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Editor: Susan Petrilli
Translation Translation contributes to current debate on the question of translation dealt with in an interdisciplinary perspective, with implications not only of a theoretical order but also of the didactic and the practical orders. In the context of globalization the question of translation is fundamental for education and responds to new community needs with reference to Europe and more extensively to the international world.
In its most obvious sense translation concerns verbal texts and their relations among different languages. However, to remain within the sphere of verbal signs, languages consist of a plurality of different languages that also relate to each other through translation processes. Moreover, translation occurs between verbal languages and nonverbal languages and among nonverbal languages without necessarily involving verbal languages. Thus far the allusion is to translation processes within the sphere of anthroposemiosis.
But translation occurs among signs and the signs implicated are those of the semiosic sphere in its totality, which are not exclusively signs of the linguistic-verbal order. Beyond anthroposemiosis, translation is a fact of life and invests the entire biosphere or biosemiosphere, as clearly evidenced by research in “biosemiotics”, for where there is life there are signs, and where there are signs or semiosic processes there is translation, indeed semiosic processes are translation processes. According to this approach reflection on translation obviously cannot be restricted to the domain of linguistics but must necessarily involve semiotics, the general science or theory of signs.
In this theoretical framework essays have been included not only from major translation experts, but also from researchers working in different areas, in addition to semiotics and linguistics, also philosophy, literary criticism, cultural studies, gender studies, biology, and the medical sciences. All scholars work on problems of translation in the light of their own special competencies and interests.
Comment les littératures du monde entier ont﷓elles, chacune à sa façon ou s'inspirant mutuellement, vécu, assumé, rejeté les modèles culturels, artistiques et linguistiques, que de force ou de gré elles ont été amenées à accueillir au long des siècles? Comment les traductions, vecteurs premiers des relations interlittéraires, ont﷓elles joué de leurs immenses ressources pour dissimuler, encourager ou décourager la constante et périlleuse mise en cause des traditions nationales? Les quatorze contributions de ce volume nous offrent un éventail de réponses à ces deux questions. De la France au Japon, de la Chine aux Etats-Unis, du Brésil à la Pologne, nous voyons se déployer les multiples stratégies médiatrices de la traduction, toutes révélatrices des tensions qui traversent les cultures où elle prend naissance, que ces tensions soient de nature culturelle, langagière ou littéraire. Ni simples transferts linguistiques, ni fenêtres transparentes sur l'Ailleurs, ni discours désincarnés sur l'Autre, les traductions relèvent plus exactement d'un processus complexe de communication, auquel prennent également part tant les traducteurs que leurs lecteurs: vivant et agissant au coeur des littératures adoptives, ils en investissent aussi bien les grands genres que la paralittérature, ils en infléchissent, souvent de concert, les valeurs et les modes d'écrire, et en démontent, pour mieux les exhiber, les rouages intimes.
The Goddess in Indo-Caribbean Ritual and Fiction
Translating Kali's Feast is an interdisciplinary study of the Goddess Kali bringing together ethnography and literature within the theoretical framework of translation studies. The idea for the book grew out of the experience and fieldwork of the authors, who lived with Indo-Caribbean devotees of the Hindu Goddess in Guyana. Using a variety of discursive forms including oral history and testimony, field notes, songs, stories, poems, literary essays, photographic illustrations, and personal and theoretical reflections, it explores the cultural, aesthetic and spiritual aspects of the Goddess in a diasporic and cross-cultural context. With reference to critical and cultural theorists including Walter Benjamin and Julia Kristeva, the possibilities offered by Kali (and other manifestations of the Goddess) as the site of translation are discussed in the works of such writers as Wilson Harris, V.S. Naipaul and R.K. Narayan. The book articulates perspectives on the experience of living through displacement and change while probing the processes of translation involved in literature and ethnography and postulating links between ‘rite' and ‘write,' Hindu ‘leela' and creole ‘play.'
Papers from the seventeenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 17)
Editor: Magnus Ljung
Corpus-based Studies in English contains selected papers from the seventeenth International Conference on English Language Research on Computerized Corpora (ICAME 17). The topics include parsing and annotation of corpora, discourse studies, lexicography, translation studies, parallel corpora, language variation and change, national varieties, methodology and English language teaching. The papers on parsing and annotation include discussions of the treatment of irregular forms, semantic/pragmatic labels in air traffic control, a comparison of tagging systems and a presentation of T-tag lexicon construction.
The papers on discourse and lexicography include a study of like as a discourse marker, thesaural relations and the lexicalisation of NPs. In translation studies one paper discusses explicitness as a universal feature of translation and the paper on parallel corpora contrasts English and Norwegian. Many papers deal with variation and change; here we find a discussions of dialogue vs. non-dialogue in modern English fiction and an account of verbal disputes in adolescent English; the historical studies deal with e.g. text type evolution, multi-verb words, normalization in Middle English prose and modalities in Early Modern English. The methodology papers discuss the use in corpus analysis of inferential statistics, probabilistic approaches to anaphora resolution and multi-method approaches to data. The ELT paper compares the use of the progressive in native and non-native compositions.
The task of language engineering is to develop the technology for building computer systems which can perform useful linguistic tasks such as machine assisted translation, text retrieval, message classification and document summarisation. Such systems often require the use of a parser which can extract specific types of grammatical data from pre-defined classes of input text.
There are many parsers already available for use in language engineering systems. However, many different linguistic formalisms and parsing algorithms are employed. Grammatical coverage varies, as does the nature of the syntactic information extracted. Direct comparison between systems is difficult because each is likely to have been evaluated using different test criteria.
In this volume, eight different parsers are applied to the same task, that of analysing a set of sentences derived from software instruction manuals. Each parser is presented in a separate chapter. Evaluation of performance is carried out using a standard set of criteria with the results being presented in a set of tables which have the same format for each system. Three additional chapters provide further analysis of the results as well as discussing possible approaches to the standardisation of parse tree data. Five parse trees are provided for each system in an appendix, allowing further direct comparison between systems by the reader.
The book will be of interest to students, researchers and practitioners in the areas of computational linguistics, computer science, information retrieval, language engineering, linguistics and machine assisted translation.
Studies based on the Corpus of Early English Correspondence
What role has social status played in shaping the English language across the centuries? Have women also been the agents of language standardization in the past? Can apparent-time patterns be used to predict the course of long-term language change?
These questions and many others will be addressed in this volume, which combines sociolinguistic methodology and social history to account for diachronic language change in Renaissance English. The approach has been made possible by the new machine-readable Corpus of Early English Correspondence (CEEC) specifically compiled for this purpose. The 2.4-million-word corpus covers the period from 1420 to 1680 and contains over 700 writers.
The volume introduces the premises of the study, discussing both modern sociolinguistics and English society in the late medieval and early modern periods. A detailed description is given of the Corpus of Early English Correspondence, its encoding, and the separate database which records the letter writers' social backgrounds.
The pilot studies based on the CEEC suggest that social rank and gender should both be considered in diachronic language change, but that apparent-time patterns may not always be a reliable cue to what will happen in the long run. The volume also argues that historical sociolinguistics offers fascinating perspectives on the study of such new areas as pragmatization and changing politeness cultures across time.
This extension of sociolinguistic methodology to the past is a breakthrough in the field of corpus linguistics. It will be of major interest not only to historical linguists but to modern sociolinguists and social historians.