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  • Education Policy & Politics x

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Edited by Philip G. Altbach, Edward Choi, Mathew R. Allen and Hans de Wit

Although an entirely unknown part of higher education worldwide, there are literally hundreds of universities that are owned/managed by families around the world. These institutions are an important subset of private universities—the fastest growing segment of higher education worldwide. Family-owned or managed higher education institutions (FOMHEI) are concentrated in developing and emerging economies, but also exist in Europe and North America. This book is the first to shed light on these institutions—there is currently no other source on this topic.

Who owns a university? Who is in charge of its management and leadership? How are decisions made? The answers to these key questions would normally be governments or non-profit boards of trustees, or recently, for-profit corporations. There is another category of post-secondary institutions that has emerged in the past half-century challenging the time-honored paradigm of university ownership. Largely unknown, as well as undocumented, is the phenomenon of family-owned or managed higher education institutions. In Asia and Latin America, for example, FOMHEIs have come to comprise a significant segment of a number of higher education systems, as seen in the cases of Thailand, South Korea, India, Brazil and Colombia. We have identified FOMHEIs on all continents—ranging from well-regarded comprehensive universities and top-level specialized institutions to marginal schools. They exist both in the non-profit and for-profit sectors.

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Kyle A. Long

The American public is losing trust in its higher education institutions. Americans are increasingly divided about the purposes of a college education, with opinions split along partisan lines. The country’s higher education leaders have responded with a litany of conferences, op-eds, and commissions aimed at regaining the public trust. While these efforts are necessary and important, they are more likely to be successful if supplemented with a view from abroad. The independent American university abroad is the oldest and most successful expression of U.S. higher education outside the United States. First established by Protestant missionaries in the Ottoman Empire during the U.S. Civil War, American universities abroad have since spread across the globe. Many enjoy widespread popularity in their communities and bipartisan support in the U.S.

The Emergence of the American University Abroad explores the development of this model as a distinctive institutional form in the U.S. higher education landscape. It traces the long history of support by American private citizens, the U.S. government, and stateside colleges and universities for these overseas institutions, and shows how leaders of American universities abroad have periodically come together to make sense of their changing environments and strategically align their messaging with potential supporters.

The author demonstrates that what is most valuable about American higher education emerges clearly when it is practiced outside the United States. While discourse about higher education in the United States and around the world has shifted unequivocally toward its conceptualization as a private good, leaders of, and advocates for, American universities abroad have been remarkably consistent in promoting their public benefits. As such, study of these institutions represents a unique opportunity to reflect on underappreciated, yet essential features of American higher education.

Universities as Political Institutions

Higher Education Institutions in the Middle of Academic, Economic and Social Pressures

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Edited by Leasa Weimer and Terhi Nokkala

Universities can be viewed and studied as political institutions, especially considering that they sit at the crossroads of social, cultural, and economic pressures. The internal and external environment of higher education brings with it multiple and complex relationships as well as power struggles. Within these contested political spaces, there are phenomena to be studied.

While the field of higher education draws from a multitude of disciplines, some scholars argue that only recently has scholarship focused on the political perspectives of higher education. To better understand the politics and policies of higher education, Universities as Political Institutions illuminates a variety of ways that researchers view and study universities as a political institution, from considering the national and international political pressures shaping higher education to the analysis of responses and political action from within the ivory tower.

The 2017 annual CHER conference in Jyväskylä (Finland) brought together 213 scholars from 30 countries. This book includes a selection of papers and keynote presentations from this conference. The thematic approach of the book reflects the 2017 conference theme: "Universities as Political Institutions – HEIs in the Middle of Academic, Economic, and Social Pressures". The theme focused on multiple and often complex relations and relationships, internal and external, to higher education institutions. In this context, "political" refers not only to definitions, uses, and users of power but more broadly to a variety of relationships among different actors and agencies responsible for making, executing, or resisting decisions concerning higher education institutions.

