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Economic historians have often examined the effects of the integration of the Ottoman Empire into the world markets with macro-level approaches. This book aims to scrutinize the effects of this transition to a capitalist economy through a micro-level approach instead, using micro-level data and microeconomics. It examines the structure of agricultural production and commerce by analyzing major crops and commercial institutions before assessing agrarian, commercial, and maritime changes at the micro-level. Utilizing recent developments in economic history, institutional economics, and ecological economics, it explores the causality behind these agrarian and commercial changes.
The Circulation of Information in the Spanish Monarchy during the Bourbon’s Reforms
How was the postal reform project in the Bourbon Monarchy conceived and implemented? Caribbean Letters delves into the intricate role of communication within the Spanish Monarchy during the Bourbon Reforms. You’ll discover how the 18th-century Spanish postal system navigated through power struggles and limitations, especially in Cartagena de Indias—a crucial hub where local and global interests converged. This book addresses key research questions on the impact of postal reforms on imperial governance and information circulation. With engaging anecdotes and rare historical data, Caribbean Letters provides a compelling narrative that reveals the complex and dynamic reality of postal communication in the Spanish Empire. Perfect for historians and enthusiasts of colonial studies.
Although air transport is indispensable to modern society, we know little about the diplomatic efforts that establish airline services. Nonetheless, aviation features prominently in the spectrum of international relations: in conflicts between states, for example, the suspension of landing rights is one of the first acts to symbolize serious discord.

In tracing the unique cooperation between government and industry, this historical study underscores aviation as a prominent, but understudied topic in Dutch foreign relations.
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These collected studies dedicated to the Orthodox monastic center of Mount Athos during the Middle Ages paint a compelling picture of the Holy Mountain’s monastic communities as economic actors.
Mount Athos’ rich archival holdings allow both for the minute scrutiny of economic activity and the tracing of long-term trends. Not only were Hagiorite monasteries major players on a local level, but were also embedded within trans-Mediterranean networks of patronage. The unique status of Mount Athos as a semi-autonomous monastic polity also influenced attitudes towards landholding as well as wealth and poverty more generally.
Contributors are Tinatin Chronz, Zachary Chitwood, Stefan Eichert , Martina Filosa, Mihai-D. Grigore, Michel Kaplan, Vladimer Kekelia, Kirill A. Maksimovič, Zisis Melissakis, Nicholas Melvani, Vanessa R. de Obaldia, Daniel Oltean, Nina Richards, Kostis Smyrlis, Apolon Tabuashvili, and Alexander Watzinger.
In the mid-1920s, Uzbekistan’s countryside experienced a ‘land reform’, which aimed at solving rural poverty and satisfying radical fringes among peasants and Party, while sustaining agricultural output, especially for cotton. This book analyses the decision-making process underpinning the reform, its implementation, and economic and social effects. The reform must be understood against the background of the wreckage caused by war and revolution, and linked to subsequent policies of ‘land organisation’ and regime-sponsored ‘class struggle’.
Overall, this is the first comprehensive account of early Soviet policy in Central Asia’s agricultural heartland, encompassing land rights, irrigation, credit, resettlement, and the co-operative system.
How did the Roman economy support the expansion of the Republic and play a crucial role in its success and rise from regional power in Central Italy to the dominant superpower of the Mediterranean world? To what extent did the intensification of the military efforts contribute to the growth of the Roman economy, and how did this happen? In The War Economy of the Roman Republic, Fabrizio Biglino examines the growth of the Roman army and its economic impact from the late fifth to the end of the second centuries BCE. By building an original interpretational framework, Biglino offers a new analysis of the interplay of warfare and the economy in the Republican period and, on a wider scale, the role of warfare in the development of pre-industrialised economies.