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Pope Innocent III (1160/61 - 1216)

To Root Up and to Plant


John C. Moore

This book is a biography of Pope Innocent III. Avoiding the many scholarly controversies concerning the pope, it offers a concise and balanced portrait of the man and his pontificate. Its chronological organization-unusual in biographies of Innocent-enables the reader to see how the pope was usually dealing with many different subjects at the same time, and that the events in one aspect of his life could influence his views of other topics. This structure, together with the thorough documentation, can provide new insights even for scholars well-versed in his pontificate. Written in clear, jargon-free English, the book also gives the students and general reader a good sense of this pope and of the medieval papacy.


Bert Roest

The history of education within the Franciscan order during the medieval period is presented here in a new light. This comprehensive volume offers a new synthesis of Franciscan education, showing the dynamic development of the Franciscan school network, between the early thirteenth and the early sixteenth century. The organisation of study houses throughout the many Franciscan order provinces are discussed, as well as the relationship between these Franciscan study houses and the medieval universities and the various study programs offered to Franciscan students. Separate chapters are devoted to related issues, such as library formation, the instruction of homiletic techniques, and the formation of Franciscan theological schools of thought.
The work emphasises the dynamics of the Franciscan school network and the importance of extra-curricular activities in the schools at convent and custodial levels.



Robert d’Anjou was King of Naples from 1309-1343 and preached throughout his reign. As a lay preacher, albeit a particularly privileged one, Robert adopted the oratorical form generally reserved to clerics in order to announce his piety and erudition, but most importantly, he preached in order to express and extend his royal office.
This book studies the sermons that Robert preached at universities, diplomatic ceremonies, and royal visitations at religious houses, including his sojourn at the papal court.
This work explores an important case study in the history of medieval lay preaching. It shows the flexibility of preaching as a form of political and personal oratory and marks an important step in the author's interest to map out the range of licit lay preching in Medieval Europe.


G.H.M. Posthumus Meyjes

The first part of this study on the famous chancellor of the Paris University, contains a chronological survey of Gerson's position in the development of the church-politics of his days. It is shown how he became a convinced adherent of a conciliar solution of the Western schism, without betraying the idea of the Church as hierarchical entity.
In the second part his ecclesiological ideas are treated more systematically. Gerson's critical attitude towards canon lawyers and papal absolutism is examined, followed by an analysis of the background of his ideas about the Church as hierarchy and as mystical body, his conciliar thought, his concept of tradition, and his sources. The author tries to make clear that Gerson, far from being a radical, rather should be considered as a careful and conservative theologian. The book comprises a revised and extended version of an originally in Dutch written thesis, for which the author was awarded the Mallinckrodt-prize of the University of Groningen.


Jill Webster

This volume traces the development of Carmelite foundations in Medieval Catalonia and shows how they reflected the dichotomy between the Order's eremitical origins and the active mendicant apostolate in which it was engaged.
In discussing Carmelite life in an urban setting, mention is made of secular involvement with its positive and negative effects, popular piety and miraculous sightings and outstanding intellectual achievement. The conclusion raises the question that Carmelite friars might have migrated to Europe at an earlier date than traditionally suggested; similarly, that the inaccurate foundation document for Peralada dated 1206 was a fourteenth-century falsification.
The appendices provide supplementary material: archival documents, names of priors, royal chaplains, students and graduates and finally an alphabetical list of known medieval Catalan Carmelites. A bibliography and index complete the volume.


Carolyn A. Muessig

This study presents research by specialists of monastic history, literature, and spirituality. Covering the period from 1150 to 1500, this volume demonstrates that monastic preaching was not only carried out in the cloister by monks, but also in public arenas by monks and nuns. The topics range from questioning if the sermons of Bernard of Clairvaux were ever preached, to an analysis of Hildegard of Bingen's preaching against the Cathars. Sermons addressed to monastic communities by secular preachers are also analysed. The diversity of monastic preaching - e.g., cloistered preaching, preaching against heretics, preaching by heretical monks, preaching by nuns - and a geographical range of monastic pastoral history is studied. Medieval Monastic Preaching offers a preliminary step in understanding how sermons and preaching shaped monastic identity in the Middle Ages.


Phyllis G. Jestice

Examining a central change in European religious thought, this study investigates the changing roles of monks in society to help understand the reform of Christian ideology. It is based on extant monastic writings, including hagiography and polemics.
The book explains the diversification of monasticism in this period as an outgrowth of a shift toward greater interest in lay religious life. Focusing on the German Empire, it examines monastic values in such areas as missionary work, public preaching, pilgrimage, and the polemics of the gregorian reform.
The sections on the role of polemic as a catalyst and reflection of monastic change and on missionary activities as part of ecclesiastical reform are especially important for the historian of religion. The book fills an important gap in the study of central European monasticism.


Vivian Boland

This work examines the role of the doctrine of 'divine ideas' in the theology of Thomas Aquinas, a question which remains controversial.
Aquinas received this doctrine in two distinct forms, from Augustine and Dionysius. The historical origins and development of this twofold tradition are traced from Plato and Aristotle, through Hellenistic philosophy, to the patristic and medieval periods.
In Aquinas' account of God's knowledge, of the Word of God, of Creation and of Providence the doctrine of divine ideas plays a key role. Various strands of neoplatonist thought are clearly important for him but it is Aristotle who is of greatest significance for Aquinas' sustained and original re-thinking of the doctrine. A study of this question provides a fresh perspective on the nature of Aquinas' unique synthesis.


Paul B Pixton

This volume deals with efforts by the German episcopacy to implement the reform decrees issued by Pope Innocent III at the Fourth Lateran Council in November 1215 within the six ecclesiastical provinces of Bremen, Cologne, Magdeburg, Mains, Salzburg and Trier over three decades: its primary focus is upon the use of provincial and diocesan synods, episcopal visitations, and general chapters for the regular clergy to the end that “...evils may be uprooted, virtues implanted, mistakes corrected, morals reformed, heresies extirpated, the faith strengthened,...and salutary decrees enacted for the higher and lower clergy.” It examines the methods and the personalities involved, the relationships between the ecclesiastical leadership of Germany and the Roman Curia, and it assesses the impact of these efforts at a most opportune and critical point in the history of the medieval Church.

Origins of Papal Infallibility, 1150-1350

A Study on the Concepts of Infallibility, Sovereignty and Tradition in the Middle Ages


Brian Tierney