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We live in a kaleidoscopic world in the new Anthropocene Epoch. This calls for a more inclusive public international law that accepts diverse actors in addition to States and other sources of law, including individualized voluntary commitments. Norms are critical to the stability and legitimacy of this international system. They underlie responses to rapid change, to new technological developments and to problems of protecting commons, promoting public goods, and providing social and economic justice. Certain fundamental norms can be identified ; others are emerging. The norm of mutual accountability underpins the implementation of other norms. Norms are especially relevant to frontier doit-yourself technologies, such as synthetic biology, digital currencies, cyber activity, and climate interventions, as addressed in the book. Reconceiving public international law lessens the sharp divide between public and private law and between domestic and international law.
Author: Louis d’Avout
Agent de la mondialisation au coeur des réflexions critiques, l’entreprise est aussi un phénomène juridique. Elle entretient à ce titre des rapports complexes avec les droits des Etats et sécrète un pouvoir dont on prétend qu’il remettrait en cause l’autorité des lois. Ce cours étudie la façon dont l’entreprise est assujettie aux divers droits nationaux, pour sa constitution et son activité à travers les frontières. Sont à ce titre passées en revue les diverses règles et méthodologies de rattachement des situations ou d’applicabilité des lois en droit des affaires contemporain : localisations objectives, libre choix du droit applicable et lois de police. Prenant appui sur certaines évolutions contemporaines (régulation administrative sectorielle, régimes responsabilisateurs de vigilance-conformité), le cours cherche aussi à expliciter comment l’entreprise intériorise les cumuls de régimes juridiques d’origines diverses et apprend à gérer leurs frictions ou contradictions, en dehors même du contentieux. En résultent une compréhension nouvelle du lien unissant les entreprises aux Etats et l’urgence d’une coopération renouvelée des autorités publiques pour une discipline mondiale cohérente des pouvoirs économiques privés.
Comment justifier de faire produire effet aux jugements rendus par des tribunaux étrangers? La question est ancienne dans le monde de common law. Tant l’Angleterre que les Etats-Unis ont développé des théories originales fondant l’accueil des jugements étrangers et dessinant une partie du régime de cet accueil. Dans la tradition juridique continentale, la question du fondement de l’effet des jugements étrangers n’a en revanche guère été approfondie. Elle devrait pourtant être essentielle, en permettant soit d’expliquer les solutions retenues par le droit positif, soit de les rationaliser.
Ce cours présente et critique les différentes théories et fondements existant en droit comparé. Certaines mettent en avant les intérêts privés des justiciables, à l’instar du droit à l’exécution des jugements promu par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. D’autres privilégient les intérêts des Etats, qu’ils soient purement économiques ou plus politiques. Enfin, le cours s’interroge sur le fondement de la circulation des jugements dans les systèmes fédéraux, en insistant plus particulièrement sur le principe de confiance mutuelle prévalant dans l’Union européenne.
Il est frappant que le débat politique dans les démocraties occidentales, polarisé désormais autour de l’identité, collective ou individuelle, tend à emprunter des termes juridiques et, avec eux, de nouvelles formes de dogmatique. A cet égard, le droit est convoqué de plus en plus à titre défensif, pour produire un discours légitimant l’exclusion de l’altérité. Revenir, aujourd’hui, sur les méthodes du droit international privé, s’inscrit ainsi dans le questionnement que doivent mener toutes les sciences sociales et humaines sur les modes d’accueil de la différence des cultures, des pratiques ou des formes de vie. Profondément impliqué dans les processus de transformation que l’on désigne sous l’étiquette, devenue très polémique, de la globalisation, le droit international privé se prête en particulier à une interrogation sur la vision du monde dont il est porteur. Tandis que les divers concepts juridiques qui relèvent spécifiquement de son champ disciplinaire émigrent vers l’arène politique, au service d’une cause défensive ou offensive, protectrice de valeurs menacées ou promotrice de lumières, insulaire ou d’ouverture, selon les cas, elle est traversée en retour par les oppositions qui s’y affrontent autour de la place de l’extranéité au sein de la société nationale.
