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Baselines under the International Law of the Sea

Reports of the International Law Association Committee on Baselines under the International Law of the Sea

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Edited by Coalter G. Lathrop, J. Ashley Roach and Donald R. Rothwell

Baselines under the International Law of the Sea brings together two reports produced by the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on Baselines under the International Law of the Sea between 2008 – 2018. The Sofia Report (2012) is organized around the interpretation of Article 5 of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (LOSC) concerning the normal baseline. The Sydney Report (2018) is organized around a common methodology in assessing Articles 7, 8, 10, 13, 14 and 47 of the LOSC concerning straight baselines, closing lines, and straight archipelagic baselines.

International Law and Sea Level Rise

Report of the International Law Association Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise

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Edited by Davor Vidas, David Freestone and Jane McAdam

This book contains the final version of the 2018 Report of the International Law Association (ILA) Committee on International Law and Sea Level Rise, as well as the related ILA Resolutions 5/2018 and 6/2018, both as adopted by the ILA at its 78th Biennial Conference, held in Sydney, Australia, 19–24 August 2018. In Part I of the Report, key information about the establishment of the Committee, its mandate and its work so far is presented. Part II of the Report addresses key law of the sea issues through a study of possible impacts of sea level rise and their implications under international law regarding maritime limits lawfully determined by the coastal States, and the agreed or adjudicated maritime boundaries. Part III of the Report addresses international law provisions, principles and frameworks for the protection of persons displaced in the context of sea level rise.

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Edited by ITLOS

The ITLOS Yearbook 2017 provides information on the composition, jurisdiction, procedure and organization of the Tribunal and reports on its judicial activities in 2017, in particular on the Judgment delivered by the Special Chamber in Case No. 23. The Yearbook is prepared by the Registry of the Tribunal.

Le TIDM Annuaire 2017 fournit des informations essentielles concernant la composition, la compétence, la procédure et l’organisation du Tribunal. Il donne également un aperçu des activités judiciaires du Tribunal au cours de l’année 2017, en particulier en ce qui concerne l’arrêt rendu par la Chambre spéciale dans l’affaire no. 23. L’ Annuaire est rédigé par le Greffe du Tribunal.

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John Abrahamson

The Arctic Ocean region presents certain challenges to peaceful cooperation between states, particularly in the locations where ocean boundaries and ownership of the related resources are disputed. The establishment of Joint Development Zones (JDZs) for the development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic Ocean can facilitate international cooperation over resource development where there are competing claims. These claims are generally based on continental shelf jurisdiction under the provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). There are several alternative dispute resolution measures available under UNCLOS, however, a number of states have preferred to adopt a JDZ as an interim measure to allow development. The significance of JDZs for the Arctic Ocean region is that they can allow peaceful cooperation and development where the specific circumstances of Arctic claims make it difficult for the respective states to agree on the maritime boundary.

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Edited by ITLOS

The ITLOS Yearbook 2016 provides information on the composition, jurisdiction, procedure and organization of the Tribunal. In addition, it reports on its activities in 2016, in particular on the events on the occasion of its 20th anniversary. The Yearbook is prepared by the Registry of the Tribunal.

Le TIDM Annuaire 2016 fournit des informations essentielles concernant la composition, la compétence, la procédure et l’organisation du Tribunal. Il donne également un aperçu des activités du Tribunal au cours de l’année 2016, en particulier sur les événements à l’occasion de son 20e anniversaire. L’Annuaire est rédigé par le Greffe du Tribunal.

Arctic Ocean Shipping

Navigation, Security and Sovereignty in the North American Arctic

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Donald R. Rothwell

In Arctic Ocean Shipping, Donald R. Rothwell assesses contemporary navigation, security and sovereignty issues in the North American Arctic. Shipping in the Arctic Ocean is becoming a critical legal, geopolitical and security issue as a result of climate change and increased interest from non-Arctic States such as China. The law of the sea provides the key legal framework for the regulation of Arctic Ocean shipping, and has been relied upon by Canada and the United States to develop the legal regime for the Northwest Passage and the Bering Strait. Navigation within the EEZ and high seas in the Arctic is also becoming more strategically significant as a result of climate change. Multiple issues are raised with respect to maritime security and the adequacy of the existing legal regime, including how Canada and the United States will respond to interest being expressed in Arctic shipping by Asian States.

