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Protecting the Displaced

Deepening the Responsibility to Protect

Edited by Sara E. Davies and Luke Glanville

This edited collection has sought contributions from some of the foremost scholars of refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) studies to engage with the conceptual and practical difficulties entailed in realising how the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) can be fulfilled by states and the international community to protect vulnerable persons. Contributors to this book were given one theme: to consider, based on their experience and knowledge, how R2P may be aligned with the protection of the displaced. Contributions explore the history and progress so far in aligning R2P with refugee and IDP protection, as well as examining the conceptual and practical issues that arise when attempting to expand R2P from words into deeds.

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Omar Abdulle Alasow

While all armed conflicts are marked by violations of international humanitarian law, non-international armed conflicts appear to be characterised by even more serious violations of international humanitarian law on a colossal scale. This study is aimed at understanding the possible factors that may cause parties to non-international armed conflicts to engage in violations despite the fact that not only international humanitarian law but also other bodies of rules (e.g. legal and moral) impose restrictions and obligations similar to international humanitarian law. Somalia, which for over two decaces has been experiencing internal armed conflicts marked by widespread violations, is a typical case.

This study addresses the root causes of the internal armed conflict in Somalia and identifies factors which contributed to the collapse of the Somali state and the reasons for its continuing conflict. It also examines the characteristics of the conflict. In order to examine the extent to which applicable rules have been respected or not, the study examines both international rules applicable in non-international armed conflicts and specific Somali rules of warfare. After demonstrating evidence of violations and analysing it, this study seeks to identify possible direct and indirect causes of these violations. In addition, it also seeks to identify whether such possible causes contribute to violations that are unique to the situation in Somalia, or, if not, whether there may be lessons to be learnt for other situations similar to that in Somalia.

International Law, Conflict and Development

The Emergence of a Holistic Approach in International Affairs.

Edited by Walter Kälin, Robert Kolb, Christoph Spenlé and Maurice Voyame

Experience and research have long shown an intrinsic link between human rights, conflict and development. This interdependence between different areas, doctrines, and disciplines calls for a genuinely coherent, holistic approach in International Affairs. With the challenges the work for the protection and respect of humanity encounters, this book intends to bring together articles and ideas that indicate the complexity of such an endeavor. The chapters, written by academics and practitioners encompass snapshots of crucial development lines as well as conceptual ideas and frameworks. In doing so the book provides insight to the principal understanding that peace efforts, encapsulating human rights, conflict management and development, can only be sustained and flourish as long as conflicting parties have at least a minimal consensus and will to settle their differences peacefully. As a Liber Amicorum for Joseph Voyame the book honors the determination for humanity and respect for human dignity and peaceful mitigation of conflict which marked his life and work.

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Noelle Higgins

This work reconsiders and critically evaluates the complex international legal framework which seeks to regulate wars of national liberation in the light of two fascinating case studies. It tests the effectiveness of both the jus ad bellum and jus in bello aspects of the current legal framework by applying it to self-determination wars waged in the South Moluccas and Aceh by armed groups against Indonesia. The book highlights the various difficulties inherent in the current legal framework as well as the ad hoc and unpredictable practice of States in relation to its application. The work concludes with recommendations on how the current framework should be updated and enhanced so that it can adequately deal with modern self-determination conflicts.

Stopping Wars and Making Peace

Studies in International Intervention

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Edited by Kristen Eichensehr and W. Michael Reisman

During most of human history, war was a basic instrument of statecraft, considered, for the most part, a lawful, honorable, ennobling, and even romantic pursuit. By contrast, peacemaking remained a marginal and indeed incongruous interstate activity. A war would end when the belligerents ended it.
The experience of the twentieth century’s two world wars has changed, at least, the official view. The introduction of ever more destructive weapons, the drastic escalation of civilian deaths, and the economic and environmental devastation that modern war brought combined to forge an international legal impulse to stop, if not prevent, wars, resolve ongoing conflicts, and build peace.
Yet stopping a war, though a useful, if not indispensable, step toward making peace, does not lead ineluctably to peace. Nor does the international community’s interposition of “peacekeepers”; their title notwithstanding, peacekeepers only try to keep a stopped war stopped. Making peace is a separate operation, often applying some parts of the same armamentarium but in very different ways.
International efforts at stopping wars and making peace, in the era in which such initiatives have become lawful and virtuous, have proved remarkably unsuccessful. Yet the proliferation of ever more destructive weapons, the growing sense of insecurity and expectation of violence, the increasing difficulty of containing wars within a single arena, the threat of breakdown of order, with the prospect of epidemics and mass migration, all work to intensify the demand to stop wars and to make peace.
This volume explores these issues by analyzing the theoretical literature on stopping wars and making peace and its application to a number of concrete cases, including the Falklands,
Nagorno Karabakh, Rwanda, Malaya, Thailand, and Mozambique. Each case examines one conflict and the efforts undertaken to stop it and transform it into a peace system. The case studies draw general lessons from the incidents studied, extracting guidelines and principles that might serve those called upon to stop wars and make peace and offering a number of instructive points.

The Contemporary Law of Targeting

Military Objectives, Proportionality and Precautions in Attack under Additional Protocol I

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Ian Henderson

Armed conflict is about using force to achieve goals. As international humanitarian law regulates the means and methods that a belligerent may adopt to achieve its goals, there will inevitably be disagreements over the interpretation of that law. As for the rules that regulate targeting, the main difficulties arise over what is a lawful target and what is proportional collateral damage. This book provides a detailed analysis of those issues. Also, a chapter is dedicated to considering how United Nations Security Council sanctioning of participation in an armed conflict might affect the range of lawful targets available to a belligerent. Finally, a process is described by which legal responsibility for targeting decisions can be assessed in a complex decision-making environment.

