Tina Besley has edited this collection which examines and critiques the ways that different countries, particularly Commonwealth and European states, assess the quality of educational research in publicly funded higher education institutions. Such assessment often ranks universities, departments and even individual academics, and plays an important role in determining the allocation of funding to support university research. Yet research is only one aspect of academic performance alongside teaching and service or administration components. The book focuses on the theoretical and practical issues that accompany the development of national and international systems of research assessment, particularly in the field of education. In our interconnected, globalised world, some of the ideas of assessment that have evolved in one country have almost inevitably travelled elsewhere especially the UK model. Consequently the book comprises an introduction, eighteen chapters that discuss the situation in ten countries, followed by a postscript. It gathers together an outstanding group of twenty-five prominent international scholars with expertise in the field of educational research and includes many with hands-on experience in the peer review process. The book is designed to appeal to a wide group of people involved as knowledge workers and knowledge managers—academics, students and policy makers - in higher education and interested in assessment and accountability mechanisms and processes.
Education is commonly thought to be a haven for the young. No matter how unstable the polity, no matter how dismal the prospects for the economy, education investments are often treated as sacrosanct. This is one reason for the popularity of education as part of foreign aid. Who could object to providing more opportunity for young people to study? Recently however, it has been discovered that education systems can be as corrupt as other parts of government and the economy; and that values of fairness and impartiality, once thought to be universal characteristics of education systems, can be supplanted by the interests of specific individuals, families and ethnic groups. Education corruption has now been found in all regions of the world, but it manifests itself in different ways. How do these differ from one region to another? What should be done to minimize education corruption? And what should be done to protect universities and employers in areas situated where there is little corruption from the products of those parts of the world where education corruption is the norm. This book will explain the meaning of education corruption and how it works; it will provide illustrations from Asia, Africa, Southeastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, and it will propose actions and policies on the part of regional and international agencies to counter-act what is now likely to become a new and unexpected global crisis.
A Carpenter’s Daughter is the story of the difficulties and rewards of the educational system for one who was not meant to go through it. The single most reliable predictor of whether someone will earn a BA is whether at least one of their parents has one-yet, today, there are an increasing number of first-generation college students. A Carpenter’s Daughter is both a memoir of the author’s experiences growing up, going to school, and becoming an academic and a thoughtful commentary on the meaning of class in American culture. By connecting her own story with ideas from scholarly works on class and identity, Christopher shows how her individual experiences reflect common struggles that people of working-class background face when their education, profession, income, and lifestyles change. This work reminds us forcefully that "moving up" isn't necessarily good and that changing one’s class isn't as simple as going to class or even becoming the teacher of the class.—Sherry Linkon, author of Teaching Working Class The work is stellar, merging the tangled and complex webs of social mobility through education in ways that leave lots of loose ends dangling just the way it should. No pretty bows adorning carefully wrapped packages here. No straight and narrow trajectory toward a mainstream version of success. Instead, readers will be pulled along by nuanced narratives portraying the warped nature of society’s construction of success and a careful crafting of the book in its entirety as a disjointed text presenting shards of a life that can never be visible in a tidied-up tale.—Stephanie Jones, University of Georgia
This volume presents the state of the art with respect to the most important elements of the Bologna process. The reflections on the past are also used to fuel the debate on the next decade.
In 2008, the Flemish Ministry of Education and Training invited the editors to produce a volume with chapters discussing topics that are deemed to be most salient in the coming decade. Based on a tentative list of themes to be covered initially suggested by the Ministry, the editors have solicited contributions from appropriate scholars, experts on the specific topics. As a result this volume contains a rich set of chapters which address the promises and perils of the Bologna process and its preliminary outcomes. A difficult task, given that the process is a target on the move and even changing in nature during the process. It is also a difficult task because evidence can be interpreted differently paving the way for new paradoxes and complex interactions between the actors in the field. Consequently we are faced with new questions every time we believe answers to old questions have been found. The contributors to the volume not necessarily agree in their analyses of the Bologna process, but there is—nevertheless—a fair amount of consensus. According to their analyses governance, quality, mobility and diversity are the topics that have been most important to the Bologna process in the past, and will be at centre stage in future discussions.
The book is meant to be a reflective exercise for those involved—in whatever way—in the Bologna process (researchers, teachers, managers, political decision-makers). The material is also relevant to those outside of the countries currently subscribing to the Bologna process. .
The demand for higher education worldwide is booming. Governments want well-educated citizens and knowledge workers but are scrambling for funds. The capacity of the public sector to provide increased and equitable access to higher education is seriously challenged.
What are the on-the-ground realities of developing financial resources and policies to meet the twin goals of equity and access without jeopardizing quality? This volume provides in-depth reports from selected countries and sub-regions: Morocco, Korea, England, Uganda, Poland, Oman, East and southern Africa, Southeast Asia, Brazil, and Egypt. Each chapter is written by a seasoned educator participating in the Fulbright New Century Scholar program for 2007-2008.
