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Solidarity and Community Interests: Driving Forces for the Interpretation and Development of International Law; General Course on Public International Law by Rüdiger Wolfrum.
References to legal regimes serving the interests of the community of States have become quite frequent, less so references to regimes guided by the principle of solidarity. The General Course undertook to analyze the relevant regimes. This analysis established contours on what are the essential features of community interests and the principle of solidarity. It identified three types of community interests.
In a further step, the Course assessed as to whether the traditional international norm- making as well as its implementation system meet the challenges resulting from the dedication to community interests or to the principle of solidarity. It concludes that these regimes have had a significant impact upon the international normative order. International regimes are developed in stages; non-legally binding norms initiate and guide on a principled level such norm making. Non-legally binding norms occasionally substitute legal regimes. New actors besides States and international organizations influence the development international norms and new fora have emerged initiating norms or develop them progressively. These normative developments have had an influence on the relevant international implementation/enforcement systems. The Course identifies a clear shift from confrontational means of enforcement to non-confrontational ones.
Finally, the Course identified that the existing international dispute settlement system is only beginning to meet the challenges posed by community oriented regimes. The possibility to bring a case before an international court or tribunal is still dominated by the dogma that such action can only be brought by States, which can claim the violation of their individual interests. The International Court of Justice eroded this dogma in its Order of January 2020 concerning the dispute between The Gambia and Myanmar.
Le droit international à la lumière de la pratique: l’introuvable théorie de la réalité. Cours général de droit international public, par A. PELLET, professeur émérite de l’Université Paris-Nanterre.
Ce cours général s’efforce de présenter un panorama synthétique du droit international tel qu’il est appliqué en ce premier quart du XXIe siècle. L’auteur considère le droit comme un outil irremplaçable de pacification des relations internationales et de coexistence entre les acteurs (que l’on ne saurait limiter aux seuls États). Il ne s’interdit pas de critiquer les doctrines qui se bornent à fustiger le droit positif sans faire aucune proposition constructive pour l’améliorer, qui l’utilisent à des fins politiques, ou qui l’abordent sous le prisme déformant de spécialisations trop étroites. Il constate qu’aucune théorie ne rend pleinement compte de la diversité de ses règles, des mécanismes de leur formation ou de leur mise en œuvre, qui ne peut être appréhendée par le biais d’une approche dogmatique.
In his published Hague Academy general course lectures on “Globalization, Personal Jurisdiction and the Internet” Peter Trooboff reviews how courts in the United States, the European Union and a number of countries have responded to the challenge of adapting settled principles and precedents to cases arising from Internet usage. He examines the recent U.S. Supreme Court cases addressing general and specific personal jurisdiction and how U.S. appellate courts have applied the Court’s holdings in disputes arising use of the Internet. Mr. Trooboff summarizes and analyzes eleven European Union Court of Justice decisions and related scholarship that interpret the jurisdictional provisions of Brussels I Regulation and its successor in the context of Internet usage and that arise from tort and contract claims (including infringement of intellectual property and related rights). He also discusses selected decisions and scholarship to date addressing analogous personal jurisdiction issues in decisions of courts of Canada, Japan, China, Latin America and India. Finally, Mr. Trooboff presents an overview of the important projects that incorporate the principles emerging from these many judicial decisions and that have been undertaken by Hague Conference on Private International Law, the American Law Institute, the European Max Planck Group on Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property, the International Law Association and the International Law Institute.
Franco Ferrari: Forum Shopping despite Unification of Law
It has often been suggested that forum shopping is “evil” and needs to be eradicated. And it is in this context that one must understand statements by commentators to the effect that the unification of substantive law through international conventions constitutes one way to reach this result. These lectures show not only that the qualification of forum shopping as something that is deplorable is outdated, that the negative attitude vis—à—vis forum shopping seems grounded on outdated preconception and prejudice, and disregards, for example, that critical analysis has demonstrated that forum shopping also has beneficial effects, such as the promotion of ethical representation of one’s client, the protection of access to justice, and the provision of a remedy for every injury.
These lectures also show that the drafting of uniform substantive law convention cannot prevent forum shopping, for many reasons, of which these lectures create a taxonomy. The reasons are classified into two main categories, namely convention-extrinsic and convention-intrinsic reasons. The former category comprises those reasons upon which uniform substantive law conventions do not have an impact at all, and which therefore will continue to exist regardless of the coming into force of any such convention. These reasons range from the costs of access to justice to the bias of potential adjudicators to the enforceability of judgments. These and the other convention-extrinsic reasons discussed in these lectures are and will not be influenced by uniform substantive law conventions.
The convention-intrinsic reasons, on the other hand, are reasons that relate to the nature and design of uniform substantive law conventions, and include their limited substantive and international spheres of application as well as their limited scope of application, the need to provide for reservations, etc. And no drafting efforts will be able to do away with these convention-intrinsic reasons, because they touch upon features of these conventions that are ontological in nature.
The lectures also address another forum shopping reason that cannot be overcome, namely the impossibility to ensure uniform applications and interpretations of the various uniform substantive law conventions. As these lectures show, as long as these conventions are interpreted horizontally, diverging interpretations and applications by courts of different jurisdictions of conventions that need to be drafted using vague language cannot be avoided. This is due mostly to a natural tendency by adjudicators to rely on their domestic legal background and notions when having to resolve problems arising in the context of the interpretation and application uniform substantive law conventions.
It is in light of all of the above that the lectures predict that forum shopping is here to stay.
We are witnessing a new golden age of space conquest. During the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union had sought to place their space exploits in the framework of international law. Today that trend towards accountability is being reversed. Individualistic logic is prevailing and the founding principles of international space law are increasingly being put aside. Legal scholars and practitioners must now find a balance between the development of space activities funded by the private sector and the interests of all states. Responding to this challenge, this bilingual volume collects the leading contributions to the 2017 Summer Courses session of the Centre for Studies and Research in International Law and International Relations. The essays are structured around two objectives : to analyse the foundations and principles of space law since its creation, and to discern its direction over the next fifty years. Featuring original work from leading young legal scholars from around the world, this collection explores a little-known area of law and seeks to support space exploration for the benefit of all humanity.