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Rob McLaughlin

This book examines UN naval peace operations, addressing the construction and assessment of authority with respect to a range of acts essential to the conduct of such operations. The focus is particularly upon operations as they relate to and impact upon the Territorial Sea. Within a conceptual approach emphasising the interaction of power and legitimation in the construction of authority, naval peace operations issues such as Innocent Passage, interdiction operations, and transitional administration are considered. The book concludes by proposing a conceptually and operationally sensitive approach to constructing authority for the conduct of UN naval peace operations in the Territorial Sea.

Post-Conflict Property Restitution (2 vols)

The Approach in Kosovo and Lessons Learned for Future International Practice

Margaret Cordial and Knut Rosandhaug

The right of refugees and internally displaced persons to return to their homes and places of residence in their country or place of origin following a refugee crisis has evolved significantly as a human rights norm over the past decade. Not only have several commentators and UN human rights bodies stressed the need for international peace-keeping operations to address effectively issues of housing and property rights, the past decade has seen international peace-keeping operations recognize these issues as a central component of peace- building efforts, and as indispensable to the promotion of peace, prosperity and development in post-conflict settings. Legal mechanisms mandated to address property issues and disputes have been established in particular national contexts to assist refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) to return to their homes, and there has emerged an explicit right of refugees and IDPs to restoration of their property rights, or compensation where restoration is no longer feasible. This is in stark contrast to the treatment of displaced persons over past centuries, whereby the homes and lands of those displaced, who were not on the side of the victors or those who remained in power, were lost forever. The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of property restitution in post-conflict Kosovo. It commences with a consideration of the origins and evolution of the right to property restitution for refugees and internally displaced persons. It provides the reader with an outline of the situation in Kosovo prior to the 1999 armed conflict, the developments that led to the international property related intervention, and the subsequent establishment of the HPD/HPCC (the Housing and Property Directorate and its independent quasi judicial body the Housing and Property Claims Commission). The international property-related intervention is considered from a legal, institutional, operational and administrative perspective. It also provides a comprehensive outline of the jurisprudence of the Commission and concludes with an account of the lessons learned from the process over its six years of operations.
This is a two volume set.

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Edited by Cecilia M. Bailliet

Security is an all-encompassing term of art which is subject to diverse interpretations and understandings. It includes notions of protection against transnational threats, including terrorism, inter- and intra-state conflict, nuclear proliferation, forced migration, violation of women’s rights, climate change, etc. The papers in this collection provide fresh voices in the security debate, uniting scholars from different fields of law and philosophy to address normative gaps in interpretation, evolution and application. Part I considers calls for an expanded mandate for the UN Security Council and regional international organisations. Part II reviews innovations within the arena of international humanitarian law, including whether it is possible to balance human rights and humanitarian law standards in peacekeeping operations, responses to “voluntary human shielding”, and normative evolution in the removal of anti-personnel mines and the ban on cluster munitions. Part III embarks upon the realm of Ethics and Democracy: assessing the engagement of private soldiers and the legitimacy of targeted strikes pursuant to the “responsibility to prevent terrorism”. It also considers internal conflicts within the notion of “democratic security”, affirms the procedural guarantees of habeas corpus and non-refoulement as central elements of global justice, and calls for evaluation of gender equity as a measure of state fragility. Part IV confronts the global challenge of climate change as a security threat. Finally, Part V provides a practitioner’s perspective which discusses possible grounds for a gap between academics and security practitioners.

The Moral Dimension of Asymmetrical Warfare

Counter-terrorism, Democratic Values and Military Ethics

Edited by Th.A van Baarda and D.E.M. Verweij

During the Cold War - an era in which the term ‘asymmetric warfare’ was not well known - the issue of the laws and ethics of war seemed simple enough to most soldiers, being concerned mainly with leadership, management, and morale. Post-Cold War reality revealed a very different set of challenges, including a significantly wider moral dimension, particularly when forces, initially under UN leadership and later under the NATO flag, were deployed in different parts of the turbulent Balkans. Military observers, by now with legal advisers close by, watched events in the Balkans, East Timor and then in central and West Africa with professional interest, and some were involved there. A few years later, soldiers were subsequently caught as much by surprise by the events of 9/11, a graphic example of asymmetric warfare, as most of the rest of the world. The initial, post 9/11 response in Afghanistan and Iraq brought the notion of the fragile or collapsed state, and the blurring of the roles of military forces, international organisations, non-governmental organisations, non-state actors, and indigenous administrators and their uniformed organisations, and with them the moral dilemmas, to much wider notice. More recent conflicts have indeed shown the need for commanders and soldiers in all types of conflict to have a much better understanding of the complex moral and legal environments, and opened new debates about the principle of ‘winning hearts and minds’ in counter-insurgency and peace support operations. Moreover, technological superiority by the West has also produced mixed benefits in the field of military operations, and posed additional dilemmas, many of them moral. The trend towards defining human rights and ‘fundamental freedoms’ poses further questions for the soldier today. This collection of essays, written by a wide variety of practising experts and scholars, touches on all these issues. It links the medieval traditions of jus in bello, codified by Saint Thomas Aquinas in the Christian Church nearly eight centuries ago, to examination of modern challenges and moral dilemmas relating to the ethics and laws of conflict and crises of all types in the twenty-first century, and in a global context among people of many different faiths and beliefs, and none. It is an important collection for all those researching or practically involved in conflict and post-conflict situations.