This book argues for the essential use of drawing as a tool for science teaching and learning. The authors are working in schools, universities, and continual science learning (CSL) settings around the world. They have written of their experiences using a variety of prompts to encourage people to take pen to paper and draw their thinking—sometimes direct observation and in other instances, their memories. The result is a collection of research and essays that offer theory, techniques, outcomes, and models for the reader.
Young children have provided evidence of the perceptions that they have accumulated from families and the media before they reach classrooms. Secondary students describe their ideas of chemistry and physics. Teacher educators use drawings to consider the progress of their undergraduates’ understanding of science teaching and even their moral/ethical responses to teaching about climate change. Museum visitors have drawn their understanding of the physics of how exhibit sounds are transmitted. A physician explains how the history of drawing has been a critical tool to medical education and doctor-patient communications. Each chapter contains samples, insights, and where applicable, analysis techniques.
The chapters in this book should be helpful to researchers and teachers alike, across the teaching and learning continuum. The sections are divided by the kinds of activities for which drawing has historically been used in science education:
- An instance of observation (Audubon, Linnaeus);
- A process (how plants grow over time, what happens when chemicals combine);
- Conceptions of what science is and who does it;
- Images of identity development in science teaching and learning.
A “Sci-Book” or “Science Notebook” serves as an essential companion to the science curriculum supplement,
STEPS to STEM. As students learn key concepts in the seven “big ideas” in this program (Electricity & Magnetism; Air & Flight; Water & Weather; Plants & Animals; Earth & Space; Matter & Motion; Light & Sound), they record their ideas, plans, and evidence. There is ample space for students to keep track of their observations and findings, as well as a section to reflect upon the use of “Science and Engineering Practices” as set forth in the
Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).
Using a science notebook is reflective of the behavior of scientists. One of the pillars of the Nature of Science is that scientists must document their work to publish their research results; it is a necessary part of the scientific enterprise. This is important because
STEPS to STEM is a program for young scientists who learn within a community of scientists. Helping students to think and act like scientists is a critical feature of this program. Students learn that they
need to keep a written record if they are to successfully share their discoveries and curiosities with their classmates and with the teacher. Teachers should also model writing in science to help instill a sense of purpose and pride in using and maintaining a Sci-Book. Lastly, students’ documentation can serve as a valuable form of authentic assessment; teachers can utilize Sci-Books to monitor the learning process and the development of science skills.
Finnish pupils’ success in international student assessment tests and the characteristics of the Finnish educational system are the focus of interest all around in the world. The significance of Finnish educational policy and societal atmosphere are continuously discussed. This book provides explanations, answers and reflections to these questions. Over 30 expert authors have contributed to this book by bringing their own specific research-based points of view.
The second edition of the book introduces the new national curriculum for basic education that now provides guidelines for school-based curricula. Students’ learning with engagement and schools as learning communities are core visions of the reform. The authors also reflect on the PISA 2012 results. The book gives an example on how to use PISA information for national improvements. In Finland, all evaluations are enhancement-led and this also includes PISA measurements.
The book illustrates how teaching and learning of different subjects is realized in Finnish schools and describes the essential characteristics and methods of teaching, learning materials and research on these issues.
The book provides important insight and reflections to international researchers, teachers, students, journalists and policy makers, who are interested in teaching and learning in Finnish schools. It shows the results of the systematic and persistent work that has been done on education and schooling in Finland.
The main features of education in Finland are:
- Strong equity policy.
- Teachers as autonomous and reflective academic experts.
- Flexible educational structures and local responsibility for curriculum development.
- Evaluation for improvements, not for ranking.
- No national testing, no inspectorate.
- Research-based teacher education.
- Teachers’ high competence in content knowledge and pedagogy.
- Trust in education and teachers.
Western educators constantly look for ways to make the process of learning more meaningful, to kindle the spark that initiates a lifelong pursuit of knowledge and creative innovation. Recent theories have favored the development of critical learning skills over the acquisition of facts. However, these theories are rooted in Western democratic and egalitarian assumptions, some of which exist in no other culture on earth. Although it seems logical that any learner, set at liberty to explore the world, would naturally develop the ability to think critically and analytically, it is important to point out that Western logic is not universal, and what seems natural is, in fact, a product of the Western independence-oriented worldview.
This book examines the consequences of taking a full-blown constructivist approach into Arabic tertiary education, and uncovers some interesting hidden factors that prevent cognitive progress in this environment. This seemingly natural approach to learning does not, in fact, come naturally, but requires careful preparation to enable learners to accept cognitive experiences that may be culturally uncomfortable.
This impressive book is founded on very good scholarship and the knowledge gained from a career studying and working with a number of Indigenous communities. The true strength of the book relates to its capacity to give life to the story as it unfolds through the personal testimony and the history of communities involved. The way they wrestled variously with integration and assimilation is equally fascinating. The style of writing is lucid and driven by a passionate concern for justice. The approach is critical and perceptive.
Professor Anthony Edwards, Liverpool Hope University, UK.
This is an excellent book. Raymond Nichol does a very good job of providing relevant applications to facilitate the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge and pedagogies into education and development in Australia and Melanesia. They are intelligent suggestions that deserve to be put to the test of practice. Overall, I was impressed by this comprehensive and coherent work. I am particularly familiar with the Melanesian material used and can state clearly that is both interpreted and handled appropriately. Finally, stylistically it is a joy to read.