Nous assistons à un nouvel âge d’or de la conquête spatiale. Durant la guerre froide, les États-Unis et l’Union soviétique avaient cherché à placer leurs exploits spatiaux dans le cadre du droit international. Aujourd’hui la tendance s’est inversée, la logique individualiste semble l’emporter. Certains grands principes du droit international de l’espace sont mis de côté ou réinterprétés par la pratique. Le juriste doit trouver ici un équilibre entre le développement des activités spatiales soutenu par des fonds privés et la prise en compte de l’intérêt de tous les Etats. Afin de répondre à ce défi, ce volume bilingue regroupe les travaux du Centre d’étude et de recherche de la session 2017. Deux approches scientifiques sont reflétées dans cet ouvrage. La première analyse les fondements et les grands principes du droit de l’espace depuis 1967, date de la signature du Traité de l’espace. La seconde propose une étude plus prospective pour determiner l’évolution du droit de l’espace dans les prochaines cinquante années. Ce volume permet de participer au rayonnement international d’une discipline peu connue et poser le cadre juridique des activités spatiales en développement.
American Schools of International Law, by H. H. KOH, Sterling Professor of International Law at Yale Law School.
Is there still one international law and does the United States of America really believe in it? This lecture inaugurating the Hague Academy’s first Winter Session, by an American scholar who served as US State Department Legal Adviser, argues that Americans do believe in international law as part of their nation’s founding credo. Although recent US administrations have challenged 21st century international law, most American lawyers and legal scholars remain committed to the rule of international law. This dominant strand of international thinking among American academics and practitioners inhabits a school with strong historical roots known as the “’New’ New Haven School of International Law.” While some American schools of international legal thought diminish international law, they remain the exception. The “New” New Haven School argues, both positively and normatively, that rules of transnational legal process and substance must ensure that international law still matters. As America and the world together face such 21st Century globalization challenges as climate change, pandemic, and migration, this dominant American school remains determined to ensure that the United States will pay decent respect to international law.

Animals in International Law, by A. PETERS, Director at the Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law Heidelberg.
The plight of animal individuals and species inflicted on them by human activity is a global problem with detrimental repercussions for all humans and for the entire planet. The book gives an overview of the most important international legal regimes which directly address animals and which indirectly affect them. It covers species conservation treaties, notably the international whaling regime, the farm animal protection rules of the EU, international trade law, and the international law of armed conflict. It also analyses the potential of international fundamental rights for animals. Finding that international law creates more harm than good for animals, the book suggests progressive treaty interpretation, treaty-making, and animal interest representation for closing the animal welfare gap in international law. A body of global animal law needs to be developed, accompanied by critical global animal studies.
Reconstruction et construction de l’Etat en droit international, par G. CAHIN, Professeur émérite à l’Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris II)
Cambodge, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Afghanistan, Somalie, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Haïti : la reconstruction d’Etats placés dans l’incapacité d’exercer leurs fonctions à la suite d’un conflit armé ou d’une crise grave affectant leurs structures politiques, économiques et sociales, est devenue depuis les années 1980 et surtout la fin de la guerre froide, un sujet d’une ardente actualité pour le droit international. En Namibie, au Timor oriental, au Kosovo, c’est même la construction ab initio d’Etats nouveaux qui mobilise l’action des organisations internationales et de leurs membres. Une telle entreprise est cependant loin d’aller de soi du point de vue du droit international, certes intimement préoccupé par l’apparition et la disparition du premier de ses sujets, mais entièrement indifférent et extérieur au processus historique de sa construction, duquel il se borne à tirer les conséquences de sa réalisation dans son ordre. Fournir une vision globale et systématique de la (re)construction de l’Etat en droit international impose donc d’abord de retracer l’évolution historique et conceptuelle par laquelle cette entreprise est devenue une question d’intérêt majeur pour la discipline. L’étude peut ensuite se concentrer sur les deux aspects complémentaires permettant de l’appréhender : aspects procéduraux, d’une part, ou comment (re)construire, selon quels principes, sur quels fondements légaux, sous quelles formes institutionnelles, avec la participation de quels acteurs ; aspects substantiels, d’autre part, que (re)construire de l’Etat, quelles composantes, quels attributs, quelles qualités indispensables à l’exercice de ses fonctions et à l’exercice de sa souveraineté.
La hiérarchisation de l’ordre juridique international, cours général de droit international public, par D. MOMTAZ, professeur à l’Université de Téhéran
L’ordre juridique international s’est longtemps distingué par l’équivalence de ses normes. Mais l’introduction de l’impérativité en droit positif porte en germe leur hiérarchisation substantielle. Confinée dans un premier temps au droit des traités, cette hiérarchisation tend progressivement à devenir un vecteur de l’évolution de la structure de l’ordre international par la voie non conventionnelle. Cette tendance est confirmée par l’accueil favorable de certains organes internationaux à l’égard des dispositions novatrices empreintes de vision communautaire des projets d’articles de la Commission du droit international. Néanmoins, sa consolidation et surtout sa généralisation au sein de la communauté internationale des Etats dans son ensemble restent semées d’embûches.

