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Edited by Andreas Christoph

Erst um 1800 wird die Landschaft geometrisch erfasst. Während vordem Zeitdistanzen aus der Karte auszulesen und landschaftliche Besonderheiten in graphischen Kürzeln notiert waren, wird die Landschaft nunmehr in ihren topographischen Größenbeziehungen dargestellt.
Gebirge erscheinen in ihren Konturen, Landschaftstypen sind in eine geometrisch exakte Darstellung von Distanzverhältnissen eingebunden. Die Karte gewinnt damit eine neue Bedeutung, sind doch so Informationen über die Landschaft in die Karte implementiert.
Der Band beschreibt in einer Folge von Einzelbeiträgen die neuen Verfahren der Landvermessung und die neue Nutzung der Karten sowie die Geräte, die mathematischen Darstellungsverfahren und die Frage der Vermittlung des neuen kartographischen Wissens um 1800.

Fichtes Bildtheorie im Kontext

Teil I: Entwicklungsgeschichtliche und systematische Aspekte

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Edited by Christian Klotz and Matteo Vincenzo d'Alfonso

In Fichte’s late philosophy, the concept of image becomes the central notion of the Science of Knowledge. Both the representational reference of consciousness to the objects of its experience and its relation to an absolute being which transcends all appearances are explained from the image-like character which consciousness acquires through its own activity.

The present volume collects contributions which contextualize Fichte’s theory of image in various respects, focusing on its relation to pre-modern theories of image, its changing role in the development of Fichte’s thinking and its place within Fichte’s foundation of philosophy in the area between theory of truth or validity and ontology.


Der Bildbegriff wird in Fichtes Spätphilosophie zum zentralen Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre. Sowohl der repräsentationale Bezug des Bewusstseins zu den Gegenständen seiner Erfahrung, als auch sein Verhältnis zu einem alle Erscheinungen übersteigenden absoluten Sein wird hierbei aus der von ihm selbst aktiv ausgebildeten Bildeigenschaft des Bewusstseins verstanden.

Der vorliegende Band versammelt Beiträge, die Fichtes Bildtheorie in verschiedenen Hinsichten kontextualisieren, wobei ihr Verhältnis zu prä-modernen Bildtheorien, ihre wechselnde Rolle in der Entwicklung von Fichtes Denken und ihre im Spannungsfeld von Wahrheits- bzw. Geltungstheorie und Ontologie angesiedelte Stellung in Fichtes Grundlegung der Philosophie im Mittelpunkt stehen.

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Ben Mijuskovic

Current research claims loneliness is passively caused by external conditions: environmental, cultural, situational, and even chemical imbalances in the brain and hence avoidable. In this book, the author argues that loneliness is actively constituted by acts of reflexive self-consciousness (Kant) and transcendent intentionality (Husserl) and is, therefore, unavoidable. This work employs a historical, conceptual, and interdisciplinary approach (philosophy, psychology, literature, sociology, etc.) criticizing both psychoanalysis and neuroscience. The book pits materialism, mechanism, determinism, empiricism, phenomenalism, behaviorism, and the neurosciences against dualism, both subjective and objective idealism, rationalism, freedom, phenomenology, and existentialism. It offers a dynamic of loneliness, whose spontaneous subconscious sources undercuts the unconscious of Freud and the “computerism” of the neurosciences by challenging their claims to be predictive sciences.

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Paul F. Grendler

Paul F. Grendler, noted historian of European education, surveys Jesuit schools and universities throughout Europe from the first school founded in 1548 to the suppression of the Society of Jesus in 1773. The Jesuits were noted educators who founded and operated an international network of schools and universities that enrolled students from the age of ten through doctoral studies. The essay analyzes the organization, curriculum, pedagogy, culture, financing, relations with civil authorities, enrollments, and social composition of students in Jesuit pre-university schools. Grendler then explains Jesuit universities. The Jesuits governed and did all the teaching in small collegiate universities. In large civic-Jesuit universities the Jesuits taught the humanities, philosophy, and theology, while lay professors taught law and medicine. The article provides examples ranging from the first Jesuit school in Messina, Sicily, to universities across Europe. It features a complete list of Jesuit schools in France.

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Edited by Annemie De Gendt and Alicia Montoya

La pensée sérielle : du Moyen Age aux Lumières se propose d’étudier le phénomène discursif de la série, du Moyen Age à la première modernité. Le volume enrichit nos connaissances sur la façon dont la notion de série – actualisée entre autres sous la forme des sept vices et vertus, des cinq sens, de l’hexaëmeron - a été pensée et mise en forme dans les écrits philosophiques et littéraires et, de manière moins exhaustive, dans la peinture et la musique. Une réflexion méthodologique et théorique introduit le volume, offrant de nouvelles pistes scientifiques.