Given the near-universal constraints of declining resources but increasing enrollments, the authors identify common trends such as the public/private divide, the privatization of the public sector, and diversification of funding. To address these issues, the chapters examine a surprising variety of policy instruments such as means testing, targeted subsidies, cost sharing, institutional aid, student bursaries, and tax exemptions.
What does higher education offer to make students competent actors in the world of work and other life spheres? This issue is most controversially debated in economically advanced countries since about four decades when higher education in economically advanced countries began to serve larger ranges of the occupational pyramid than merely the intellectually and professionally chosen few.
The author of this volume analyzes a broad range of issues over four decades of his academic career. Employers’ and graduate surveys, secondary analyses of education and employment statistics as well as analyses of policy and academic debates form the basis of the key argument: Neither trust in expectations formulated by employers or in income and status as measures of successful study nor isolated claims for the pursuit of academic knowledge for its own sake and for the critical functions of higher education are a suitable reference frame for understanding the dynamic links between higher education and the world of work. A “match” between the number of graduates and the corresponding positions or between the competences acquired during study and job requirements cannot be expected. Students are more ambitious and strive for a broader range of goals than they can expect to be rewarded. Graduates have to be both highly qualified experts and sceptics as far as conventional wisdom is concerned, and they have to be prepared for indeterminate tasks.
Key themes of this collection of essays are: the causes and consequences of an imperfect “match” between higher education and employment; the tensions between “employment” and “work” orientation in higher education; opportunities of a “highly educated society”; the dynamics of the variety of students, the patterns of the higher education system and the horizontal and vertical diversity of careers; different notions of higher education and the world of work among economically advanced countries; major controversial notions of professional relevance of study in policy and research debates.
Islam and Higher Education in Transitional Societies explores and illuminates the intersection of Islam and higher education in changing societies. The critical question explored in this book is, what role does Islam play in higher education in transitional societies? This book presents research conducted in geographic regions that are generally under-researched including Iran, Turkey, Pakistan and where the place of Islam in higher education is often not well-explored. Because higher education is embedded in the cultural, social, economic and political contexts of particular countries, it is important to examine the role of Islam in higher education systems in different countries to better grasp how next generation of leaders in these countries will be shaped. Islam and Higher Education in Transitional Societies serves as an important benchmark for understanding Islam and potentially inform policies to transform higher education institutional processes and structures to be responsive to the Muslim world.
University rankings are a relatively new phenomenon in higher education. Although quite an established practice in the U. S., it is only within the last decade that attempts to analyse university performance have spread to the rest of the world, and that we also have seen new global rankings appear—rankings attempting to measure university performance beyond national borders. No wonder that this trend is accompanied by a growing interest in studying rankings throughout the world. This book is written as part of the effort to better understand rankings and their effects on higher education.
A serious approach towards university rankings implies that rankings should be analysed properly, including the methods used and the indicators chosen, and investigate the objectives claimed. If university rankings are considered as consumer information then everyone should have an interest in basing such guidance on valid and reliable data and methodology. A serious analysis should also discuss the wider implications of rankings as an emerging phenomenon in higher education.
Consequently, the contributions to this book investigate and analyse how different rankings work, how they reach their conclusions, and on what data and methodology they are built. Furthermore it provides a critical reflection about the impact of rankings on higher education, how and in what way rankings influence policy-making, the structure of the sector, or the internal life of the sector.
Student mobility is the most important factor in the internationalization of higher education. In this book, existing assumptions will be questioned: that mobility is primarily South-North and North-North, and that South-South flows are rather marginal; that the economic rationale has become so dominant that there are nearly no other motives to be found anymore; and that the growing presence of national and international providers of higher education, and opportunities for distance education, reduce the need for international student mobility. The dynamics of international student circulation will be analyzed on the basis of four countries (Egypt, India, Indonesia and South Africa), which are perceived to be primarily on the sending side of student mobility, and Europe and the USA, which are perceived to be primarily but not exclusively on the receiving side. These case studies will be placed in the context of broader developments in the internationalization of higher education, and related to definitions, methodological issues and global data, as used by UNESCO, OECD and others. This study has been undertaken by five scholars from different parts of the world in the context of the 2005-2006 New Century Scholars Programme 'Higher Education in the Twenty- First Century', of the Fulbright Programme. The book will be of relevance for both researchers and practitioners on globalization and the internationalization of higher education.
Education for Innovation: Implications for India, China and America, distinguished thought leaders explore cutting-edge questions such as: Can inventiveness and ingenuity be taught and nurtured in schools and colleges? What are the most effective educational strategies to promote these abilities? How are vibrant economies driven by innovation? What is the relationship between education for innovation and national competitiveness or economic development?
Focusing on the Worlds’ three most populous countries and largest economies, this book provides a forum for international experts to address a range of critically important issues related to higher education and its role in creating innovative societies.
A wide diversity of educators, policymakers and corporate representatives who are dependent on innovation as the well-spring of their success will benefit from the perspectives provided by this volume. The contributors’ critical analyses will be of value to higher education faculty and administrators; government officials interested in innovation, education policy, and national economic and workforce development; CEOs and other officials from the online education community and high tech corporate industries. Recent focus in all three countries on higher education as a resource for national economic advancement makes the book especially timely.