Best Interests of the Child in Private International Law, by A. GRAMMATICAKI-ALEXIOU, Professor Emerita at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Private international law has opened up to concepts that originally seemed remote to its philosophy of neutrality. In matters relating to international family law, human rights have enriched its rules and solutions via the principle of the best interests of the child, as introduced by the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child. The study seeks to highlight the importance of the principle in present “hot” and difficult issues, such as international child abduction, intercountry adoption, international surrogacy, and personal status problems of migrant and refugee children, where it is expected to play an important role. The principle is a valuable tool for the protection of the child, provided it is interpreted and applied correctly. But, as it happens with other general concepts in law, its interpretation and application in specific cases may be influenced by cultural, religious or other personal beliefs of the legal practitioner or state official who applies it, or sometimes be given only lip service. The task of objectivity is difficult. And yet, notwithstanding possible errors, the best-interests of the child principle offers solutions that are the most protective of the rights of the child.
The Extraterritorial Application of International Human Rights Law, by Yuval Shany:
This publication is dedicated to exploring the law, theory and practice underlying the move by international bodies monitoring the interpretation and application of human rights treaties towards extending the extraterritorial application of human rights law. Among other things, the publication addresses the development of legal doctrine on extraterritorial application in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and Human Rights Committee, and specific law and policy discussions related to the application of human rights law to occupied territories, national contingents involved in international peacekeeping forces, extradition or deportation of individuals from one state to another, and human rights standards sets for the overseas business operations of multinational corporations.

La due diligence en droit international, by Samantha Besson:
Depuis son entrée dans la jurisprudence arbitrale de la fin du 19e siècle, la due diligence aura connu un succès croissant en droit international. Sa nature, ses sources et son régime n’en demeurent pas moins indéterminés. En réponse aux objections auxquelles elle est désormais soumise, ce cours dresse un état critique de la pratique de la due diligence en droit international. L’objectif est de déterminer si un principe, standard et/ou obligation de due diligence existe en droit international général, de dégager ce qui pourrait constituer sa structure normative et son régime général, d’établir les conditions, le contenu et les modalités de mise en œuvre de la responsabilité internationale pour négligence, et d’examiner ses spécificités dans quelques régimes de droit international spécial comme le droit international de l’environnement, de la cybersécurité et des droits de l’homme.
Reflections on the Realization of Justice in the Era of Contemporary International Tribunals by Antônio Augusto CANÇADO TRINDADE:
Reflections on the realization of justice are much needed in the era of contemporary international tribunals, given the significant role they play now facing new challenges, with the recent restrictions unduly imposed upon the United Nations Organization itself. International jurisdiction has lately expanded with the operation of international tribunals, protecting vulnerable persons in distinct domains of international law, and seeking to face new needs in their jurisprudential construction. The evolving law of nations is grounded on the universal juridical conscience ( recta ratio), and guided by general principles of law and human values. Despite the regrettable division of the ICJ in the three recent cases on the Universal Obligation of Nuclear Disarmament (Judgments of 05.10.2016), - to which the author appended his three Dissenting Opinions, - the U.N. General Assembly fortunately decided. (by the end of 2016) to convene a Conference, held at the first half of 2017, which drafted and adopted (on 07.07.2017) the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, to the benefit of humankind. The needs of humankind as subject of international law transcend the insufficient and misleading optics of the “will” of individual States only; there is primacy of raison d´humanité over raison d´État.

Party Autonomy in International Family Law by C. GONZÁLEZ BEILFUSS:
Party autonomy, i.e. the power of parties to select the applicable law, is increasingly used in International family law. This course follows this development and questions whether rules that have been developed in relation to commercial contracts work also for personal relationships. This involves an in- depth analysis of the functions of party autonomy in Private international law and the needs of families in contemporary society. The latter has often been neglected in Private international law theory that has uncritically assumed a normative idea of family life and failed to consider the care work families do in society and the different roles assumed by family members in accordance to gender.