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Richard J. Serina

Scholarship has recognized fifteenth-century speculative thinker Nicholas of Cusa for his early contributions to conciliar theory, but not his later ecclesiastical career as cardinal, residential bishop, preacher, and reformer. Richard Serina shows that, as bishop in the Tyrolese diocese of Brixen from 1452 to 1458, and later as resident cardinal in Rome, Nicolas of Cusa left a testament to his view of reform in the sermons he preached to monks, clergy, and laity. These 171 sermons, in addition to his Reformatio generalis of 1459, reflect an intellectual coming to terms with the challenge of reform in the late medieval church, and in response creatively incorporating metaphysics, mystical theology, ecclesiology, and personal renewal into his preaching of reform.

Defining Heresy

Inquisition, Theology, and Papal Policy in the Time of Jacques Fournier


Irene Bueno

In Defining Heresy, Irene Bueno investigates the theories and practices of anti-heretical repression in the first half of the fourteenth century, focusing on the figure of Jacques Fournier/Benedict XII (c.1284-1342). Throughout his career as a bishop-inquisitor in Languedoc, theologian, and, eventually, pope at Avignon, Fournier made a multi-faceted contribution to the fight against religious dissent. Making use of judicial, theological, and diplomatic sources, the book sheds light on the multiplicity of methods, discourses, and textual practices mobilized to define the bounds of heresy at the end of the Middle Ages. The integration of these commonly unrelated areas of evidence reveals the intellectual and political pressures that inflected the repression of heretics and dissidents in the peculiar context of the Avignon papacy.

Religious Education in Thirteenth-Century England

The Creed and Articles of Faith


Andrew Reeves

In Religious Education in Thirteenth-Century England, Andrew Reeves examines how laypeople in a largely illiterate and oral culture learned the basic doctrines of the Christian religion. Although lay religious life is often assumed to have been a tissue of ignorance and superstition, this study shows basic religious training to have been broadly available to laity and clergy alike.
Reeves examines the nature, availability and circulation of sermon manuscripts as well as guidebooks to Christian teachings written for both clergy and literate laypeople. He shows that under the direction of a vigorous and reforming episcopate and aided by the preaching of the friars, clergy had a readily available toolkit to instruct their lay flocks.


Edited by Philipp W. Rosemann

The work published in this third, and final, volume of Brill’s handbook on the tradition of the Book of Sentences breaks new ground in three ways. First, several chapters contribute to the debate concerning the meaning of medieval authority and authorship. For some of the most influential literature on the Sentences consisted of study aids and compilations that were derivative or circulated anonymously. Consequently, the volume also sheds light on theological education “on the ground”—the kind of teaching that was dispensed by the average master and received by the average student. Finally, the contributors show that Peter Lombard’s textbook played a much more dynamic role in later medieval theology than hitherto assumed. The work remained a force to be reckoned with until at least the sixteenth century, especially in the Iberian Peninsula.
Contributors are Claire Angotti, Monica Brinzei, Franklin T. Harkins, Severin V. Kitanov, Lidia Lanza, Philipp W. Rosemann, Chris Schabel, John T. Slotemaker, Marco Toste, Jeffrey C. Witt, and Ueli Zahnd.


Ritva Palmén

Richard of St.Victor (d.1173) developed original ideas about the faculty of imagination in a twelfth-century Parisian context. Related to the historical study of philosophical psychology, Richard of St. Victor’s Theory of Imagination acknowledges that the faculty of imagination, being a necessary precondition for human reasoning and a link between soul and body, plays an important role in Richard’s understanding of the human soul. Richard also deals with the interpretation of biblical language, metaphors, rhetoric, and the possibility of creative imagination. Considering all these aspects of the imagination in Richard’s texts improves our understanding of his theological epistemology and sheds new light on the theory of the imagination in the history of medieval philosophy in general.


Thomas M. Ward

In John Duns Scotus on Parts, Wholes, and Hylomorphism, Thomas M. Ward examines Scotus's arguments for his distinctive version of hylomorphism, the view that at least some material objects are composites of matter and form. It considers Scotus's reasons for adopting hylomorphism, and his accounts of how matter and form compose a substance, how extended parts, such as the organs of an organism, compose a substance, and how other sorts of things, such as the four chemical elements (earth, air, fire, and water) and all the things in the world, fail to compose a substance. It highlights the extent to which Scotus draws on his metaphysics of essential order to explain why some things can compose substance and why others cannot. Throughout the book, contemporary versions of hylomorphism are discussed in ways that both illumine Scotus's own views and suggest ways to advance contemporary debates.

Early Ibāḍī Theology

Six kalām texts by ‘Abd Allāh b. Yazīd al-Fazārī


Edited by Wilferd Madelung and Abdulrahman Al-Salimi

Early Ibāḍī Theology presents the critical edition of six Arabic theological texts recently discovered in two manuscripts in Mzāb in Algeria dating from the middle of the 8th century. The texts were sent by their author, the prominent Kūfan Ibāḍī kalām theologian ‘Abd Allāh b. Yazīd al-Fazārī to North Africa where he had a large following in the Ibāḍī community later known as the Nukkār. They constitute the earliest extant body of Muslim kalām theology and are vital for the study of the initial development of rational theology in Islam. The sophisticated treatment of the divine attributes in these texts indicates that this subject developed considerably earlier in Islamic theology than previously accepted in modern scholarship.

