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The Evolution of the Israeli Third Sector reviews the development of the nonprofit sector in Israel and analyzes it within existing nonprofit theories. It takes a historical perspective in looking at its evolution, in light of political, social, ideological, and economic changes in the world and in the country. It discusses the development of policy and government involvement on the one hand and the unique features of Israeli philanthropy, both Jewish and Arab, on the other. It analyzes Israel’s civil society and social movements as well as social entrepreneurship and their expression in the Third Sector. The book also covers the development of research and education on the Third Sector; it includes a review of research centers, databases, journals, and specific programs that were developed by Israeli universities.
Community Unionism, Solidarity and Bricolage
Volume Editors: and
In Migrant Organising: Community Unionism, Solidarity and Bricolage, Emma Martín-Díaz and Beltrán Roca explore recent developments in community unionism and solidarity networks among migrant workers in a post-Fordist context characterised by transnationalism and global chains.

The contributions in this edited book describe different types of trade union strategies toward migrant workers and the rise of solidarity and bricolage initiatives in situations in which conventional union organising cannot succeed. Cases from Germany, Spain, Italy and Argentina reveal that the transformation of work, the rise of global chains and the intensification of international migrations are the basis of new forms of union and extra-union intervention.

Contributors include: Beltrán Roca, Emma Martín-Díaz, Simone Castellani, Mark Bergfeld, Juan Pablo Aris-Escarcena, Giulia Borraccino, Paula Dinorah Salgado, Alicia Reigada, Giuseppe D’Onofrio and Jon Las Heras.
The evolving societal, political and economic landscape has led to increased demands on higher education institutions to make their contribution and benefits to society more visible, and in many cases with fewer public resources. This book contributes to the understanding of the responsibilities of Higher Education and the challenges posed to the production and circulation of knowledge. It raises questions about the role of higher education in society, its responsibility towards students and staff, and regarding its intended impact. The book brings together a range of topical papers, and a diversity of perspectives: scientific investigations of reputed scholars, critical evidence-based papers of third space professionals, and policymakers’ perspectives on the daily practice and management of higher education institutions and systems. The variety of both content and contributors elevates the richness of the book and its relevance for a large audience.

Contributors are: Victor M. H. Borden, Lex Borghans, Bruno Broucker, Hamish Coates, Gwilym Croucher, Lisa Davidson, Mark Engberg, Philipp Friedrich, Martina Gaisch, Solomon Gebreyohans Gebru, Ton Kallenberg, Kathi A. Ketcheson, Lu Liu, Alfredo Marra, Clare Milsom, Kenneth Moore, Roberto Moscati, Marjolein Muskens, Daniela Nömeyer, Attila Pausits, Svetlana Shenderova, Wafa Singh, Chuanyi Wang, Denyse Webbstock, Gregory Wolniak, and Jiale Yang.

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In Korean Nonprofit/Non-Government Sector Research, Sung-Ju Kim and Jin-Kyung Jung review the various aspects of the nonprofit sector in South Korea. The authors discuss the historical progress of the South Korean nonprofit sector; the internal and external environments of the nonprofit sector; its legal aspects and financial resources; collaboration among nonprofit, for-profit, and government agencies; and current challenges for the nonprofit sector in South Korea.
In Nonprofit Finance: A Synthetic Review Thad D. Calabrese reviews the current state of research on nonprofit finance. The book comprehensively addresses core finance topics with a focus on those issues that differentiate nonprofit finance from traditional finance. Topics include the financial goals of nonprofits, sources and uses of funds, reserves and working capital, and debt and borrowing. The text also addresses recent innovations in nonprofit finance such as crowdsourcing donations, social impact bonds, flexible low yield paper, and donor-advised funds, as well as innovations in corporate forms. Throughout the text, gaps in our current knowledge are highlighted and avenues for future research are suggested. As such, Nonprofit Finance: A Synthetic Review is relevant for researchers and practitioners alike.
Publications on arts-related amateur, hobbyist, some professional, and mixed-member associations and some agencies are reviewed. Their mission is to foster, present, and sometimes chronicle the art its members prize. Excluded from this review are the studies of art support organizations, formed to help fund an art, lobby government for support of it, drum up public interest, seek employment for its professionals, and the like. Also excluded are analyses of broad social and cultural effects of an arts association organization. The review covers works bearing on small arts clubs and societies, music associations and agencies (jazz ensembles, symphony orchestras, opera companies), dance associations and agencies, theater associations and agencies, graphic art associations (graffiti, painting, photography), writers’ and readers’ associations, and craft associations.
The foundations of volunteering, charitable giving, voluntary associations, voluntary agencies, and other aspects of the Voluntary Nonprofit Sector (VNPS) collectively and of individual voluntary action lie in various aspects of human nature and societies. These foundations may be referred to variously as altruism, morality, ethics, virtue, kindness, generosity, cooperation, social solidarity, and prosociality (eusociality). These foundations of the VNPS, and specifically of social solidarity and prosociality, are the subjects of this literature review article/book. The central goal is providing a comprehensive and interdisciplinary theoretical framework for understanding, explaining, and predicting such phenomena, based on two versions of the author’s S-Theory:

(1) Individual-System-Level General S-Theory of Human Behavior, as presented briefly here and in greater detail elsewhere (Smith, 2015, 2020a, 2020b; Smith & van Puyvelde, 2016);
(2) Social-System-Level General S-Theory of Collective Prosociality-Social Solidarity, as partially sketched here for the first time in print.