Professor Tom O’Donahue, School of Education, University of Western Australia.
This is a fascinating account of traditional socialisation and Indigenous forms of learning in Australia and Melanesia. It draws from rich ethnographic, historical and educational material.
There has never been a greater need for a socially and historically informed, yet critical account, of the mismatch between traditional ways, realities of life in Indigenous communities, villages and enclaves, and the forms of education provided in schools.
Raymond Nichol, a specialist in Indigenous education and pedagogy, surveys the links, too often disparities, between ethnographic detail of life ‘on the ground’ and the schooling provided by nation states in this vast region. Most importantly, he explores and suggests ways community developers and educators, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, may work to bridge the gaps in social rights, educational and economic development. This is relevant for all Indigenous communities, their survival and development.
Many vexed issues are discussed, such as race, ethnicity, identity, discrimination, self-determination, development, and relevant, effective pedagogical, learning and schooling strategies.
Hidden Dimensions in the Professional Development of Mathematics Teachers presents the field of mathematics teacher professional development both from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. In particular, the initiative Mathematics Done Differently that has been run in Germany is presented, in whose context the data of the empirical study was gathered.
The empirical findings led to postulating a model describing teachers’ individual growth pathways and to providing implications for constructing practices that are based on what teachers really need.
Educational Research by Association is an archive of an archive. It is a collection of eleven Presidential Addresses delivered over the last 40 years to the annual conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education (AARE) and published annually in AARE’s academic journal, the Australian Educational Researcher (AER). However, it is more than an archive in that the selection and the opening essay seek to plot, evaluate and contribute to definitions of education research and its functions and purposes in a changing world, and to consider its impact, broadly defined, in both actual and desirable or normative terms. In pursuing this agenda, the book highlights a number of key issues that have become important in educational research over time, particularly in Australia but also around the globe. These include defining education research as a field, including AARE’s location within that field and the positioning of the presidents’ Addresses therein. They also include questions about the purposes of education research, which implies as well the issue of the readership for such research. The selection also touches on matters of dissemination, publication and diffusion and impact more broadly, raising matters of publication and the various and competing outlets for publication of education research, nationally and increasingly on an international scale. Issues of quality, including associated politics, also come into play, as do questions of the relationship of education research to education policy and practice. These latter questions have become more significant in state policies framed by a new public management that call for evidence-based policy. The opening essay by Bob Lingard and Trevor Gale, two former AARE Presidents, traverses these matters generally and in respect of this archive of Presidential Addresses, helping to define educational research in an increasingly globalised world.
Fanon and the Counterinsurgency of Education takes up the challenge of an anti-colonial reading of Fanon to broach questions of identity, difference and belonging, and the implications for schooling and education. The authors deliberately offer a careful and selective capturing of Fanon’s works, pointing to the relevance for oppressed communities as they resist re-organized colonial relations in schooling and education. While colonialism and neo-colonialism have functioned and continue to function differently in diverse environments and social contexts, contributions in the book enthuse that we must raise new questions in a bold attempt to re-theorize colonial relations, social difference and the representational politics of education. Educators must ask new questions in order to contribute to knowledge of how to resist the entrapments of colonialism, racism, exploitation and alienation. Frantz Fanon’s oeuvre is informative to the pursuit of critical education, especially, when we examine the colonial encounter and the colonized experience. The book offers concrete lessons in the struggle to revise education to meet the needs of diverse communities.
Ontologies for Developing Things is a work of unflagging intelligence and intellectual energy, spilling over with new ideas, surprising angles, sharp perceptions and interesting juxtapositions, and written with correspondingly attractive punch and force. Readers interested in information technologies, contemporary developments in social studies of science, and related cultural and political theory will find the book immensely engaging and endlessly useful. - Barbara Herrnstein Smith, Duke University and Brown University [author of Scandalous Knowledge: Science Truth and the Human and/or Natural Reflections: Human Cognition at the Nexus of Science and Religion]
Women in science education are placed in a juxtaposition of gender roles and gendered career roles. Using auto/biography and auto/ethnography, this book examines the challenges and choices of academic women in science education and how those challenges have changed, or remained consistent, since women have become a presence in science education. The book’s contributors span a temporal and spatial continuum and focus on how a variety of issues relate to the paradoxes for academic women in science education. Science is characterized as a masculine endeavor, while teaching is described as “women’s true profession”. Thus, female academics involved in science education are positioned in two paradoxes. First, as teachers they are involved in a feminized profession. However, within that profession, women faculty in science education work in a discipline viewed as a masculine enterprise. Further, these women work in educational institutions that have higher status and prestige than their sisters in elementary, middle or high schools. Second, female professors are “bearded mothers”. Women who have engaged in science education value rationality and logic and assume authority as participants in academe. The use of logic, the acceptance of authority and the assumption of power are masculine gender-stereotyped characteristics. This situation places women in a paradox, because others, including peers and students, expect them to display stereotypic female gender dispositions, such as mothering/nurturing, sacrificing their needs for others, and a commitment to the institution.
The topics include: discussing how their engagement with science impacted their career trajectories and re-direction from science to science education, the relationships of cultural and racial factors on career trajectories, and the dialectical relationship between women’s private|public lives and their agency (collective and individual) in the academy and its enactment within academic fields. The book documents the lives and careers of academic women in science education from the United States, Australia, the Caribbean, United Kingdom, and Europe.