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Akkadian, written in the cuneiform script, is the most important language of the Ancient Near East and one of the most important members of the Semitic language family. Old Babylonian is the best attested period and dialect of Akkadian. Old Babylonian was written all over Mesopotamia (modern Iraq, Syria) and some neigboring regions during the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE. The book describes the language of middle Old Babylonian from the kings Sin-muballit to Samsu-iluna. Volume 1 extensively describes the orthography, phonology, nouns, pronouns and numbers of Old Babylonian.
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This book is the very first comprehensive description of the Arabic variety spoken in the South-Western Iranian province of Khuzestan. It contains a detailed description of its phonology and morphology with numerous examples and a collection of authentic texts presented in transcription with an English translation. The author uses a corpus-based method for the grammatical analysis relying on original data collected during fieldwork in Khuzestan as well as among other Khuzestani Arab communities in Kuwait and Austria. The introduction and text collection offer the reader insights into Khuzestani Arab culture and traditions. The book highlights the peripheral character of Khuzestani Arabic spoken as a minority dialect in Iran and isolated from influence by both Standard Arabic and regional prestige varieties. It also provides an in-depth description of the linguistic development of Ahvaz, Khuzestan’s capital city.
Studying the Indo-European languages means having a privileged viewpoint on diachronic language change, because of their relative wealth of documentation, which spans over more than three millennia with almost no interruption, and their cultural position that they have enjoyed in human history.
The chapters in this volume investigate case-studies in several ancient Indo-European languages (Ancient Greek, Latin, Hittite, Luwian, Sanskrit, Avestan, Old Persian, Armenian, Albanian) through the lenses of contact, variation, and reconstruction, in an interdisciplinary and intradisciplinary way. This reveals at the same time the multiplicity and the unity of our discipline(s), both by showing what kind of results the adoption of modern theories on “old” material can yield, and by underlining the centrality and complexity of the text in any research related to ancient languages.
From its Hijazi Origins to its Classical Reading Traditions
What was the language of the Quran like, and how do we know? Today, the Quran is recited in ten different reading traditions, whose linguistic details are mutually incompatible. This work uncovers the earliest linguistic layer of the Quran. It demonstrates that the text was composed in the Hijazi vernacular dialect, and that in the centuries that followed different reciters started to classicize the text to a new linguistic ideal, the ideal of the ʿarabiyyah. This study combines data from ancient Quranic manuscripts, the medieval Arabic grammarians and ample data from the Quranic reading traditions to arrive at new insights into the linguistic history of Quranic Arabic.
The IOS Annual Volume 21: “Carrying a Torch to Distant Mountains”, brings forth cutting-edge studies devoted to a wide array of fields and disciplines of the Middle East. The three sections—the Ancient Near East, Semitic Languages and Linguistics, and Arabic Language and Literature—include sixteen articles. In the Ancient Near East section are studies devoted to Babylonian literature (Gabbay and Wasserman; Ayali-Darshan), history (Cohen and Torrecilla), and language (Zadok). The Semitic Languages and Linguistics section contains discussions about comparative Semitics—Egyptian and Modern South Arabic (Borg; Cerqueglini), Aramaic dialects (Khan; Stadel), Palestinian Arabic (Arnold; Procházka), and Tigre and Ethiosemitic languages (Voigt). The final section of Arabic Language and Literature is devoted to ʿArabiyya and its grammarians (Dror, Versteegh, Sheyhatovitch, Kasher, and Sadan).
The Israel Oriental Studies Annual Dedicated to the Ancient Near East, Semitics, and Arabic
The IOS Annual will present volumes that focus on either a variety of topics listed below or, alternatively, a volume focused on a specific topic or issue. Contributions in English and Arabic are accepted. The use of Arabic will promote the diffusion of western linguistic approaches in the Arabic Sprachraum and the translation into Arabic of specific terms from new linguistic disciplines. All chapters will include an abstract and keywords in Arabic, English and Hebrew.

The Ancient Near Eastern section will hold articles relating to the cultures and languages of the pre-Islamic Near East, in general, Cuneiform Studies (Assyriology and Hittitology) and Egyptology. Topics will include languages, religion, history, and culture. Articles will range from text editions and traditional philology to digital humanities and big-data in ancient corpora. The intended readers are scholars of the ancient Near East and related fields, such as Biblical Studies, the Classics, and Archaeology of Mesopotamia, the Levant and the Mediterranean.

