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These lectures deal with the role of cognitive modelling in language-based meaning construction. To make meaning people use a small set of principles which they apply to different types of conceptual characterizations. This yields predictable meaning effects, which, when stably associated with specific grammatical patterns, result in constructions or fixed form-meaning parings. This means that constructional meaning can be described on the basis of the same principles that people use to make inferences. This way of looking at pragmatics and grammar through cognition allows us to relate a broad range of pragmatic and grammatical phenomena, among them argument-structure characterizations, implicational, illocutionary, and discourse structure, and such figures of speech as metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole, and irony.
Beyond metro-, multi-, poly-, pluri- and translanguaging
Author: Robin Sabino
Drawing on usage-based theory, neurocognition, and complex systems, Languaging Beyond Languages elaborates an elegant model accommodating accumulated insights into human language even as it frees linguistics from its two-thousand-year-old, ideological attachment to reified grammatical systems. Idiolects are redefined as continually emergent collections of context specific, probabilistic memories entrenched as a result of domain-general cognitive processes that create and consolidate linguistic experience. Also continually emergent, conventionalization and vernacularization operate across individuals producing the illusion of shared grammatical systems. Conventionalization results from the emergence of parallel expectations for the use of linguistic elements organized into syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships. In parallel, vernacularization indexes linguistic forms to sociocultural identities and stances. Evidence implying entrenchment and conventionalization is provided in asymmetrical frequency distributions.
Geschichte und Innovationsmöglichkeiten am Beispiel Deutsch als Fremdsprache in den Niederlanden
Author: Erik Kwakernaak
Der schulische Fremdsprachenunterricht ist in Bewegung. Vieles verändert sich: die gesellschaftlichen Bedürfnisse, die Auffassungen zum Bildungsbegriff, das Schulsystem und die Schulorganisation, die wissenschaftlichen Theorien und Erkenntnisse zum Spracherwerb. Von der Grammatik-Übersetzungsmethode des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zum kommunikativen Ansatz der 1980er Jahre war ein langer Weg. Wie geht es nun weiter ins 21. Jahrhundert?
Die Grammatik war früher zentrales Element in einem Fremdsprachenterricht, der nur die geschriebene Sprache im Auge hatte. Sprechen war höchstens ein zufälliges Nebenprodukt. Im kommunikativen Ansatz, der dann das Sprechen in den Mittelpunkt stellte, wurde die Grammatik zum unintegrierten Anhängsel. Immer noch gibt es keine praktikable Didaktik-Methodik, die die mündliche Kommunikation als Hauptlernziel hat und ein integriertes, effizientes und effektives Grammatiktraining mit umfaßt.
Diese Studie beschreibt die Grenzen, die der Innovation des schulischen Fremdsprachenunterichts gesetzt sind. Sie nimmt Stellung in der wissenschaftlichen Debatte zur Effektivität von Grammatikinstruktion. Vor diesem Hintergrund macht sie realistische Vorschläge für eine auf das Sprechen gerichtete Übungsmethodik und für die Lernstoffauswahl und Einführungsreihenfolge im grammatischen Teillehrplan. Exemplarisch geht sie detailliert auf das deutsche Kasussystem ein.
Die Beschreibungen und Analysen gehen vom niederländischen Unterricht des Deutschen als Fremdsprache aus, doch sie führen zu theoretischen Stellungnahmen und praktischen Vorschlägen, die über die niederländische Spezifik hinausgehen.
Volume Editors: Witold Marciszewski and Roman Murawski
This volume is written jointly by Witold Marciszewski, who contributed the introductory and the three subsequent chapters, and Roman Murawski who is the author of the next ones - those concerned with the 19th century and the modern inquiries into formalization, algebraization and mechanization of reasonings. Besides the authors there are other persons, as well as institutions, to whom the book owes its coming into being.
The study which resulted in this volume was carried out in the Historical Section of the research project Logical Systems and Algorithms for Automatic Testing of Reasoning, 1986-1990, in which participated nine Polish universities; the project was coordinated by the Department of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science of the Bia??l??ystok Branch of the University of Warsaw, and supported by the Ministry of Education (some of its results are reported in (Srzednicki (Ed.) 1987). The major part of the project was focussed on the software for computer-aided theorem proving called Mizar MSE (Multi-Sorted first-order logic with Equality, reported in (Marciszewski 1994a)) due to Dr. Andrzej Trybulec. He and other colleagues deserve a grateful mention for a hands-on experience and theoretical stimulants owed to their collaboration.
With contributions of Simone Bonnafous, Françoise Gadet, Paul Henry, Alain Lecomte, Jacqueline Léon, Denise Maldidier, Jean-Marie Marandin and Michel Plon
Author: Michel Pêcheux
This volume offers the long-awaited overview of the work of the French philosopher and discourse analyst Michel Pêcheux, who was the leading figure in French discourse analysis until his death in 1983. The volume presents the first English publication of the work of Pêcheux and his coworkers on automatic discourse analysis. It is presented with extensive annotations and introductions, written by former colleagues such as Françoise Gadet, Paul Henry and Denise Maldidier. Outside France, French discourse analysis is almost exclusively known as the form of philosophical discourse presented by such authors as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida. The contemporary empirical forms of French discourse analysis have not reached a wider public to the degree they deserve. Through its combination of original texts, annotations, and several introductory texts, this volume facilitates an evaluation of both results and weaknesses of French discourse analysis in general and of the work of Michel Pêcheux and his coworkers in particular.
Volume Editor: Hans Fix
With Special Reference to the Semiotics of Charles S. Peirce
Here is a radically interdisciplinary account of how Charles S. Peirce's theory of signs can be made to interact meaningfully with translation theory. In the separate chapters of this book on semiotranslation, the author shows that the various phenomena we commonly refer to as translation are different forms of genuine and degenerate semiosis. Also drawing on insights from Ludwig Wittgenstein and Walter Benjamin (and drawing analogies between their work and Peirce's) it is argued that through the kaleidoscopic, evolutionary process of unlimited translation, signs deploy their meaning-potentialities. This enables the author to throw novel light upon Roman Jakobson's three kinds of translation - intralingual, interlingual, and intersemiotic translation. Gorlée's pioneering study will entice translation specialists, semioticians, and (language) philosophers into expanding their views upon translation and, hopefully, into cooperative research projects.
A Generative Study of the Formulaic Language in the Single Combat