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Seeing With Poetic Eyes

Critical Race Theory and Moving from Liberal to Critical Forms of Race Research in Sociology of Education


Benjamin Blaisdell

“Seeing with poetic eyes” is a phrase used by a teacher to describe one of his students, a teenager who could recognize the disconnect between U. S. society’s claims about racial equity and its actual commitment towards that equity. As a teacher, he saw it as his mission to help all of his students see the world in such a critical way with that hope that they would be motivated to pursue antiracism more actively in their lives. In this book, I discuss how critical race theory (CRT) can motivate research on race in sociology of education in a similar way. Specifically, I describe how CRT helped me work with seven white teachers on developing more critical understandings of race. In my ethnographic interviews with these teachers, the analytical tools of CRT gave me a way to openly dialogue with them about issues of race in education. I was able to not only learn from the teachers but also work with them on developing racial awareness. Instead of relying on more liberal forms of sociological research—where the researcher extracts data from participants—CRT helped me promote a more critical approach, one where the researcher and participants work together to actively pursue antiracism in the research act itself. So “seeing with poetic eyes” refers the way that I have come to view research as a means of antiracism. Similarly, I propose that CRT can promote such a critical approach to research on race in the field of sociology of education.


Edited by Timothy Teo and Myint Swe Khine

Over the years, researchers have developed statistical methods to help them investigate and interpret issues of interest in many discipline areas. These methods range from descriptive to inferential to multivariate statistics. As the psychometrics measures in education become more complex, vigorous and robust methods were needed in order to represent research data efficiently. One such method is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
SEM is a statistical technique that allows the simultaneous analysis of a series of structural equations. It also allows a dependent variable in one equation to become an independent variable in another equation. It is a comprehensive statistical approach to testing hypotheses about relations among observed and latent variables. SEM is commonly known as causal modeling, or path analysis, which hypothesizes causal relationships among variables and tests the causal models with a linear equation system. As educational research questions become more complex, they need to be evaluated with more sophisticated tools. The pervasive use of SEM in the literature has shown that SEM has a potential to be of assistance to modern educational researchers.
This book will bring together prominent educators and researchers from around the world to share their contemporary research on structural equation modeling in educational settings. The chapters provide information on recent trends and developments and effective applications of the different models to answer various educational research questions. This book is a critical and specialized source that describes recent advances in SEM in international academia.

The Ten Dimensions of Inclusion

Non-Catholic Students in Catholic Schools

James Kent Donlevy

This book draws upon the authors understanding and findings from four qualitative studies conducted within two Canadian provinces as well as an amalgam of relevant documents of the Catholic Church, the academic writings of others, and media reports. It is from those sources that the authors attempts to shed some light on the phenomenon of the inclusion of non-Catholic students within 10 dimensions: social/ cultural, political, financial, legal, racial, administrative, pedagogical, psychological, spiritual, and philosophical. The data from these four studies is from constitutionally protected and funded Catholic high schools. The other sources of data are both national (Canadian) and international.

Dr. Donlevy is the Associate Dean (Interim): Graduate Division of Educational Research in the Faculty of Education at the University of Calgary and the Vice-Chair of the University of Calgary’s Conjoint Faculties Research Ethics Board. He has taught grades 4-12 (inclusive), been a school principal, and is permanently certified as a teacher in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. He has negotiated on local levels for both the Alberta Teachers’ Association and the Saskatchewan Teachers’ Federation. He is also a member of the Saskatchewan Law Society, having become a barrister & solicitor in 1985.

Tracing the threads

A curriculum study of the dialogue of ""otherness"" in the histories of public and independent schooling

Kelly J.D. Waldron

This text is a postmodern, historical analysis that seeks to trouble the distinction between the “private” and the “public” that is traditionally drawn in educational history and theory by examining the histories of public schools and independent schools around the topics of identity politics, accountability, and globalization. This work is unique in its focus on the histories of independent schoolings as being in dialogue with those of public schooling. Through a historical and theoretical examination of the dialogical space in-between the private/public divide in education around these three interrelated topics, this work seeks to troubles the private/public distinction, exploring the possibilities and futurities for curriculum work and education in the postmodern space in-between public schools and independent schools. It raises questions regarding what defines the structures of schooling in the United States as well as how contrasts between public and private spaces question traditional notions of democratic education.

Visual Data

Understanding and Applying Visual Data to Research in Education

Edited by Jon E. Pedersen and Kevin D. Finson

The visual inputs we receive can be collectively called visual data. Precisely how one defines visual data is a key question to ask. That is one of the questions we asked each author who wrote a chapter for this book. If one comes to a decision with respect to what visual data are, then the next question becomes, “What are visual data like?” Then, “What do they mean?” As with any data, we can collect it and compile it, but if we don’t have some way to bring meaning it, it has little value to us. The answers may not be as straightforward as one might assume at the outset.
The extent to which visual data permeates what we do as educators is such that it may be difficult to identify every discipline in which it emerges. In this book, we have tried to provide a forum for authors from a cross section of common disciplines: visual arts, English, literacy, mathematics, science, social science, and even higher education administration.

Whole, bright, deep with understanding

Life story and politics of curriculum studies. In-between William Pinar and Ivor Goodson

José Augusto Pacheco

This book is about William Pinar: one of the best-known authors in the field of curriculum studies. The main contribution of William Pinar is not to determine the curriculum. He is involved in a continuous struggle to help students and teachers reflect about their personal experiences, educational and curricular options.
The book has been organized in five chapters. The first chapter—discursive construct—includes the identification of William Pinar from his own roots (as a student and as a teacher), and the schools of thought that influenced his work. The second chapter is concerned with Curriculum Studies as an academic field, answering the questions: What is Curriculum Theory? What does the reconceptualization movement mean? What is post- Reconceptualization? The following chapter is about Pinar’s curriculum theorizing, including a particular “mode de penser”, schooling, school and teacher education, as well as curriculum as comparative language and currere as method. The fourth chapter is about his life experiences, particularly the sense of South, and includes Pinar’s transdiscursivity, searching for the author-function features through the foundational Journal and the Internationalization of Curriculum Studies. The last chapter includes some contributions of the studies of William Pinar and Ivor Goodson concerning research in the field of curriculum by António Flávio Moreira, a well-known scholar in Brazil and Portugal.