The Tale of the Prophet Isaiah

The Destiny and Meanings of an Apocryphal Text


Ivan Biliarsky

In The Tale of the Prophet Isaiah. The Destiny and Meanings of an Apocryphal Text Ivan Biliarsky proposes an edition of the original text of the medieval apocryphon, together with images of the single manuscript copy. The author also includes a large commentary on the otherwise quite unclear narrative concerning its origins, its development, a prosopography of the mentioned persons, an interpretation of its meaning and of the stages of its continuous creation. This completely new approach profoundly revises the source with a strong focus on its biblical roots. Ivan Biliarsky abandons the “national” understanding of the apocryphon and introduces evidence about its significance for the enforcement of the Byzantine-Slavic/Bulgarian Commonwealth and solidarity.


Edited by August den Hollander, Ulrich Schmid and C. Burger

Studies in Theology and Religion (STAR) - 9

Evangelienharmonien sind in Westeuropa zumindest vom sechsten Jahrhundert an nachweisbar, wurden aber im Hoch- und Spätmittelalter verstärkt tradiert, bearbeitet oder auch neu verfaßt. Diese Texte bieten zumeist Zusammenstellungen des Stoffes der vier neutestamentlichen Evangelien, die alle darin erzählten Inhalte in einenfortlaufenden Erzählzusammenhang bringen. Auf diese Weise geben sie dem Leser oder Hörer Gelegenheit, die ganze Fülle der Aussagen der Evangelisten in einer einzigen Darstellung zur Kenntnis zu nehmen, und nehmen den Anstoß weg, daß in dem einen Evangelium diese, im anderen jene Reihenfolge gewählt wird, daß im einen Evangelium diese Erzählung fehlt, im anderen jene. Leser oder Hörer können sich dadurch ganz auf Leben, Leiden und Auferweckung des Erlösers konzentrieren. Die Geschichte der Gattung der Evangelienharmonien ist bisher ebenso wenig erforscht worden wie ihre Rezeptionsweisen und ihre Funktionen in den wechselnden Kontexten dieser jahrhundertelangen Geschichte.

Der vorliegende Sammelband will auf einige Aspekte der Geschichte von Evangelienharmonien im Mittelalter und auf ihre Einordnung in Kontexte aufmerksam machen. Neben Harmonien aller vier Evangelien werden auch eine Passionsharmonie und ein Evangelienkommentar vorgestellt, um auf diese Weise die verwandten Gattungen in den Blick zu bekommen.

Evangelien-harmonien des Mittelalters

Evangelienharmonien des Mittelalters: Forschungsgeschichtliche und systematische Aspekte
Ulrich Schmid
Lateinische Evangelienharmonien – Die Konturen der abendländischen Harmonietradition
Ulrich Schmid
Zur Funktion des Monotessaron des Johannes Gerson
Marc Vial
Liturgie, Leben-Jesu-Darstellungen und Evangelienharmonien als wesentliche Bestandteile der spätmittelalterlichen Frömmigkeit:
Erforschung und Vergleich
Charles Caspers
Mittelniederländische Evangelienharmonien – Form und Funktion: Eine erste Orientierung
August den Hollander

Die Harmonisierungstendenzen im Evangelienkommentar des
Simon Fidati von Cascia OESA (ca. 1295–1348)
Willigis Eckermann
Die Passionsharmonie des Augustiner-Eremiten Johannes von Paltz
(ca. 1445-1511)
Christoph Burger 3
vi Evangelienharmonien des Mittelalters
Verzeichnis der genannten Literatur
Verzeichnis der zitierten Handschriften
Register der Bibelstellen


Edited by Philip D.W. Krey and Lesley Smith

The first modern study of Nicholas of Lyra. A Franciscan teacher at the University of Paris, Nicholas (d. 1349) was an immensely important biblical commentator whose works influenced generations of scholars including Luther. Famed for his knowledge of Hebrew learning, as well as of the Latin Fathers, Nicholas was also highly conscious of interpretative method and of the Bible as literary artefact.
In his massive Postillae, Nicholas commented on the entire Bible according to both literal and spiritual senses. This masterpiece is the basis for fifteen essays which cover major biblical books, examining them in a variety of ways, such as interpretative history, theology, and even political theory. They illuminate the remarkable range of Nicholas' thinking, his impressive scholarship, and his Franciscan evangelism.
A major study of a key medieval writer.

Contributors include: Philippe Buc, Mary Dove, Theresa Gross-Diaz, Deeana Copeland Klepper, Philip D.W. Krey, Frans van Liere, Kevin Madigan, Corrine Patton, Michael A. Signer, Lesley Smith, and Mark Zier.