Social-System-Level General S-Theory of collective Prosociality-Social Solidarity argues that collective social solidarity can be better explained with a broader than usual range of factors as major causal influences, beyond normative systems. Individual prosociality behavior can be best explained and understood using the author’s Individual-System-Level General S-Theory of Human Behavior.
Prosociality includes (a) instrumental (task-oriented) helping behavior, such as formal and informal volunteering or charitable giving for non-household/non-immediate family persons and also informal care of residential household/immediate family persons, plus (b) expressive prosociality or sociability that involves positive interpersonal relations with one or more other persons, both in the residential household/immediate family or outside of it, based on feelings of attachment, fellowship, friendship, affection, and/or love.
Prosociality and social solidarity are clearly human universals, as Brown (1991) concludes from anthropological studies on hundreds of mostly preliterate societies on all continents. Such individual human prosociality activities often have positive short- and long-term consequences for the people who do them.
This article argues the position that the symbolic sense of community is a product of action by associations and larger community-based organizations. It draws on a theory from urban sociology called “the community of limited liability.” In the past this theory, first articulated by Morris Janowitz, has mostly been used to argue that residents living in a local neighborhood feel a sense of identification with that area to the extent that the symbolism of that neighborhood has been developed. This article extends Janowitz’s theory to apply to local associations and their efforts to create activities, movements, and products that encourage residents to expand their sense of symbolic attachment to a place. We argue that this organizational method has long been used by local associations but it has not been recognized as an organizational theory. Because associations have used this approach over time, communities have a historical legacy of organizing and symbol creating efforts by many local associations. Over time they have competed, collaborated, and together developed a collective vision of place. They also have created a local interorganizational field and this field of interacting associations and organizations is dense with what we call associational social capital. Not all communities have this history of associational activity and associational social capital. Where it does exist, the field becomes an institutionalized feature of the community. This is what we mean by an institutional theory of community.
Volume Editor:
Trust in Contemporary Society, by well-known trust researchers, deals with conceptual, theoretical and social interaction analyses, historical data on societies, national surveys or cross-national comparative studies, and methodological issues related to trust. The authors are from a variety of disciplines: psychology, sociology, political science, organizational studies, history, and philosophy, and from Britain, the United States, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands, Australia, Germany, and Japan. They bring their vast knowledge from different historical and cultural backgrounds to illuminate contemporary issues of trust and distrust. The socio-cultural perspective of trust is important and increasingly acknowledged as central to trust research. Accordingly, future directions for comparative trust research are also discussed.

Contributors include: Jack Barbalet, John Brehm, Geoffrey Hosking, Robert Marsh, Barbara A. Misztal, Guido Möllering, Bart Nooteboom, Ken J. Rotenberg, Jiří Šafr, Masamichi Sasaki, Meg Savel, Markéta Sedláčková, Jörg Sydow, Piotr Sztompka.
This article deals with the literature on the French nonprofit sector (NPS). A preliminary part is devoted to presenting and discussing the characteristics that shape the approaches to this sector in France. We stress the strong influence of legal categories on the sector’s definition and, in this context, the importance of the status inherited from the 1901 Act on contracts of association. This raises a problem for a more analytical approach to the sector, because the diversity of the nonprofit organizations (NPOs) regulated under this Act risks being overshadowed. In this first part, we also underline the primacy accorded in France to the concept of the social economy, which has today become the social and solidarity economy (SSE), over that of the nonprofit sector.
In the second part, the article outlines some landmarks in the history of the French NPS. French NPOs were for many years objects of suspicion, arbitrariness and repression on the part of the public authorities and this persisted until the 1901 legislation on contracts of association was enacted. However, this hostile context did not prevent the sector from having a richer existence than is sometimes admitted.
This literature review also focuses on empirical studies of the sector, placing a particular emphasis on the more recent ones. These French studies basically adopt two types of approach. The first is concerned essentially with the NPOs and focuses its attention on their economic importance, whether measured in terms of financial resources, employment, or, less frequently, added value. The second approach investigates the kinds of individual participation the sector engenders by examining the various forms it takes, such as membership of NPOs or voluntary work.
This review ends with the analysis of the challenges that NPS faces in a context characterized by the increasing constraints on public funding, changes in the nature of such funding with a substitution of contracts for subsidies, an increased competition among NPOs as well as between NPOs and for-profit enterprises. The article concludes that, despite the advances in research on the French NPS, some aspects—like formal volunteering and the role of voluntary associations—are still understudied, while others—like informal groups and informal volunteering—are almost totally ignored.