Collective Capacity Building

Shaping Education and Communication in Knowledge Society

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Edited by Simona Sava, Claudia Borca and Gheorghe Clitan

The theme of Collective Capacity Building (CCB) is a comprehensive one, resonating with the complexity of the knowledge society. Such complexity requires contributions of a wide range of scientists, for a multidimensional understanding. Thus, philosophers, economists, educationalists, sociologists, political scientists, psychologists, scientists from Romania, Germany, Spain, Serbia, Greece, Cyprus, Latvia and Sweden have come together in Collective Capacity Building: Shaping Education and Communication in Knowledge Society. Their choice to discuss current societal challenges in different fields, in a transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary manner, illustrates how communication, education, interaction, identity, science, professionalization and others are (re)shaped nowadays.

As it is increasingly evident that the challenges of a knowledge-based society are more resilient to traditional approaches and the new focus is on how to regulate new skills and capacities, the contributions propose a more stimulating reflection and dialogue on how CCB can foster progress in some of the most intricate educational, social, cultural, geopolitical and economic issues today. In light of this, the contributors have addressed the following questions: How can we define collaboration in communication and educational theory and practice? What are the tools and the rules adopted by CCB in various practical contexts? How can researchers develop their theoretical perspective on CCB after their thorough investigation of current and complex educational issues and societal challenges?

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Faith Agostinone-Wilson

This text explores the re-assertion of right-wing populist and fascist ideologies as presented and distributed in the media. In particular, attacks on immigrants, women, minorities, and LGBTQI people are increasing, inspired by the election of politicians who openly support authoritarian discourse and scapegoating. More troubling is how this discourse is inscribed into laws and policies.

Despite the urgency of the situation, the Left has been unable to effectively respond to these events, from liberals insisting on hands-off free speech policies, including covering "both sides of the issue" to socialists who utilize a tunnel vision focus on economic issues at the expense of women and minorities. In order to effectively resist right-wing movements of this magnitude, a socialist/Marxist feminist analysis is necessary for understanding how racism, sexism, and homophobia are conduits for capitalism, not just ‘identity issues.’

Topics addressed in this text include an overview of dialectical materialist feminism and its relevance and a review of characteristics of authoritarian populism and fascism. Additionally, the insistence on a colorblind conceptualization of the working class is critiqued, with its detrimental effects on moving resistance and activism forward. This was a key weakness with the Bernie Sanders campaign, which is discussed. Online environments and their alt-right discourse/function are used as an example of the ineffectiveness of e-libertarianism, which has prioritized hands-off administration, allowing right-wing discourse to overcome many online spaces. Other topics include the emergence of the fetal personhood construct in response to abortion rights, and the rejection of science and expertise.

Migrants and Comparative Education

Call to Re/Engagement

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Edited by Zehavit Gross

Migration is one of the major phenomena that characterizes the modern world and even more post-modernity. Improved transportation and advanced technology have facilitated transition from place to place and this phenomenon of greater mobility has changed the world and humanity. Given the fact that many countries in both the developed and underdeveloped world face similar challenges due to the current mass migration, comparative research in terms of the responses of government and non-government organizations (NGOs), both local and international, allows for a deeper understanding of ways of approaching the many challenges relating to immigration and education. The comparative dimension enables both scholars and policy makers to compare and contrast different approaches and to weigh up what approach is most suitable for their circumstances.

The aim of Migrants and Comparative Education: Call to Re/Engagement is to bring together new research and conceptualizations on education’s complex and evolving role in the immigration process in different contexts around the world, at different levels of education, and from different theoretical perspectives. It is hoped that by so doing a better understanding will emerge of the issues and challenges associated with immigration that can assist policy makers and practitioners.