Andrew J.C. Begg

An important contribution that ‘Emerging curriculum’ makes is a reconceptualizing of the curriculum development process. This moves development thinking from the traditional research-development-dissemination model to one that acknowledges: the interrelatedness of many influences on curriculum, the multi-layered nature of curriculum, and the complexity of the educational system in which curriculum exists. Indeed the educational system is envisaged as a ‘complex living system’ The study is autobiographical, it is based on a lifetime spent in education during which the author had a particular interest in curriculum and the associated development processes, and how one’s ideas about these change over time. ‘Emerging curriculum has been successfully submitted as a PhD thesis but was written as a book for a wider audience than the traditional thesis one. It shows by example how reflection on one’s work throughout one’s career can be considered as research and can contribute to knowledge in a similar way to that of more traditional doctoral research projects. It is hoped that teachers reading this will relate to the author’s experiences in schools, and will see themselves significant contributors to curriculum; that curriculum developers will be provoked into considering alternative ways of working; and that academics might move curriculum theorising closer to the reality of schools.

From microscope to kaleidoscope

reconsidering educational aspects related to children in the HIV&AIDS pandemic

Edited by Liesel Ebersöhn

What new understandings concerning children and significant others in their life-worlds have become apparent because of the HIV & AIDS pandemic? This innovative book argues that new insights on education and psychosocial aspects surface when research in the realm of HIV & AIDS is viewed through a positive psychology lens. By converging in-depth exploration and description, the book pinpoints vital persons supporting children’s wellbeing, and posits changed roles due to pandemic-related stressors. The significance of different education role-players (children, teachers, caregivers, community-members) is addressed in separate chapters, using pioneering theory and empirical data that are integrated with dynamic case examples, visual data and narratives. Ebersöhn’s edited book emphasises supportive persons and networks as buffers children access to mediate their coping when confronted by HIV & AIDS-related stressors. Throughout, the links between psychosocial support, changed roles and responsibilities, and resilience in the advent of adversity are clearly and thoughtfully demonstrated. A concluding chapter questions why and what happens to children’s wellbeing when society fails to provide supportive networks and services.

Jacques Lacan and Education

A Critical Introduction


Donyell L. Roseboro

This is an introductory level text with emphasis on Lacan’s theoretical relationship to education and which uses Lacan’s theories as a springboard for a different educational discourse, one that forces us to assess inward rather than outward. To move beyond the linear nature of schools, a context exacerbated by developmental psychologists like Piaget and Erikson who theorized that we can understand children’s development in stages, the author argues that Lacan’s theories allow us to holistically educate—to teach cognizant of the relationship between interior and exterior spaces, between the unspoken and the heard. The text serves four purposes: 1) to translate Lacan’s primary ideas into language appropriate for introductory level college students, 2) to examine identity in ways that are relevant across disciplines, 3) to re-frame Lacan’s work with post-structuralist and postmodern theories and, in so doing, create a distinctive analysis of the self predefined yet reinvented, and 4) to juxtapose Lacan’s work with post-formal thinking and theorize about his relevance to public education.
This book is purposefully organized with specific emphasis on Lacan’s work as a teacher and the ways in which his theories complicate current accountability standards in the United States which insist that “good” teaching and learning is quantifiable. The author foregrounds Lacan’s concepts of identity and language and analyzes those in parallel to the discourses of democratic education. Lacan’s theories do provide some indelible possibilities for public education in the twenty-first century. Considering his relevance to post-structuralism, post-formalism, post colonialism, and postmodernism, a Lacanian perspective of public education would defy the current standardization of curriculum in the wake of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) mandates. Using Lacan, the author re-envisions public education as a process which encourages the distinctiveness of students, challenges normative assumptions about what a “good” student is, and demands that teachers facilitate student understanding of multiple truths but that teachers also engage in an honest reconstruction of history—one that acknowledges the brutality of conquest, the arrogance of imperialism, and the illusiveness/elusiveness of peace.
Using the South African Truth and Reconciliation process as a framework, the author ends by constructing a model for public education which is grounded in “truth-telling” in public spaces, “witnessing” as a political practice, and educating as purposeful work. A Lacanian, post-formal curriculum, at its core, thus requires that we seek and identify truths, we work to become integrated beings by hearing the unconscious (that which we do not want to or cannot face), and that we educate for goodness and wholeness. This book is ultimately a call to re-envision the current public educational system in the U. S., a call to admit that it has inexcusably failed far too many children, and a call to construct entirely different possibilities.

James Bay Cree Students and Higher Education

Issues of Identity and Culture Shock


Christopher Darius Stonebanks

This book examines the continuing challenges of lingering colonial cultural imperialism on the James Bay Cree, through an examination of the relationship between Cree students and the current “mainstream higher education” system. Culture shock and identity formation are central themes as the book investigates the uneven relationship between Indigenous and non-Indigenous authority in North America, dispelling notions of living in a “post-colonial” context. Well suited to a number of interests, such as Multiculturalism, Native/Indigenous studies, Sociology, Curriculum Studies, Cultural Comparative Education, Qualitative Research and more, readers will gain an understanding or simply benefit from a confirmation and validation of the complexities regarding “Native education”.