The demand for higher education worldwide is booming. Governments want well-educated citizens and knowledge workers but are scrambling for funds. The capacity of the public sector to provide increased and equitable access to higher education is seriously challenged.
What are the on-the-ground realities of developing financial resources and policies to meet the twin goals of equity and access without jeopardizing quality? This volume provides in-depth reports from selected countries and sub-regions: Morocco, Korea, England, Uganda, Poland, Oman, East and southern Africa, Southeast Asia, Brazil, and Egypt. Each chapter is written by a seasoned educator participating in the Fulbright New Century Scholar program for 2007-2008.
Given the near-universal constraints of declining resources but increasing enrollments, the authors identify common trends such as the public/private divide, the privatization of the public sector, and diversification of funding. To address these issues, the chapters examine a surprising variety of policy instruments such as means testing, targeted subsidies, cost sharing, institutional aid, student bursaries, and tax exemptions.
This volume represents the work of sixteen authors, who all work at different universities and other academic institutions in the Nordic countries. It provides insight into the diversity of research being conducted in the northernmost parts of Europe. Although it would be incorrect to assert that research in this far away part of Europe represents something drastically different than that done in other parts of the world, it would be equally incorrect to maintain that being at the outskirts, on the cusp, or on the periphery _ whichever way one wishes to describe the position of the Nordic countries in relation to the rest of the world—does not influence the ways in which educational processes, phenomena and their consequences are viewed.
Nordic Voices discuss with readers different issues regarding teaching and researching Comparative and International Education in the Nordic countries. The editors began their collaboration in 2006, working together to revitalize the Nordic Comparative and International Education Society. NOCIES was officially re-established in May, 2008.
Halla B. Holmarsdottir, who is from Iceland, lives and works in Norway, where she is Associate Professor in Multicultural and International Education at Oslo University College.
Mina O’Dowd, whose father is from the USA and mother is Norwegian, lives and works in Sweden.
Nordic Voices: Teaching and Researching Comparative and International Education in the Nordic Countries is a result of the collaboration that began over three years ago.
This volume addresses the larger question of the effects of (global) educational reform on teaching and learning as they relate to the context, the policies and politics where reform occurs.
Maria Teresa Tatto and Monica Mincu bring together a group of leading scholars in the field representing a variety of national contexts and geographical areas. The chapters in the book raise crucial questions such as: What is the impact of globalization on local education systems and traditions? What roles do international agencies play? What is the role of the state? What is the role of policy networks? How do we understand the functions of quality assurance mechanisms, standards, competencies, and the “new” accountability? In doing so the chapters discuss the institutions and organization of education and how these shape what teachers learn and, eventually, teach to diverse populations.
The book uses a number of analytical frameworks and theoretical perspectives, from critical discourse analysis, regime theory, empirical exploration of teachers’ thinking and actions within school contexts, analysis of reform diffusion and global trends. Using analysis of the literature and relevant documents, case studies and diverse forms of survey research, this work offers a glimpse of the complexities that exist in the fields of teaching and learning.
This collection is also an occasion to observe the profile of knowledge production in these cultural contexts, the interplay between local and national research agendas and traveling policies around the world.
University rankings are a relatively new phenomenon in higher education. Although quite an established practice in the U. S., it is only within the last decade that attempts to analyse university performance have spread to the rest of the world, and that we also have seen new global rankings appear—rankings attempting to measure university performance beyond national borders. No wonder that this trend is accompanied by a growing interest in studying rankings throughout the world. This book is written as part of the effort to better understand rankings and their effects on higher education.
A serious approach towards university rankings implies that rankings should be analysed properly, including the methods used and the indicators chosen, and investigate the objectives claimed. If university rankings are considered as consumer information then everyone should have an interest in basing such guidance on valid and reliable data and methodology. A serious analysis should also discuss the wider implications of rankings as an emerging phenomenon in higher education.
Consequently, the contributions to this book investigate and analyse how different rankings work, how they reach their conclusions, and on what data and methodology they are built. Furthermore it provides a critical reflection about the impact of rankings on higher education, how and in what way rankings influence policy-making, the structure of the sector, or the internal life of the sector.
Student mobility is the most important factor in the internationalization of higher education. In this book, existing assumptions will be questioned: that mobility is primarily South-North and North-North, and that South-South flows are rather marginal; that the economic rationale has become so dominant that there are nearly no other motives to be found anymore; and that the growing presence of national and international providers of higher education, and opportunities for distance education, reduce the need for international student mobility. The dynamics of international student circulation will be analyzed on the basis of four countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia and South Africa), which are perceived to be primarily on the sending side of student mobility, and Europe and the USA, which are perceived to be primarily but not exclusively on the receiving side. These case studies will be placed in the context of broader developments in the internationalization of higher education, and related to definitions, methodological issues and global data, as used by UNESCO, OECD and others. This study has been undertaken by five scholars from different parts of the world in the context of the 2005-2006 New Century Scholars Programme 'Higher Education in the Twenty- First Century', of the Fulbright Programme. The book will be of relevance for both researchers and practitioners on globalization and the internationalization of higher education.
