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Ideology, Scholarship, and Individual Biographies
Only recently has Egyptology begun to critically examine its history in the first half of the 20th century. This book presents major contributions that analyze the interplay of personal biographies and political history, ideologies and academic scholarship between the First World War and the Third Reich. Peter Raulwing and Thomas Gertzen study the political activism of Friedrich Wilhelm Freiherr von Bissing, professor of Egyptology at the University of Munich and art collector, during and after the First World War. Thomas Schneider's contribution is the first comprehensive treatment of the biographies of German and Austrian Egyptologists in the time of National Socialism and their careers after 1945, with remarks on the relationship between Egyptological scholarship and Nazi ideology. Lindsay Ambridge analyzes the scholarship of James Henry Breasted, the patron of North American Egyptology, in the context of racial ideologies of the early 20th century. A concluding chapter by Peter Raulwing, added after the death of Manfred Mayrhofer, patron of the study of Indo-Aryans in the Ancient Near East, reflects on the 20th century ideological and academic interest in the question of Indo-Aryans in the Ancient Near East. In the introductory chapter, Edmund Meltzer places these studies and their significance in the wider context of Egyptological and historiographical scholarship.

"...this book makes a significant contribution to exploring a dark chapter in Egyptology's history as a discipline and an important step in understanding the effect that period had on the academic community." Edward Mushett Cole, University of Birmingham
Entstehung und Verehrung einer Personifikation
Author: Guglielmi
Among the numerous deities invested with special spheres of responsibility in ancient Egypt Mr.t is charged with the salutation of the deity (king or god) and the provision of cult-music. Since there is no lack of source material relating to the goddess from all periods right down to Roman times, Mr.t readily provides an exemplary demonstration of a minor deity's transformation through time. Her original deification must have taken place during the 4th and 5th dynasties when the chorus designated Mr.t came to be personified as the ritual figure " Mr.t upon the house of Gold" at the Hebsed and the first "Priests-of- Mr. t"-titles appeared. To the characteristic iconography, tress of hair and special gesture taken over from the chorus by the deity more symbols came to be added: the mysterious House of Gold, the place where statues were fashioned; the heraldic plants of Upper and Lower Egypt; and, in Ptolemaic times, the harp.
Authors: Kees, Otto, Brunner, Morenz, and Schott