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Studien zur ideologischen Ambivalenz der ‚deutschen‘ Mystik
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Wohl kein mittelalterlicher Autor hat im Laufe der Jahrhunderte eine größere Faszination auf seine Leser ausgeübt als Meister Eckhart. Die besondere Universalität und Weite seines mystisch-theologischen Denkens hat ihn jedoch auch immer wieder zur Projektionsfläche für ideologisch motivierte Interpretationen aller Art gemacht. Der vorliegende Band beleuchtet die Rezeption, die Eckharts Mystik in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus erfahren hat. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die verschiedenen und teilweise widersprüchlichen Versuche, Eckhart zum Begründer eines „germanischen Christentums“ bzw. eines „deutschen Glaubens“ zu stilisieren und ihn in polemischer Weise gegen das Judentum, aber auch gegen die Katholische Kirche in Stellung zu bringen.

Meister Eckhart is undoubtedly one of the most fascinating medieval authors, who has appealed to a wide audience across the centuries. At the same time, the extraordinary universality and openness of his mystical-theological approach has repeatedly made him the object of all kinds of ideological projections and misinterpretations. The present volume examines the reception of Eckhart’s mysticism in the era of National Socialism. The main focus is put on the different and sometimes contradictory attempts to present Eckhart as the founder of “Germanic Christianity” or “German faith” and as a visceral opponent of both Judaism and the Catholic Church.
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This work focuses on the conception of God of the medieval Jewish philosopher and legal scholar, Hasdai Crescas (1340-1410/11). It demonstrates that Crescas’ God is infinitely creative and good and explores the parallel that Crescas implicitly draws between God as creator and legislator, which is rooted in his understanding of the Deity as continuously involved in generative activity through the outpouring of goodness and love as manifest by multiple, simultaneous and successive worlds and a perpetually expanding Torah. It also reviews the Maimonidean background for Crescas’ position and suggests that Crescas is countering Maimonides’ stance that creation is limited to a single moment and Maimonides’ notion of the Torah as perfect and immutable.
The monograph offers an in-depth, source-oriented presentation and analysis of the complex discussions that took place between ca. 1230 and 1350 on the differentiation and expansion of the structural concept of scientific knowledge and certainty in lifeworld-contingent areas of investigation. It makes transparent a development in the course of which a graduated, multidimensional conception of knowledge and certainty emerges. In the process, the masters gain pioneering insights into the philosophy of science. Starting from the key data provided by Aristotle, the scholastic scholars' productive, far-reaching further thinking leads to a deeper understanding of the nature and reliability of scientifically acquired knowledge. These intellectual endeavours were significantly challenged by the increasing knowledge of the spectrum of the transmitted Aristotelian and Arabic sciences. They also received significant impulses from epistemological reflection in theology.
In John Duns Scotus on Grace and the Trinitarian Missions, Mitchell J. Kennard argues that Franciscan theologian John Duns Scotus (d. 1308) has been wrongly inscribed in the narrative of the late medieval theology of grace. Scotus is presented here not as the initiation or cause of the low fourteenth-century theology of grace but as the last great contributor to the high thirteenth-century theology of grace as deifying participation in the divine nature. This book argues that Scotus’s signature reflections on the relationship between grace and the Trinitarian missions—the Incarnation of the Son and the indwelling of the Holy Spirit—warrant closer attention by both historical and systematic theologians alike.
The Impact, Spread and Decline of the Calculatores Tradition
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Aristotelian philosophy is generally regarded as incompatible with the mathematical methods and principles that form the basis of modern science. This book offers an entirely new perspective on this presumed incompatibility. It surveys the tradition of the Oxford Calculators from its beginnings in the fourteenth century until Leibniz and the philosophy of the seventeenth century and explores how the Calculators' techniques of quantification expanded the conceptual and methodological limits of Aristotelianism. In the process, it examines a large number of authors, some of them never studied in this context. Exploring the relationship between various late medieval disciplines, the book sheds new light on the problem of continuity vs. discontinuity between scholasticism and modern science. Beyond its historiographical purpose, this book also hopes to be a source of inspiration for present-day philosophers of science.
In Alfonso de Cartagena’s 'Memoriale virtutum' (1422), María Morrás and Jeremy Lawrance offer a critical edition of an anthology of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, compiled and significantly altered by the major Castilian intellectual of the day, Bishop Alfonso de Cartagena, and addressed to the heir to the throne of Portugal, Crown Prince Duarte.
The work is a speculum principis, an education of a future king in the virtues suitable to a statesman. Cartagena’s choice of Aristotle was a harbinger of Renaissance ideas. The “memorial” sheds light on a society in transition, setting new ethical guidelines for the ruling class at the crossroads between medieval feudalism and Renaissance absolutism.
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In Suhrawardī’s Illuminationism, Jari Kaukua offers a new interpretation of Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī’s (d. 1191 CE) illuminationist (ishrāqī) philosophy. Commonly portrayed as a philosophically inclined mystic, Suhrawardī appears here as a perspicacious critic of Avicenna who developed his critique into an alternative philosophical system.
Focusing on metaphysics and theory of science, Kaukua argues that Suhrawardī’s illuminationist philosophy combines rigorous metaphysical monism with a modest but positive assessment of scientific explanation. This philosophical core of Suhrawardī’s illuminationism is reconcilable with but independent of the mystical side of the shaykh al-ishrāq.
Ibn Wāṣil (d. 1298), perhaps better known today as a historian and an emissary to the court of King Manfred in southern Italy, was also an eminent logician. The present work is a critical edition of his main work in the field, a commentary on his teacher Khūnajī’s (d. 1248) handbook al-Jumal. The work helped consolidate the logic of the “later scholars” (such as Khūnajī). It also shows that commentators did much more than merely explain the original work and instead regularly discussed and assessed received views. Ibn Wāṣil’s work was an influential contribution to a particularly dynamic chapter in the history of Arabic logic.
This work contains the Latin text of an early medieval commentary on the first three books of Aristotle’s Ethics. The commentary appears here in print for the first time, supported by an introduction considering the significance of the work and the attribution of it to the Dominican author, Robert Kilwardby (c. 1215-1279).
Celano argues that the commentary represents an early phase in the reception of Aristotle’s Ethics in the thirteenth century, and that Kilwardby demonstrates a perceptive understanding of the meaning of Aristotle’s moral philosophy, showing its importance for the curriculum in the Arts Faculties of universities in the Middle Ages.

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