that it will serve as a source of inspiration to legal advisers, military personnel and cultural property experts.

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Omar Abdulle Alasow

While all armed conflicts are marked by violations of international humanitarian law, non-international armed conflicts appear to be characterised by even more serious violations of international humanitarian law on a colossal scale. This study is aimed at understanding the possible factors that may cause parties to non-international armed conflicts to engage in violations despite the fact that not only international humanitarian law but also other bodies of rules (e.g. legal and moral) impose restrictions and obligations similar to international humanitarian law. Somalia, which for over two decaces has been experiencing internal armed conflicts marked by widespread violations, is a typical case.

This study addresses the root causes of the internal armed conflict in Somalia and identifies factors which contributed to the collapse of the Somali state and the reasons for its continuing conflict. It also examines the characteristics of the conflict. In order to examine the extent to which applicable rules have been respected or not, the study examines both international rules applicable in non-international armed conflicts and specific Somali rules of warfare. After demonstrating evidence of violations and analysing it, this study seeks to identify possible direct and indirect causes of these violations. In addition, it also seeks to identify whether such possible causes contribute to violations that are unique to the situation in Somalia, or, if not, whether there may be lessons to be learnt for other situations similar to that in Somalia.

International Law, Conflict and Development

The Emergence of a Holistic Approach in International Affairs.

Edited by Walter Kälin, Robert Kolb, Christoph Spenlé and Maurice Voyame

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Noelle Higgins

This work reconsiders and critically evaluates the complex international legal framework which seeks to regulate wars of national liberation in the light of two fascinating case studies. It tests the effectiveness of both the jus ad bellum and jus in bello aspects of the current legal framework by applying it to self-determination wars waged in the South Moluccas and Aceh by armed groups against Indonesia. The book highlights the various difficulties inherent in the current legal framework as well as the ad hoc and unpredictable practice of States in relation to its application. The work concludes with recommendations on how the current framework should be updated and enhanced so that it can adequately deal with modern self-determination conflicts.

Stopping Wars and Making Peace

Studies in International Intervention

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Edited by Kristen Eichensehr and W. Michael Reisman

During most of human history, war was a basic instrument of statecraft, considered, for the most part, a lawful, honorable, ennobling, and even romantic pursuit. By contrast, peacemaking remained a marginal and indeed incongruous interstate activity. A war would end when the belligerents ended it.
The experience of the twentieth century’s two world wars has changed, at least, the official view. The introduction of ever more destructive weapons, the drastic escalation of civilian deaths, and the economic and environmental devastation that modern war brought combined to forge an international legal impulse to stop, if not prevent, wars, resolve ongoing conflicts, and build peace.
Yet stopping a war, though a useful, if not indispensable, step toward making peace, does not lead ineluctably to peace. Nor does the international community’s interposition of “peacekeepers”; their title notwithstanding, peacekeepers only try to keep a stopped war stopped. Making peace is a separate operation, often applying some parts of the same armamentarium but in very different ways.
International efforts at stopping wars and making peace, in the era in which such initiatives have become lawful and virtuous, have proved remarkably unsuccessful. Yet the proliferation of ever more destructive weapons, the growing sense of insecurity and expectation of violence, the increasing difficulty of containing wars within a single arena, the threat of breakdown of order, with the prospect of epidemics and mass migration, all work to intensify the demand to stop wars and to make peace.
This volume explores these issues by analyzing the theoretical literature on stopping wars and making peace and its application to a number of concrete cases, including the Falklands,
Nagorno Karabakh, Rwanda, Malaya, Thailand, and Mozambique. Each case examines one conflict and the efforts undertaken to stop it and transform it into a peace system. The case studies draw general lessons from the incidents studied, extracting guidelines and principles that might serve those called upon to stop wars and make peace and offering a number of instructive points.

The Contemporary Law of Targeting

Military Objectives, Proportionality and Precautions in Attack under Additional Protocol I

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Ian Henderson

Armed conflict is about using force to achieve goals. As international humanitarian law regulates the means and methods that a belligerent may adopt to achieve its goals, there will inevitably be disagreements over the interpretation of that law. As for the rules that regulate targeting, the main difficulties arise over what is a lawful target and what is proportional collateral damage. This book provides a detailed analysis of those issues. Also, a chapter is dedicated to considering how United Nations Security Council sanctioning of participation in an armed conflict might affect the range of lawful targets available to a belligerent. Finally, a process is described by which legal responsibility for targeting decisions can be assessed in a complex decision-making environment.