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Edited by J.J.S. Weitenberg

This book offers a reevaluation of the character of medieval (12-17th century) Armenian literature and language. It contains a number of contributions by leading Armenologists (Cowe, Russell, Thomson, and Stone) and of a younger generation of scholars who attempt to confront the traditional approach of this period with the new insights gained in modern occidental medieval studies. One may call these papers New because they study the literary highlights not only of Cilician Armenia of the Crusader period, but of all Armenia and put these in a wider cultural context: the authors emphasize both inner-Armenian continuity and contemporary external (Persian, Turkish) literary and linguistic influences.
The papers concern Armenian lyrical poetry, models for the evaluation of the medieval Armenian literary production (both traditional and new), and the linguistic conditions which favoured such a production. Particular attention has been given to the cultural background of Armenian grammatical studies and to the character of the first Armenian grammars printed in the Occident.

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Peter Schrijver

The languages belonging to the British subgroup of Celtic, i.e. Welsh, Cornish and Breton, have been the subject of thorough research for over a century now. Yet the phonological history of the prehistoric stages of these languages and the details of their connection with the other Celtic and Indo-European languages still present numerous unsolved issues. This volume aims to tackle the most acute problems of the historical phonology of British Celtic. Also it provides an up-to-date reference guide to British historical phonology in general, as well as a study of a large body of etymologies relevant to the correct evaluation of the historical phonology. This volume is of interest for the Celtologist, the Indo-Europeanist and the general historical linguist.

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Craig Melchert

This study represents the first comprehensive treatment of the sound system of the Hittite language and its historical development in a quarter-century. It is the very first attempt at a systematic description of the sound systems of all the ancient Indo-European languages of Anatolia. It codifies the results of a generation of collective scholarship which has made some dramatic advances, offers a number of new hypotheses, and frames the problems which remain to be solved. The contents will be of interest to Indo-Europeanists for the new perspectives on the crucial Anatolian subgroup and to scholars of second-millennium Anatolia for the up-to-date descriptions of the extant Indo-European languages of that era.

Corpora Across the Centuries

Proceedings of the First International Colloquium on English Diachronic Corpora. St Catharine’s College Cambridge, 25-27 March 1993

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Edited by Merja Kytö, Matti Rissanen and Susan Wright

This is the first book to give an overall survey of the ongoing projects in diachronic computerized corpora of English. The volume is based on the papers read at the First International Colloquium for English Diachronic Corpora, held at Cambridge in March 1993.
Twelve historical English corpora, completed and in preparation, are introduced in the volume. Most of these can be described as mult-genre corpora; a few concentrate either on one genre only, or on the works of a single author.
Chronologically, these corpora span more than twelve centuries, from the beginnings of documented Old English up to our days. Besides Southern British English, corpus projects on Older Scots, Early American English, and Irish English are introduced. Some of the reports contain discussions of such important questions as genre division, normalization, and problems ofsampling.
In addition to corpus compilation projects, the volume contains reports on major projects in the field of the history of English utilizing corpora and specialized software. Two linguistic atlases (Early Middle English, Older Scots), and two dictionary projects (Early Modern English and Samuel Johnson), are introduced, as well as the English Historical Thesaurus, with a separate paper on the Old English Thesaurus. The volume also contains up-to-date information on software specially developed for historical corpus work (LEXA), on different kinds of network resources, and on the Text Encoding Intiative (TEI).

Creating and Using English Language Corpora

Papers from the fourteenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora, Zürich 1993

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Edited by Udo Fries, Gunnel Tottie and Peter Schneider

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Louise M. Sylvester

Studies in the Lexical Field of Expectation presents a classification by conceptual field of the vocabulary expressing the ideas in the semantic field of Expectation. The field divides into eleven categories including Surprise, Disappointment, Hope, Fear, Caution, Courage, and Rashness. The categories, subcategories of the field and the lexical items are ordered hierarchically and each sense is followed by its dates of usage. The book discusses the method and methodology of constructing the classification examining the delimitation of the field, the choice of headwords, the process of classifying the materials, and the use and presentation of grammatical information within a semantic classification. The proportions of loan words and native terms within each conceptual group are investigated and it examines the patterns of accessions and obsolescences across the centuries from Old English to the present day.

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Edited by Clive Souter and Eric Atwell

English Language Corpora

Design, Analysis and Exploitation. Papers from the thirteenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora, Nijmegen 1992

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Edited by Jan Aarts, Pieter de Haan and Nelleke Oostdijk

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Edited by Ezra Black, Roger Garside and Geoffrey Leech

This book is about building computer programs that parse (analyze, or diagram) sentences of a real-world English. The English we are concerned with might be a corpus of everyday, naturally-occurring prose, such as the entire text of this morning's newspaper.
Most programs that now exist for this purpose are not very successful at finding the correct analysis for everyday sentences. In contrast, the programs described here make use of a more successful statistically-driven approach.
Our book is, first, a record of a five-year research collaboration between IBM and Lancaster University. Large numbers of real-world sentences were fed into the memory of a program for grammatical analysis (including a detailed grammar of English) and processed by statistical methods. The idea is to single out the correct parse, among all those offered by the grammar, on the basis of probabilities. Second, this is a how-to book, showing how to build and implement a statistically-driven broad-coverage grammar of English. We even supply our own grammar, with the necessary statistical algorithms, and with the knowledge needed to prepare a very large set (or corpus) of sentences so that it can be used to guide the statistical processing of the grammar's rules.