La pensée sérielle : du Moyen Age aux Lumières, a collection of essays edited by Anne-Marie De Gendt and Alicia C. Montoya, proposes to study the discursive phenomenon of the series, from the Middle Ages to early modernity. The volume sheds light on the way the concept of the series – manifested among others through the seven vices and virtues, the five senses, or the Hexameron – has been thought and formalized in philosophical and literary texts and, to a lesser extent, in music and the visual arts. A methodological and theoretical reflection introduces the volume, offering new scholarly approaches to the phenomenon.

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Piotr Jaroszyński

Metaphysics or Ontology? treats the evolution of the object of metaphysics from being, to the concept of being, to, finally, the object (thought). Possible being must be non-contradictory, but an object of thought includes anything a human being can think, including contradictions and nothingness. When the concept of being, or object of thought, replaces existence as the object of metaphysics, it becomes something other than metaphysics—ontology, or something beyond ontology. However, ontology cannot examine existence because it only investigates concepts and possibility. Only classical metaphysics investigates reality qua reality. This book masterfully treats the history of this controversy and many other important metaphysical questions raised over the centuries

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Alessandro Ferrara

In Rousseau and Critical Theory, Alessandro Ferrara argues that among the modern philosophers who have shaped the world we inhabit, Rousseau is the one to whom we owe the idea that identity can be a source of normativity (moral and political) and that an identity's potential for playing such a role rests on its capacity for being authentic. This normative idea of authenticity brings unity to Rousseau's reflections on the negative effects of the social order, on the just political order, on education, and more generally, on ethics. It is also shown to contain important teachings for contemporary Critical Theory, contemporary views of self-constitution (Korsgaard, Frankfurt and Larmore), and contemporary political philosophy.

The Political Thought of Václav Havel

Philosophical Influences and Contemporary Applications

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Daniel Brennan

The book considers Václav Havel’s body of writing as a cohesive whole offering a consistent political philosophy. This bold claim is backed up through a close examination of Havel’s plays, letters, essays and aphorisms. The political philosophy that a close reading of Havel reveals is a liberal one. However, Havel is not the run-of the-mill liberal having influences from the field of phenomenology, Masaryk, Husserl, Levinas Patočka and Heidegger which give him a nuanced view of the self. Havel sees the self as something always being formed. Hence for Havel man has an ability to ‘shake’ his current state and invite transcendence into his life. This agonistic process reveals our responsibility and liberates the self from forces which coerce behaviour.

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Ansgar Lorenz and Heiner F. Klemme

Im Jahre 1781 ruft der Philosoph Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) das »Zeitalter der Kritik« aus. Alles muss sich der »freien und öffentlichen Prüfung« durch die Vernunft unterwerfen: die Religion, die Gesetzgebung, in erster Linie aber die reine Vernunft selbst. In ihrem ungezügelten Verlangen nach Erkenntnis verstrickt sie sich in endlose Streitigkeiten mit sich selbst. Kein Wunder also, dass die alte Metaphysik ein Kampfplatz ist, auf dem ein »rüstiger Ritter« den »Siegeskranz« davonträgt, solange er keinen neuen Angriff des Gegners aushalten muss. Abhilfe schafft die Kritik, ein Gerichtshof, den die reine Vernunft einsetzt, um über ihre berechtigten und unberechtigten Ansprüche zu entscheiden. Die Kritik stiftet Frieden im Reich des Denkens. Wir erkennen die Bedingungen, unter denen Metaphysik, Mathematik und Naturwissenschaft als Wissenschaften möglich sind.
Der Comic bietet anschaulich und leicht verständlich Einblicke in Kants Leben sowie den historischen und intellektuellen Kontexten seines Wirkens. Wir schauen dem »Fürsten der deutschen Denker« (K. von Knoblauch) beim Philosophieren über Gut und Böse, Freiheit und Natur, Politik und Recht, das Schöne und Erhabene, die Entstehung des Universums und vieles andere mehr über die Schulter. Und natürlich kommen auch seine Anhänger und Kritiker zu Wort.

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Alejandro Barcenas

In Machiavelli’s Art of Politics Alejandro Bárcenas offers a reexamination of Niccolò Machiavelli’s political thought in order to propose a concise and historically accurate portrayal of his ideas and intellectual context.

This study provides a nuanced view of the complexities of Machiavelli’s thought by analyzing his classical background, taking into particular consideration the influence of Xenophon, and his view of the ideal ruler as someone who creates the conditions for a flourishing human life. In addition, Bárcenas explains why Machiavelli defends a republican political order that encourages citizens to live according to their own laws while serving a common good and revises his legacy through the writings of Leo Strauss, Eric Voegelin and Maurizio Viroli.