Globalization and the Neoliberal Schoolhouse

Education in a World of Trouble

John L. Lyons

Critical questions of purpose, quality, choice, and access in public education have been key in processes of neoliberal globalization spanning the last four decades. The growing privatization of schools around the world has resulted in fundamental changes regarding the ways in which local systems of education are imagined and re-constructed. Schools and schooling are now increasingly (re)fashioned in alignment with global neoliberal imaginaries for the purpose of (re)producing human capital in the service of private interests. As a result, education for social betterment and democratic engagement, two pillars of public school policies throughout the 20th century, are compromised, even undermined.

Employing models and research findings from critical international political economy and progressive education, Globalization and the Neoliberal Schoolhouse: Education in a World of Trouble explores the corrosive influences of commodification and privatization on public education worldwide, within the context of crisis-ridden neoliberal globalization and expanding global capitalist governance. The consequences are nation-state de-evolution, social and cultural decay, and the forfeiture of public schools as engines of progress.

Understanding how the historical emergence, political economic processes, and governing institutions of neoliberal globalization are adversely impacting local systems of education – and what to do about it – is important to free education advocates, civic-minded educators, student teachers, social activists, and education development specialists everywhere!

The Pinocchio Effect

Decolonialities, Spiritualities, and Identities

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Elizabeth Janson

Automatization and systematic exclusion are beyond common sense within U.S. public schools. The failure to address social problems spills over to schools where youth who refuse to conform to the broken system are labelled as deviant and legitimately excluded. Students who conform are made real by the system and allowed back into society to keep manufacturing the same inequalities. This is the Pinocchio Effect. It involves the legitimization of hegemonic knowledge and the oppression of bodies, mind, and spiritualities. The book analyzes the impact of colonialities within U.S. public education by examining the learning experiences that influence teachers’ and students’ spiritualties, affecting the construction and oppression of their identities. Consequently, the author examines how educators can decolonize the classroom, which functions as a political arena as well as a critical space of praxis in order to reveal how realities and knowledges are made nonexistent—an epistemic blindness and privilege.

Partnership in Higher Education

Trends between African and European Institutions

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Edited by Emnet Tadesse Woldegiorgis and Christine Scherer

Trends in institutional partnership in higher education have shown tremendous growth in the past three decades. These trends are manifested through the growing initiatives of joint programs that promote collaborative research, academic mobility, joint curriculum development and course delivery, joint bidding for development projects and benchmarking. Partnerships in higher education have been used not only as an instrument for institutional development through a wide range of strategic alliances but also as an essential way of introducing new voices to the operations of the universities by initiating new paradigms that bring new perspectives and bear competitive advantage on the partners. As the trend of partnership in higher education grew, scholars in higher education studies have also engaged in conceptualizing higher education partnership from academic perspectives, analyzing trends and developing models of higher education collaborations.

Partnership in Higher Education: Trends between African and European Institutions is a pioneer in bringing together a comprehensive perspective on matters of higher education partnership among African and European institutions. It discusses the ongoing debates on higher education partnership and internationalization strategies by providing empirical insights from various case studies.

Kolawole Samuel Adeyemo

Globalisation has brought a number of regional cooperation, collaboration, partnership and networking initiatives among different countries. The regionalisation of higher education or its initiators have used different terms to define their objectives. For Asian higher education, this relationship has extended beyond the broader idea of higher education cooperation for instance, to include different networks and agreements within region and outside region on matters related to research, student mobility and quality assurance among Asian countries and between Asia and other countries that share a similar vision on education.

This book examines and analyses the status of education policy in the Philippines and, more particularly, focuses on the issue of the integration of higher education in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It further examines ASEAN integration policies and what the Philippines could do to underpin these policies. The objective is to better understand the problems of global policy in the context of regionalisation, harmonisation and integration from both an ASEAN and a Philippine perspective. Prospective mechanisms of ASEAN for upgrading the quality of education provision through student mobility, staff exchange, regional accreditation and articulation are succinctly argued in this book. Methodologically, various research designs and methods, including a literature review, as a well as an empirical data and secondary data analysis were used. ASEAN leaders, higher education researchers and policymakers may find the results discussed in this book useful.