The role of education in the development of societies is an important life perspective that is promoted by families, institutions and governments. In today’s globalized world, this reality may presume a worldwide platform where what is termed knowledge societies could gain at the expense of the educationally less endowed. There is also the case where postcolonial systems of education in Africa, Asia, Latin America and other places did not lead to the expected social and technological progress that was promised with independence. The 17 chapters in this volume attempt to analyze these complex and interlinked contexts of education and development. The book contains important criticisms of the historical developments of education, the meanings and changing intersections of development, schooling, citizenships and their exclusions, and the important interplays of globalization, knowledge, culture and languages.
Beyond the theoretical focus, the book examines learning systems and possibilities in specific regions and countries of the world. These include Africa with a specialized focus on women’s education and advancement as well as individual country studies on Ghana, Burkina Faso, Zimbabwe and Somalia. In the Asian context, the specific chapters analyze the training of teachers in China, and women’s education and education and the caste system in India. These are complemented by select treatments of education and social development in Chile in South America, postcolonial (post-communist) Europe, Russia, and the Caribbean region. Together, the book’s contents should selectively respond to some of the most important social and educational development ideas and debates in our world today.
Today, unprecedented emphasis is being placed on research as key motor for advancing the knowledge society and its offspring, the knowledge economy. Consequently, “research on the state of research” has moved high on the priority agendas for governments, for their specialized agencies and bodies devoted to this area, and for higher education institutions. Against this background, the central premise of the 2006 Global Colloquium of the UNESCO Forum for Higher Education Research and Knowledge “Universities as Centres of Research and Knowledge Creation—An Endangered Species” was that research is a key ingredient in the institutional identity of universities and an indispensable prerequisite for a successful programme of teaching and public service. Based on contributions to this Colloquium authors from twenty countries from all regions of the world analyse aspects related to the research function of universities. This book primarily addresses the variety and gaps in higher education across the globe, concentrating on the challenges to transitional and developing countries. It addresses the related issues of research capacity, research productivity, and research relevance and utility. Research capacity appears as a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for research productivity; and research productivity must be assessed in terms of utility and relevance. This volume provides a global range of insights both for policy makers and for higher education and research communities.
Public research universities are an integral part of American society. They play the leading role in educating future leaders in agriculture, engineering, the arts and sciences, humanities, business, education, and other professions. Public research universities generate the new products, processes, inventions, discoveries, insights, and interpretations that advance the human condition. The dominant centers of higher education in many states, public research universities are increasingly looked upon as major engines of economic development. And, through outreach, they harness their human and intellectual capital to serve their sponsoring societies. Yet state investment in public higher education is faltering and the role of public higher education is an area of ongoing debate. This flagging support, along with the growing perception that higher education is a private benefit rather than a public good, has put public research universities at a crossroads. With chapters by leading scholars, this book tackles these challenging issues—on learning resources; on competition; on the public and private benefits of public research universities; and on how best to create an environment for engaged learning. It brings into one collection informed arguments on the key issues facing the American public research university and serves as a valuable resource to students, scholars, and policy makers who are concerned about the future of these national assets.
The field of higher education studies has expanded dramatically in recent years. This book provides a unique and comprehensive guide, including an inventory of 199 centers, programs, and institutes in the field, a essay analyzing the emergence and current status of higher education as an area of study, and a listing of 191 journals focusing on higher education. Together, these three resources constitute the more comprehensive overview of the field available anywhere. Philip G. Altbach’s essay ‘Research and training in higher education’ discusses the origins of the field, the central issues of concern in the research literature, and trends among centers and institutes focusing on higher education worldwide. The inventory, which constitutes most of the book, provides information on the centers and programs, including the names of staff members, focus of work, and relevant addresses and websites. The expansion in the number of journals in the field is illustrated in the journals listing, which provides information about editors, substantive focus, and addresses of journals throughout the world. This book is a unique resources and a benchmark for an emerging field.
Higher education worldwide faces similar challenges—how to cope with globalization, the provision of access to underserved populations, and others. Higher Education in the New Century has identified six key challenges and has focused careful analysis on them. The topics are:
* The academic profession
* Access and equity
* Higher education and social cohesion
* Private higher education
* International student circulation
* The research university
Each of these themes is analyzed by a group of international scholars in order to provide a multidisciplinary and cross-national perspective. This book stems from the Fulbright New Century Scholars Program—an international research project involving more than 20 countries. Because of its broad perspective, this book brings a fresh analysis to central issues. For example, the analysis of how universities can contribute to social cohesion in divided societies is unique. International student flows are discussed from a south-south perspective.