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Die Moderne im Nationalsozialismus
Erstmals seit Jahrzehnten liegt mit diesem Buch wieder ein Überblick über die Verfolgung der künstlerischen Moderne durch die Nationalsozialisten vor.
Die Nationalsozialisten haben die »Argumente«, mit denen die künstlerische Moderne verspottet und beschimpft wurde, nicht erfunden, sondern die Äußerungen des Unverständnisses und der Ablehnung begleiteten den Aufstieg der modernen Kunst von Anfang an. Auch solche Anschauungen fallen – sofern sie nicht juristisch relevante Tatbestände erfüllen – unter das Recht auf freie Meinungsäußerung in einer Demokratie. Das Besondere nationalsozialistischer Kunstpolitik liegt in dem Umstand, dass diese privaten Meinungen staatlich sanktioniert und zum Leitfaden für das Handeln öffentlicher Einrichtungen und schließlich des Staates selbst umfunktioniert wurden. Die moderne Kunst wurde öffentlich an den Pranger gestellt.
Ist die Moderne tatsächlich unsere Antike, wie man auf der documenta XII behauptete? Keine Epoche hat die Kunstgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts so nachhaltig mit neuen Ideen, künstlerischen Konzepten, Programmschriften und geistesgeschichtlichen Denkfiguren versorgt wie die Moderne.
Auf diese Anerkennung folgte aber die Kritik: Die Konzepte und Forderungen der Moderne wurden in Frage gestellt, ihre künstlerischen Gestaltungslehren und Programme auf ihre Brauchbarkeit und ideologischen Gehalte hin überprüft.
Aus der Distanz des 21. Jahrhunderts eröffnen sich veränderte Perspektiven, aus denen die Dispositive der Moderne und ihre zahlreichen rezeptionsgeschichtlichen Brechungen neu befragt werden können: Ausgehend vom Stichjahr 1910 zeigen die Beiträge neue Aspekte der Moderne und ihrer Rezeption bis hinein in die Gegenwartskunst.
The Bokujinkai—or ‘People of the Ink’—was a group formed in Kyoto in 1952 by five calligraphers, Morita Shiryū, Inoue Yūichi, Eguchi Sōgen, Nakamura Bokushi, and Sekiya Yoshimichi. The avant-garde calligraphy movement they launched aspired to raise calligraphy to the same level of international prominence as abstract painting. To realize this vision, the Bokujinkai established creative collaborations with artists from European Art Informel and American Abstract Expressionism, and soon began sharing exhibition spaces with them in New York, Paris, Tokyo, and beyond. By focusing on this exceptional moment in the history of Japanese calligraphy, I show how the Bokujinkai rerouted the trajectory of global abstract art and attuned foreign audiences to calligraphic visualities and narratives.
On the Hostility to Handicraft, Aesthetic Labour and the Politics of Work in Art
This book provides a new history of the changing relationship between art, craft and industry focusing on the transition from workshop to studio, apprentice to pupil, guild to gallery and artisan to artist. Responding to the question whether the artist is a relic of the feudal mode of production or is a commodity producer corresponding to the capitalist mode of cultural production, this inquiry reveals, instead, that the history of the formation of art as distinct from handicraft, commerce and industry can be traced back to the dissolution of the dual system of guild and court. This history needs to be revisited in order to rethink the categories of aesthetic labour, attractive labour, alienated labour, nonalienated labour and unwaged labour that shape the modern and contemporary politics of work in art.
In Heroines, Harpies, and Housewives, Martha Moffitt Peacock provides a novel interpretive approach to the artistic practice of Imaging Women of Consequence in the Dutch Golden Age. From the beginnings of the new Republic, visual celebrations of famous heroines who crossed gender boundaries by fighting in the Revolt against Spain or by distinguishing themselves in arts and letters became an essential and significant cultural tradition that reverberated throughout the long seventeenth century. This collective memory of consequential heroines who equaled, or outshone, men is frequently reflected in empowering representations of other female archetypes: authoritative harpies and noble housewives. Such enabling imagery helped in the structuring of gender norms that positively advanced a powerful female identity in Dutch society.
Editor: Lynn Catterson
Recent and increasing interest in art market studies—the dealers, mediators, advisors, taste makers, artists, etc.—indicate that the transaction of art and decorative art is anything but linear. Taking as its point of departure two of the most active agents of the late nineteenth century, Wilhelm von Bode and Stefano Bardini, the essays in this volume also look beyond, to other art market individuals and their vast and frequently interconnected, social and professional networks. Newly told history taken from rich business, epistolary and photographic archives, these essays examine the art market, within a broader and more complex context. In doing so, they offer new areas of inquiry for mapping of works of art as they were exchanged over time and place.
Robert Lachmann’s letters to Henry George Farmer (from 1923-38) provide insightful glimpses into his life and his progressive research projects. From an historical perspective, they offer critical data concerning the development of comparative musicology as it evolved in Germany during the early decades of the twentieth century. The fact that Lachmann sought contact with Farmer can be explained from their mutual, yet diverse interests in Arab music, particularly as they were then considered to be the foremost European scholars in the field. During the 1932 Cairo International Congress on Arab Music, they were selected as presidents of their respective committees.
In The Cross in the Visual Culture of Late Antique Egypt Gillian Spalding-Stracey brings the design of crosses in monastic and ecclesiastical settings to the fore. Visual representations of the Holy Cross are often so ubiquitous in Christian art that they are often overlooked as artistic devices themselves. This volume offers an exploration of the variety of designs and associated imagery by which the Cross was expressed across the Egyptian landscape in late antiquity. A survey of locations and images leads to an analysis of artistic influences, possible symbolism, variance across time and place and the contextual use of the motif. Gillian Spalding-Stracey provides the reader with an art-historical perspective of the socio-cultural situation in Egypt at the time.
Hua Yan (1682-1756) and the Making of the Artist in Early Modern China explores the relationships between the artist, local society, and artistic practice during the Qing dynasty (1644–1911). Arranged as an investigation of the artist Hua Yan’s work at a pivotal moment in eighteenth-century society, this book considers his paintings and poetry in early eighteenth-century Hangzhou, mid-eighteenth-century Yangzhou, and finally their nineteenth-century afterlife in Shanghai. By investigating Hua Yan’s struggle as a marginalized artist—both at his time and in the canon of Chinese art—this study draws attention to the implications of seeing and being seen as an artist in early modern China.
The Spatiality of the Hispanic Avant-Garde: Ultraísmo & Estridentismo, 1918-1927 is a thorough exploration of the meanings and values Hispanic poets and artists assigned to four iconic locations of modernity: the city, the cafés, means of transportation, and the sea, during the first decades of the 20th century. Joining important studies on Spatiality, Palomares-Salas convincingly argues that an unsolvable tension between place and space is at the core of the Hispanic avant-garde cultural production. A refreshing, transatlantic perspective on Ultraism and Stridentism, the book moves the Hispanic vanguards forward into broader, international discussions on space and modernism, and offers innovative readings of well-known, as well as rarely studied works.