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Douglas R. Burnett and Lionel Carter

If one uses Facebook, Facetime, Skype, Netflix, or any application of the internet internationally, a submarine cable is involved. Fibre optic cables bind the world together and computer server farms, maintained by major telecom and content companies, allow vast amounts of data to be stored and retrieved from the cloud. Not often appreciated is the fact that these server locations worldwide are connected by submarine fibre optic cables. In this sense, the cloud is beneath the sea. While submarine communication cables have been in steady use since 1850, their preeminent place in the modern world has never been as dominant and personal as now. Recently, calls have mounted in the context of marine biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction (BBNJ) for centralized control of submarine cables and for express or de facto diminishment of the freedoms related to them via the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, that have served the world’s peoples for so long. In International Submarine Cables and Biodiversity of Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, Douglas R. Burnett and Lionel Carter examine the time proven importance of the existing international treaties, the largely peer-reviewed science on the environmental interaction of submarine cables with high seas environments, and the current submarine cable issues in the context of the BBNJ debates.

The Other Australia/Japan Living Marine Resources Dispute

Inferences on the Merits of the Southern Bluefin Tuna Arbitration in Light of the Whaling Case

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Andrew Serdy

In 2000, the case brought by Australia and New Zealand against Japan's unilateral experimental fishing programme for southern bluefin tuna controversially failed to reach the merits for lack of the arbitral tribunal’s jurisdiction. It was widely supposed that it would ultimately have failed anyway because of international courts’ reluctance to consider scientific matters, the dispute's underlying cause being the parties' scientific disagreements regarding both the tuna stock itself and the nature and risks of the experiment. In 2014, however, the ICJ decided in Australia's favour the case against Japan's scientific whaling, based on flaws in the design of that experiment. Reviewing the tuna experiment's evolving design, the propositions it was to (dis)prove and the use Japan intended for that proof, Andrew Serdy suggests that similar factors were at play in both disputes and that a similar outcome of the tuna case, though not inevitable, would have been amply justified.

Navigational Restrictions within the New LOS Context

Geographical Implications for the United States

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Alexander M. Lewis

Edited by J. Ashley Roach

In 1986, Lewis M. Alexander, a world-renowned marine geographer, prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense a report, Navigational Restrictions within the New LOS Context: Geographical Implications for the United States.

Edited by J. Ashley Roach, the reformatted report is presented in five sections and includes 20 maps, illustrating the world’s international straits and major ocean navigation routes. Forty-three tables present the most comprehensive descriptions of the world’s straits used for international navigation, as well as identify various categories of maritime claims. What made the Report extraordinarily valuable in 1986, and which makes it equally valuable today, is the compilation of geographic data - not available elsewhere - describing the world’s straits used for international navigation and illustrations of the chokepoints and major international shipping trade routes.

Roach has faithfully reproduced Alexander’s seminal work by retaining the original structure and references. A table of defined terms and an index have been added.

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Intl. Tribunal for the Law of the Sea

The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea is an autonomous judicial body established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to adjudicate disputes arising out of the interpretation and application of the Convention. The Tribunal is open to States Parties to the Convention. It is also open to entities other than States Parties (States and international organizations non-parties to the Convention and natural or juridical persons) in cases provided for in the Convention or other agreements conferring jurisdiction on the Tribunal.
The Yearbook - Annuaire will give lawyers and the general public access to information about the jurisdiction, procedure and organization of the Tribunal and also about its composition and activities in 2015. The Yearbook is prepared by the Registry of the Tribunal. Until 2007, it was published in two separate volumes, English (Yearbook) and French (Annuaire). Since 2008, the Yearbook - Annuaire is published as a bilingual volume.

Le Tribunal international du droit de la mer est un organe judiciaire indépendant, créé par la Convention des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer, pour connaître des différends relatifs à l’interprétation et l’application de la Convention. Le Tribunal est ouvert aux Etats Parties à la Convention. Il est également ouvert à des entités autres que les Etats Parties (Etats et organisations internationales non parties à la Convention et personnes physiques et morales) dans les cas prévus par la Convention ou par d’autres accords conférant compétence au Tribunal.
Le Yearbook - Annuaire met à la disposition des juristes et du public dans son ensemble les informations essentielles concernant la compétence, la procédure et l’organisation du Tribunal, ainsi que la composition et les activités de celui-ci au cours de l’année 2015. L’Annuaire est rédigé par le Greffe du Tribunal. Jusqu’à l’année 2007, il était publié sous la forme de deux volumes séparés, en anglais (Yearbook) et en français (Annuaire). Depuis 2008, le Yearbook - Annuaire est publié sous la forme d’un volume bilingue.