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Reforming Teaching and Learning

Comparative Perspectives in a Global Era

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Edited by Maria Teresa Tatto and Monica Mincu

This volume addresses the larger question of the effects of (global) educational reform on teaching and learning as they relate to the context, the policies and politics where reform occurs.
Maria Teresa Tatto and Monica Mincu bring together a group of leading scholars in the field representing a variety of national contexts and geographical areas. The chapters in the book raise crucial questions such as: What is the impact of globalization on local education systems and traditions? What roles do international agencies play? What is the role of the state? What is the role of policy networks? How do we understand the functions of quality assurance mechanisms, standards, competencies, and the “new” accountability? In doing so the chapters discuss the institutions and organization of education and how these shape what teachers learn and, eventually, teach to diverse populations.
The book uses a number of analytical frameworks and theoretical perspectives, from critical discourse analysis, regime theory, empirical exploration of teachers’ thinking and actions within school contexts, analysis of reform diffusion and global trends. Using analysis of the literature and relevant documents, case studies and diverse forms of survey research, this work offers a glimpse of the complexities that exist in the fields of teaching and learning.
This collection is also an occasion to observe the profile of knowledge production in these cultural contexts, the interplay between local and national research agendas and traveling policies around the world.

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Edited by Hans de Wit, Pawan Agarwal, Mohsen Elmahdy Said, Molatlhegi T. Sehoole and Muhammad Sirozi

Student mobility is the most important factor in the internationalization of higher education. In this book, existing assumptions will be questioned: that mobility is primarily South-North and North-North, and that South-South flows are rather marginal; that the economic rationale has become so dominant that there are nearly no other motives to be found anymore; and that the growing presence of national and international providers of higher education, and opportunities for distance education, reduce the need for international student mobility. The dynamics of international student circulation will be analyzed on the basis of four countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia and South Africa), which are perceived to be primarily on the sending side of student mobility, and Europe and the USA, which are perceived to be primarily but not exclusively on the receiving side. These case studies will be placed in the context of broader developments in the internationalization of higher education, and related to definitions, methodological issues and global data, as used by UNESCO, OECD and others. This study has been undertaken by five scholars from different parts of the world in the context of the 2005-2006 New Century Scholars Programme 'Higher Education in the Twenty- First Century', of the Fulbright Programme. The book will be of relevance for both researchers and practitioners on globalization and the internationalization of higher education.

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Edited by Roger L. Geiger, Carol L. Colbeck, Roger L. Williams and Christian K. Anderson

Public research universities are an integral part of American society. They play the leading role in educating future leaders in agriculture, engineering, the arts and sciences, humanities, business, education, and other professions. Public research universities generate the new products, processes, inventions, discoveries, insights, and interpretations that advance the human condition. The dominant centers of higher education in many states, public research universities are increasingly looked upon as major engines of economic development. And, through outreach, they harness their human and intellectual capital to serve their sponsoring societies. Yet state investment in public higher education is faltering and the role of public higher education is an area of ongoing debate. This flagging support, along with the growing perception that higher education is a private benefit rather than a public good, has put public research universities at a crossroads. With chapters by leading scholars, this book tackles these challenging issues—on learning resources; on competition; on the public and private benefits of public research universities; and on how best to create an environment for engaged learning. It brings into one collection informed arguments on the key issues facing the American public research university and serves as a valuable resource to students, scholars, and policy makers who are concerned about the future of these national assets.

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Edited by Philip G. Altbach, Leslie A. Bozeman, Natia Janashia and Laura E. Rumbley

The field of higher education studies has expanded dramatically in recent years. This book provides a unique and comprehensive guide, including an inventory of 199 centers, programs, and institutes in the field, a essay analyzing the emergence and current status of higher education as an area of study, and a listing of 191 journals focusing on higher education. Together, these three resources constitute the more comprehensive overview of the field available anywhere. Philip G. Altbach’s essay ‘Research and training in higher education’ discusses the origins of the field, the central issues of concern in the research literature, and trends among centers and institutes focusing on higher education worldwide. The inventory, which constitutes most of the book, provides information on the centers and programs, including the names of staff members, focus of work, and relevant addresses and websites. The expansion in the number of journals in the field is illustrated in the journals listing, which provides information about editors, substantive focus, and addresses of journals throughout the world. This book is a unique resources and a benchmark for an emerging field.

