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Chinese immigrants who settle in Russia’s Far East without formal instruction in the Russian language communicate with local Russians using Russian vocabulary. Each immigrant forms their language to communicate with Russians, not with family or other immigrants. The ‘single-generation languages’ that immigrants form are not replications or simplifications of Chinese or Russian. Grammatical systems formed by these speakers challenge some fundamental assumptions in early 21st-century linguistic theories. Grammatical systems of single-generation languages provide a unique window into how complex grammatical systems emerge, what are the first formal means of expression, and what are the first meanings expressed in grammatical systems. Given massive migrations in the contemporary world, single-generation languages are common, yet understudied, products of language contact.
Author: Theresa Roth
Der vorliegende Band liefert eine eingehende Untersuchung umbrischer und hethitischer Rituale und ritualbezogener Texte und hebt sich besonders durch die interdisziplinäre Perspektive und innovative Methodik von bisherigen Arbeiten in diesem Themenfeld ab. Durch die Untersuchung der jeweiligen funktionalen und kommunikativen Kontexte demonstriert Theresa Roth, wie aktuelle Fragestellungen der linguistischen Pragmatik und besonders der Fachsprachenforschung erfolgreich auf historische Sprachstufen angewandt werden können. Damit leistet sie einen maßgeblichen Beitrag zu der Frage, wie ritualbezogene Textsorten durch textstrukturelle und kommunikative Parameter geprägt und differenziert werden.

This monograph contributes substantially to the identification and description of the communicative and textual parameters which characterize ritual language as a language for special purposes. The interdisciplinary approach used by the author is methodologically innovative within the field of historical linguistics. By examining the functional and communicative contexts of ritual and religious texts from Hittite and Umbrian, Theresa Roth demonstrates how current questions of pragmatics and research on languages for special purposes can be successfully transferred to ancient languages.
Author: Bruce Lincoln
In Religion, Culture, and Politics in Pre-Islamic Iran, Bruce Lincoln offers a vast overview on different aspects of the Indo-Iranian, Zoroastrian and Pre-Islamic mythologies, religions and cultural issues. The book is organized in four sections according to the body of evidence they engage most directly: Avestan, Old Persian, Pahlavi, and Iranian materials in comparison with other data, including studies of myths, especially those with cosmogonic implications, ritual practices, cosmological constructions of space and time, points of intersection between religion, ethics, law, and politics, ideological aspects of scientific and medical theorizing, social organization and gender relations, and other diverse topics.
This book is an account of the rise of definite and indefinite articles in Danish, Swedish and Icelandic, as documented in a choice of extant texts from 1200-1550. These three North Germanic languages show different development patterns in the rise of articles, despite the common origin, but each reveals interdependencies between the two processes.
The matter is approached from both a quantitative and a qualitative perspective. The statistical analysis provides an improved overview on article grammaticalization, focusing on the factors at the basis of such process. The in-depth qualitative analysis of longer text passages places the crucial stage of the definite article grammaticalization with the so-called indirect anaphoric reference.
Non-agentive Verbs and Perfect Expression in Early Germanic
Author: R. Moses Katz
Gothic is unique among Germanic languages in regards to the ways it expresses non-agentive actions. It both retains a formal passive and has two periphrastic passives. In addition it presents an intransitive verb class with generally inchoative meaning. R. Moses Katz examines the semantics of these categories and shows how they provide a robust non-agentive paradigm in Gothic, including a functional, result-state perfect in the passive. In two parts, he examines first the inchoative verb and then the periphrastic passive. He proposes that the development of both types is underpinned by a single argument structure based on the resultative, a coordinated event type that links a transition with a resulting state.
In Anatolian Verbal Stem Formation, David Sasseville offers an extensive classification of the Luwian, Lycian and Lydian verbal stem classes. This serves as a basis for reconstructing the Proto-Luwic stage and subsequent comparison with Hittite, providing new insights into the Proto-Anatolian verbal system and by extension into the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European.
Besides its contribution to the study of verbal morphology, the present book also provides significant insights into the philology of the Anatolian languages. The detailed analyses of the synchronic data, including a philological survey of verbal forms and paradigms for the individual stem classes, enhance our understanding of Luwian, Lycian and Lydian and thereby benefit the fields of Hittitology and other studies on the Classical period in Asia Minor.
Volume Editor: Tabea Ihsane
This volume edited by Tabea Ihsane focuses on different aspects of the distribution, semantics, and internal structure of nominal constituents with a “partitive article” in its indefinite interpretation and of potentially corresponding bare nouns. It further deals with diachronic issues, such as grammaticalization and evolution in the use of “partitive articles”.
The outcome is a snapshot of current research into “partitive articles” and the way they relate to bare nouns, in a cross-linguistic perspective and on new data: the research covers noteworthy data (fieldwork data and corpora) from Standard languages - like French and Italian, but also German - to dialectal and regional varieties, including endangered ones like Francoprovençal.
Author: Silvia Luraghi
In Experiential Verbs in Homeric Greek:.A Constructional Approach Silvia Luraghi offers a comprehensive account of construction variation with two-place verbs belonging to different sub-domains of experience (including bodily sensation, perception, cognition, emotion and volitionality) in the Homeric language. Traditionally, variation is ascribed to the independent meaning of cases that mark the second argument, and explanations have focused on properties of the latter. By taking a constructional approach, the author shows that construction variation also brings about differences in the conceptualization of the subject/experiencer by pointing to different degrees of control and awareness. Variation is then shown to reflect the embodied construal of experience along with the social dimension of emotions.
Author: Eric T. Lander
The task of reconstructing the reinforced demonstrative paradigm for early Nordic has been called “impossible” by the eminent Einar Haugen. In The History of the Reinforced Demonstrative in Nordic, Eric T. Lander aims to accomplish exactly this, by way of an exhaustive study of the pronoun’s attestations in the Viking Age runic inscriptions, which are the earliest forms of this item to be recorded in Scandinavia. The detailed picture of regional variation that emerges is then used to inform reconstructions of the paradigm from Proto-Nordic to Common Nordic. The book represents the first serious attempt in historical-comparative linguistics to grapple with the morphological development of the North-West Germanic reinforced demonstrative since the work of 19th-century scholars like Sophus Bugge.
Paradigmatic Relations in Word Formation brings together contributions that aim to discuss the nature of paradigms in derivational morphology and compounding in the light of evidence from various languages.
Among others, the topics considered in the volume include the interconnectedness between derivational families and paradigms, the constitutive characteristics of a word-formation paradigm, the degree of predictability of word-formation paradigms, and the specificity of paradigms depending on the variety of recognised word-formation processes and patterns.