When, why and how was it first believed that the corpse could reveal ‘signs’ useful for understanding the causes of death and eventually identifying those responsible for it?
The Body of Evidence. Corpses and Proofs in Early Modern European Medicine, edited by Francesco Paolo de Ceglia, shows how in the late Middle Ages the dead body, which had previously rarely been questioned, became a specific object of investigation by doctors, philosophers, theologians and jurists. The volume sheds new light on the elements of continuity, but also on the effort made to liberate the semantization of the corpse from what were, broadly speaking, necromantic practices, which would eventually merge into forensic medicine.
Inquisitions of heresy have long fascinated both specialists and non-specialists.
A Companion to Heresy Inquisitions presents a synthesis of the immense amount of scholarship generated about these institutions in recent years. The volume offers an overview of many of the most significant areas of heresy inquisitions, both medieval and early modern. The essays in this collection are intended to introduce the reader to disagreements and advances in the field, as well as providing a navigational aid to the wide variety of recent discoveries and controversies in studies of heresy inquisitions.
Contributors: Christine Ames, Feberico Barbierato, Elena Bonora, Lúcia Helena Costigan, Michael Frassetto, Henry Ansgar Kelly, Helen Rawlings, Lucy Sackville, Werner Thomas, and Robin Vose
Livres des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l’Université d’Orléans (1444-1602) are a unique source for the history of European universities. The quarterly reports of the presidents of the association of law students allow us to reconstitute in detail the everyday life of students from the Germanic countries during the Renaissance. From the published first and second 'Livres' between 1444-1567 (same authors, Brill 1971 and 1988) it appears that the alumni got key positions in Church and State in their homelands. The reports of the third 'Livre' for the years 1567-1587 describe the fortunes of the German Nation and the University and offer a unique look at the role of Orleans and its graduates in the religious wars and the growing confessionalisation of Europe.
The Laws of Late Medieval Italy Mario Ascheri examines the features of the Italian legal world and explains why it should be regarded as a foundation for the future European continental system. The deep feuds among the Empire, the Churches unified by Roman papacy and the flourishing cities gave rise to very new legal ideas with the strong cooperation of the universities, beginning with that of Bologna. The teaching of Roman law and of the new papal laws, which quickly spread all over Europe, built up a professional group of lawyers and notaries which shaped the new, 'modern', public institutions, including efficient courts (like the Inquisition). Politically divided, Italy was partly unified by the legal system, so-called (Continental) common law (ius commune), which became a pattern for all of Europe onwards.
Early modern Europe had for long time to work with it, and parts of it are still alive as a common cultural heritage behind a new European law system.
Livres des procurateurs de la nation germanique de l’Université d’Orléans (1444-1602) are a unique source for the history of European universities. The quarterly reports of the presidents of the association of law students allow us to reconstitute in detail the everyday life of students from the Germanic countries during the Renaissance. From the published first , second and third
Livres between 1444-1587 (same authors, Brill 1971-2013) it appears that the alumni got key positions in Church and State in their homelands. The reports of the fourth
Livre for the years 1587-1602 describe the fortunes of the German Nation and the University and offer a unique look at the role of Orleans and its graduates in the religious wars and the growing confessionalisation of Europe.
Corporate Jurisdiction, Academic Heresy, and Fraternal Correction at the University of Paris, 1200-1400, Gregory S. Moule explains how the theological faculty acquired independent jurisdiction over cases of academic heresy among its membership. He convincingly demonstrates that the faculty's jurisdiction and procedures were modelled on the pattern of a bishop and his cathedral canons.
Gregory S. Moule's analysis of Pierre D'Ailly's
Apologia confirms the faculty's jurisdiction and establishes that the censures of Denis Foulechat and John of Monteson were instances of judicial rather than fraternal correction. Medieval discussions of Judas Iscariot further clarify fraternal correction's role in the process of censure. Canon law, corporate theory, scholastic theology, and biblical commentary are employed to produce a wide-ranging, original, and thought-provoking study.
Kings, Knights, and Bankers, Richard Kaeuper presents a lifetime of medieval research on Italian financiers, English kingship, chivalric violence, and knightly piety. His foundational work on public finance connects Italian merchant banking with the growth of state power at the turn of the fourteenth century. Subsequent articles on law and order offer measured contributions to the continuing debate over the growth of governance and its relationship with contemporary disorder. He also convincingly proves that knights, the foremost military professionals of the medieval world, considered their prowess as both a source of honor and of sanctification. All interested in the history of medieval chivalry, governance, piety, and public finance can learn from this impressive collection of articles.
Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) is the most famous humanist scholar of the Dutch Golden Age. He wrote influential works on the laws of war and peace, Dutch history and the unification of the churches. His plea for a freedom of the seas in
Mare liberum offered the Dutch East India Company a ready justification for the establishment of a trading empire in the East Indies. As far as his daily duties left him any spare time, he penned confidential, learned and beautifully-written letters. This voluminous correspondence offers a trove of information on Grotius’ life and works, and forms the basis of his newest biography which sketches a life caught in a fierce struggle for peace in Church and State.
“The Making of Europe”: Essays in Honour of Robert Bartlett, a group of distinguished contributors analyse processes of conquest, colonization and cultural change in Europe in the tenth to fourteenth centuries. They assess and develop theses presented by Robert Bartlett in his famous book of that name. The geographical scope extends from Iceland to the Islamic Mediterranean, from Spain to Poland. Themes covered range from law to salt production, from aristocratic culture in the Christian West to Islamic views of Christendom. Like the volume that it honours, the present book extends our understanding of both medieval and present day Europe.
Contributors are Sverre Bagge, Piotr Górecki, John Hudson, Hugh Kennedy, Simon MacLean, William Ian Miller, Esther Pascua Echegaray, Ana Rodriguez, Matthew Strickland, John Tolan, Bjorn Weiler, and Stephen D. White.
This is an excellent collection of essays that do justice to Rob Bartlett’s inexhaustible book,
The Making of Europe. Rather than merely repeating and venerating Bartlett’s ideas, the essays engage creatively and critically with them and spark new ideas and insights that cast a flood of light on the culture of medieval Europe. The result is a worthy tribute that will send readers scurrying back to Bartlett to quarry yet more nuggets from
The Making of Europe, still fizzing with intellectual brio some twenty years after its publication.
Stuart Airlie, University of Glasgow
Diocesan Justice in Late Fifteenth-Century Carpentras uses notarial records from the 1480s to reconstruct the procedures, caseload, and sanctions of the bishop’s court of Carpentras and compare them to other secular and ecclesiastical courts. The court provided a robust forum for debt litigation utilized by a wide variety of people. Its criminal proceedings focused on recidivist clerics who engaged in fights, disobedience, anti-Jewish activities, and sexual transgressions. Its justice varied depending on whether cases involved violence, sex, or contracts. The judge applied sanctions gingerly and protected litigants’ rights carefully, in ways we might not expect: his role was to intervene in, explore, and document conflicts, and to elicit confessions and mediate disputes. Participants exploited this narrative and archival space well.