Edited by Devorah Kalekin-Fishman and Pirkko Pitkänen

Conventional thinking maintains that people can belong to only one society and can be loyal to only one nation-state. In a world with rising rates of trans-national migration, however, the possibility of participation, belonging, and loyalty to more than one state is ever more evident. This has led to a rethinking of the notion of nation-based citizenship and increased tolerance toward holding citizenship in more than one country. In practice, over half of the world’s nation-states currently recognize some form of dual citizenship or dual nationality. This book focuses on clarifying and comparing how the rules of acquisition, maintenance, and revocation of dual citizenship have been modified and justified in eight states associated with the European Union: Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Israel, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The main question is: How have the rules of attribution, loss and/or acquisition of dual citizenship been modified and justified in these eight states? Viewed in the context of international covenants, legislation regarding dual and multiple citizenship is analyzed in terms of how it is made tangible in juridical, social, cultural, and educational domains.

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Edited by Nelly P. Stromquist

Globalization has profoundly affected the university. It has shaped what is being learned, the use of technologies in the classroom, the connectivity between professors and institutions nationally and worldwide, the conditions of academic work, the relationship between knowledge production and the market, and the lives and interactions of students and faculty.
This book concentrates on a key figure in university life: the professoriate. It probes its conditions in a comparative perspective, bringing to the fore research findings from six countries with different historical trajectories, social visions, and degrees of insertion in capitalist modes of production: Denmark, South Africa, Mexico, Brazil, Russia, and Peru. Through each national study, common issues emerge, yet their particular contextual natures point to distinct developments. The contribution of this book resides in the coherence of all six studies, focusing on the impacts of globalization and systematically linking the massification of higher education to the emergence of detached, vulnerable professionals who face increasingly weak employment conditions, limited possibilities for advancement and governance, and a diminished professional identity—but who are also benefiting from increased cross-national contacts and easier access to knowledge.
The book will appeal to several audiences. Graduate level students in courses of international development, globalization, gender studies, sociology of education, anthropology of education, and comparative higher education will find in the book’s content fertile terrain for reflection and discussion. Professionals in comparative and international education, higher education, and educational research in general will find comparative insights to widen their understanding of higher education in contemporary society. Policy-makers and advisors to government agencies will find lessons applicable to their own countries.

Tradition and Transition

The International Imperative in Higher Education

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Philip G. Altbach

A global and comparative perspective is central to understanding the rapidly changing world of higher education. Tradition and Transition analyzes many of the key themes of academic change in the 21st century. It brings a unique comparative approach, citing examples from many national contexts to illustrate themes. Among the topics considered are the logic of mass higher education, globalization and inequality, the role of research universities, academic freedom, private higher education, and the academic profession and its problems. These topical chapters are accompanied by in-depth discussions of Asia and Africa.

Philip W. Jones

The book tells the story of the World Bank’s involvement in education, for which lending began in 1963. The study considers how the nature of the Bank as a financial institution has shaped its view of development and globalisation, and how education relates to these. The book examines the reasons why the Bank is involved in education, its education policy stances, the nature and impact of its projects and lending programs, and the Bank as an agent of globalisation. Bank work in education is hugely controversial. All around the world, in industrial countries, in transition economies, and in the poorest countries, the Bank continues to be under fire for its policy prescriptions and its modes of operation. From both left and right, the Bank is a major target of discontent. In the popular imagination, the impact of globalisation and the Bank’s shaping of such fields as education in accordance with neo-liberal and market prescriptions are prime sources of unease. At the same time, the Bank is frequently misunderstood and misrepresented. This book is based on the author’s unique access to the Bank—its files, staff and working documents—over nearly 20 years. The work is based on access to thousands of classified Bank documents and on a large number of interviews with past and present Bank officials. Therefore, while critical of many features the Bank, the book will be recognised as an authoritative guide to Bank policy formation in education.

Private Higher Education

A Global Revolution

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Edited by Philip G. Altbach and Daniel C. Levy

Several decades ago, private higher education already ranked as a major force in the higher education realm in many countries. Expansion in Latin America had begun in the 1960s, and the private sector was dominant in several key East Asian nations. At that stage, the forces shaping higher education were relatively stable. Then, in the last quarter of the 20th century, the dynamics changed dramatically, and private higher education has suddenly become the fastest-growing segment of higher education worldwide-expanding rapidly in almost all parts of the world. This book helps to highlight trends and realities of private higher education around the world. We have organized the book into two sections. The first deals with international trends and issues, while the second-much longer-section focuses on countries and regions. The majorityof the book’s chapters concentrate on single countries. Authors have written from their own points of view. Some are critical of private higher education development, others express praise, whereas most offer objective observation and analysis. All are united in the belief that this phenomenon is a centrally important aspect of higher education-and one that will continue to expand.