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The Yearbook of Polar Law covers a wide variety of law and policy topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic, and even the Third Pole. Many of the articles draw on presentations made at the annual Symposiums on Polar Law. The Editors-in-Chief are Gudmundur Alfredsson of the Stefansson Arctic Institute in Akureyri and the China University of Political Science and Law in Beijing, Julia Jabour of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Timo Koivurova of the Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, and Akiho Shibata of the Polar Cooperation Research Centre, Kobe University.

Articles published in the Yearbook are peer reviewed, unless otherwise noted. The Yearbook will also carry book reviews and occasional news stories.

The topics covered in the Yearbook include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy, self-government and self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources, cultural rights and cultural heritage, and indigenous traditional knowledge
- local, national and corporate governance issues
- environmental law, climate change, security and human rights implications of climate change, protected areas and species, and biodiversity
- regulatory and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources
- jurisdictional and other issues re the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, and continental shelf claims
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea
- peace and security, and dispute settlement
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the polar regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Nordic Council, the International Whaling Commission, the European Union, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, and
- the activities of NGOs, think tanks and academic institutions

The papers in this volume are principally based on presentations at the Polar Law Symposium, held online with logistical support by the Kobe University Polar Cooperation Research Centre (PCRC), in November 2020.
In this book Siu Lang Carrillo Yap compares the land and forest rights of Amazonian indigenous peoples from Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru, and analyses these rights in the context of international law, property law theory, and forest and soil sciences. Within this scope and against the historical background, the recent interrelations between the Amazonian indigenous peoples’ land, forest and community forest management rights and their importance for the self-determination of indigenous peoples in the Amazonian region are examined.

Through bringing together international law with national law, natural resources law with property law and law with natural sciences, the author sheds new light on the complex topic of indigenous peoples’ rights closely entwined with the conservation of the Amazonian rainforest.
This book offers the first comprehensive scholarly analysis of the current meaning and scope of military necessity – a key concept in the international legal framework for the protection of cultural heritage during armed conflicts since the adoption of the 1954 Hague Convention. Academic discussions commonly view military necessity uniquely through the lens of international humanitarian or international criminal law. In her book, Berenika Drazewska presents a more comprehensive perspective, examining developments across various strands of international law arisen since 1954. This novel approach demonstrates how international cultural heritage law affords a particularly strict meaning to military necessity. As a result, the relative waiver will only be available to belligerents very rarely, in truly extraordinary circumstances.

Drazewska’s Military Necessity in International Cultural Heritage Law engages a significant issue in this rapidly evolving field of international law, the inclusion of necessity in regulation of the protection of cultural heritage during armed conflict after 1945. Its very inclusion was viewed as a major concession, which is only multiplied because of the difficulties of its application on the ground. This thorny issue has come to the fore again with large-scale cultural losses inflicted during recent armed conflicts. Elegantly written and scholarly in its approach, this book places this question and possible answers to it within the broader sweep of international law and recent developments not only in international humanitarian law, but state responsibility, international criminal law and international criminal law. It offers a significant and timely reexamination and reconceptualization of this important topic.
Prof. Ana Filipa Vrdoljak (UNESCO Chair in International Law & Cultural Heritage, Faculty of Law, University of Technology, Sydney)
Author: Anna Muś
In The Political Potential of Upper Silesian Ethnoregionalist Movement: A Study in Ethnic Identity and Political Behaviours of Upper Silesians Anna Muś offers a study on the phenomenon of ethnoregionalism in one of the regions in Poland. Since 1945, ethnopolitics in Poland have been based on the so-called assumption of the ethnic homogeneity of the Polish nation. Even the transformation of the political system to a fully democratic one in 1989 did not truly change it. However, over the last three decades, we can observe growing discontent in Upper Silesia and the politicisation of Silesian ethnicity. This is happening in a region with its own history of autonomy and culturally diversified society, where an ethnoregionalist political movement appeared already in 1989.
In this book James Nafziger covers emerging topics of cultural heritage law, a relatively new landmark in the field of both national and international law. His primary focus is on the frontiers identified and developed by the numerous work products of the International Law Association's Committee on Cultural Heritage Law, expanded and updated by some of his own writings. The construction of cultural heritage law is a good example of transnationalism at work, combining national initiatives with diplomacy, UNESCO and other intergovernmental agreements, international custom, and non-governmental initiatives such as the ILA committee's own contributions. These have included published studies, annotated principles and resolutions, draft treaties and a book focused on national practices in the international trade of cultural material. This volume concludes by briefly exploring current and future frontiers of a burgeoning range of topics that are central to many people's daily experiences and interests..
Article 5 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
This book arises out of a CRC Implementation Project colloquium on Article 5 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Article 5 protects the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or others to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of his/her rights. In this interdisciplinary collection, leading international scholars address the interplay of parental guidance, state responsibility and child autonomy within a wide range of fields, from gender identity to criminal justice. The chapters provide fascinating insights into the vital but enigmatic role of Article 5.
This book focuses on trend-setting judgments in different parts of the world that impacted on the rights of persons belonging to minorities and Indigenous people. The cases illustrate how the judiciary has been called upon to fill out the detail of minority protection arrangements and how, in doing so, in many instances the judiciary has taken the respective countries on a course that parliament may not have been able to navigate. In this book authors from various backgrounds in the practical application of minority protection arrangements investigate the role of the judiciary in constitutional arrangements aimed at the protection of the rights of minorities and Indigenous peoples.
Volume Editors: Terressa A. Benz and Graham Cassano
This volume places the Flint, Michigan, water contamination disaster in the context of a broader crisis of neoliberal governance in the United States. Authors from a range of disciplines (including sociology, criminal justice, anthropology, history, communications, and jurisprudence) examine the failures in Flint, but with an emphasis upon comparison, calling attention to similar trajectories for cities like Detroit and Pontiac, in Michigan, and Stockton, in California. While the studies collected here emphasize policy failures, class conflict, and racial oppression, they also attend to the resistance undertaken by Flint residents, Michiganders, and U.S. activists, as they fought for environmental and social justice.

Contributors include: Terressa A. Benz, Jon Carroll, Graham Cassano, Daniel J. Clark, Katrinell M. Davis, Michael Doan, David Fasenfest, A.E. Garrison, Peter J. Hammer, Ami Harbin, Shea Howell, Jacob Lederman, Raoul S. Lievanos, Benjamin J. Pauli, and Julie Sze.
This volume conducts an in-depth analysis of the ECtHR’s case law in the area of migration and asylum, exploring the role of the Court in this area of law. Each chapter deals with the case law on one specific ECHR article that is relevant for migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. In addition, the volume is enriched by two additional studies which deal with issues that are treated in a transversal manner, namely vulnerability and the margin of appreciation. The volume systematises the case law on aliens’ rights under the ECHR, offering readers the chance to familiarise themselves with or gain deeper insight into the main principles the Strasbourg court applies in its case law regarding aliens.