Author: Georg Nolte
The book describes the development of certain important treaties from the perspective of their practice, with a view to assessing whether these treaties are, or have been, on the “rise” or in “decline”. Following a glance at major European peace treaties prior to the UN Charter, the book focuses on developments over the last thirty years with respect to the UN Charter and its rules on the use of force, human rights treaties, the WTO agreements, investment treaties, and environmental treaties. It looks at these treaties from the perspective of an observer as well as from the perspective of a practitioner who is called to apply a treaty, taking into account the rules of interpretation under the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. The book describes, in particular, how the International Law Commission has elucidated the significance of the rules of interpretation in its conclusions on “Subsequent agreements and subsequent practice in relation to the interpretation of treaties” (2018), and it connects this work with the broader developments.
International law and the Hague, the city where so many institutions of international law are established, are intimately connected. This book presents the views developed by some of the active players in the legal capital of the world on a number of the current challenges faced by international law. The starting point was a seminar held in the Peace Palace, reviewing some of the legal policy questions of today, such as the acceptance of the jurisdiction of the ICJ as a prerequisite to dispute settlement. Supplementing these articles on classical international law are essays dealing with the younger discipline of international criminal law, as practiced by the ICC and other Tribunals, offering ideas on, among other things. how to speed up the lengthy procedures of international criminal tribunals. Other contributions debate the universality of human rights and their legal protection.
Author: Alan Scott Rau
The ultimate question that runs through all of our law of arbitration is the allocation of responsibility between state courts and arbitral tribunals : If private tribunals assume the power to bind others in a definitive fashion, we must ask, where does this authority come from ? Fundamentally different in this respect from a state judge, a private arbitrator may only derive his legitimacy from that exercise of private ordering and self-government which characterizes any voluntary commercial transaction. This work begins then with the dimensions of that “consent” which alone can justify arbitral jurisdiction. The discussion is then carried forward to explore how party autonomy in the contracting process may be expanded, giving rise to the voluntary reallocation of authority between courts and arbitrators. It concludes with the necessary inquiry into the autonomy with respect to the “chosen law” that will govern the agreement to arbitrate itself.
Author: Burkhard Hess
This course addresses dispute resolution in international cases from the classical perspective of the private-public divide. The main focus relates to overlapping remedies available under private international and public international law. Nowadays, a multitude of courts and arbitral tribunals at different levels (domestic, international and transnational) is accessible to litigants in cross-border settings. There are three different areas where the private-public divide is applicable. The first pertains to lawsuits in civil courts involving foreign states, state enterprises and international organizations. The second area relates to the delineation between domestic and international remedies. The third area concerns the privatization of dispute settlement, especially in the context of private ordering. This study argues that the private-public divide still exists and cannot be given up. However, one must be aware that private and public international law have complementary functions in order to address adequately the multitude of disputes at both the cross-border and the international level. In this context, this divide can be used as an appropriate tool to explain the complementarity of private and public international law in the multilevel legal structure of a globalized world.
No field of legal scholarship or practice operates in the world of private international law as continuously and pervasively as does international arbitration, commercial and investment alike. Arbitration’s dependence on private international law manifests itself throughout the life-cycle of arbitration, from the crafting of an enforceable arbitration agreement, through the entire arbitral process, to the time an award comes before a national court for annulment or for recognition and enforcement. Thus international arbitration provides both arbitral tribunals and courts with constant challenges.
Courts may come to the task already equipped with longstanding private international law assumptions, but international arbitrators must largely find their own way through the private international law thicket. Arbitrators and courts take guidance in their private international law inquiries from multiple sources: party agreement, institutional rules, treaties, the national law of competing jurisdictions and an abundance of “soft law”, some of which may even be regarded as expressing an international standard. In a world of this sort, private international law resourcefulness is fundamental.