The Semitic Linguistics section will publish papers on original, innovative research on all branches of the Semitic linguistic family, also considering their Afroasiatic background. The section will be open to different linguistic approaches: from the more traditional historical and comparative methods, to cognition, semantics, pragmatics, corpus linguistics, linguistic anthropology, psycholinguistics and discourse analysis. The openness to contemporary linguistic approaches will be a unique platform for the young generations of Semitists, attracting scholars of spoken/modern Semitic languages who must address platforms of general linguistics, often not suitable for specialists of Semitic and Afroasiatic languages, as they do not strictly follow traditional historical and philological models. The intended readers are scholars and students of Semitic and Afroasiatic languages and cultures and scholars in all linguistic disciplines who want to access Semitic/Afroasiatic data.

The Arabic Language and Literature section will contain original articles on classical and contemporary Arabic linguistics and literature, with a particular stress on the medieval Arabic linguistic and literary traditions, their relations with other disciplines and cultures, and their modern offshoots. The intended readers are scholars and students of Arabic language and literature.
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Deploying a bottom up instead of the conventional top down approach, and drawing extensively on both literary and dialectal Arabic lexical sources, the present glossary proposes and validates the contention of a prehistoric symbiosis transpiring between Ancient Egyptian and Arabic two and a half millennia before the advent of Islam. Its empirical rationale and methodological basis rest firmly on these venerable idioms’ rich textual documentation, yielding the language historian an ample etymological database enriched—in the case of Arabic—with a virtually unlimited corpus drawing on the living speech of some 300 million speakers across the Near East and Africa. The muster provided here comprises over 800 lexemes and reveals, for the first time in longue durée research on Afroasiatic, striking unsuspected commonalities linking Old Egyptian to Yemeni Arabic.
Semantic studies of the Biblical Hebrew verb שׁלם have been influenced by those of its most invoked nominal form שָׁלוֹם‎. In this volume Andrew Chin Hei Leong shows that the concepts of balance, alliance, and completeness form the basic semantic structure of שׁלם.
Previous studies on שׁלם employed either historical or textual methodology, which has been dominant in biblical lexical studies. In addition to these methods, in Leong develops a systematic semantic methodology from Cognitive Semantics and Frame Semantics, to demonstrate that it is balance, rather than completeness, that is the most central concept in holding the semantic network together.
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Der vorliegende Band liefert eine eingehende Untersuchung umbrischer und hethitischer Rituale und ritualbezogener Texte und hebt sich besonders durch die interdisziplinäre Perspektive und innovative Methodik von bisherigen Arbeiten in diesem Themenfeld ab. Durch die Untersuchung der jeweiligen funktionalen und kommunikativen Kontexte demonstriert Theresa Roth, wie aktuelle Fragestellungen der linguistischen Pragmatik und besonders der Fachsprachenforschung erfolgreich auf historische Sprachstufen angewandt werden können. Damit leistet sie einen maßgeblichen Beitrag zu der Frage, wie ritualbezogene Textsorten durch textstrukturelle und kommunikative Parameter geprägt und differenziert werden.

This monograph contributes substantially to the identification and description of the communicative and textual parameters which characterize ritual language as a language for special purposes. The interdisciplinary approach used by the author is methodologically innovative within the field of historical linguistics. By examining the functional and communicative contexts of ritual and religious texts from Hittite and Umbrian, Theresa Roth demonstrates how current questions of pragmatics and research on languages for special purposes can be successfully transferred to ancient languages.
The alignment splits in the Neo-Aramaic languages display a considerable degree of diversity, especially in terms of agreement. While earlier studies have generally oversimplified the actual state of affairs, Paul M. Noorlander offers a meticulous and clear account of nearly all microvariation documented so far, addressing all relevant morphosyntactic phenomena. By means of fully glossed and translated examples, the author shows that this vast variation in morphological alignment, including ergativity, is unexpected from a functional typological perspective. He argues the alignment splits are rather the outcome of several construction-specific processes such as internal system harmonization and grammaticalization, as well as language contact.