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Dress and Personal Appearance in Late Antiquity

The Clothing of the Middle and Lower Classes

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Faith Pennick Morgan

This book examines the dress and personal appearance of members of the middle and lower classes in the eastern Mediterranean region during the 4th to 8th centuries. Written, art historical and archaeological evidence is assessed with a view to understanding the way that cloth and clothing was made, embellished, cared for and recycled during this period.
Beginning with an overview of current research on Roman dress, the book looks in detail at the use of apotropaic and amuletic symbols and devices on clothing before examining sewing and making methods, the textile industry and the second-hand clothing trade. The final chapter includes detailed information on the making and modelling of exact replicas based on extant garments.

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Kevin T. Van Bladel

This historical study argues that the Mandaean religion originated under Sasanid rule in the fifth century, not earlier as has been widely accepted. It analyzes primary sources in Syriac, Mandaic, and Arabic to clarify the early history of Mandaeism. This religion, along with several other, shorter-lived new faiths, such as Kentaeism, began in a period of state-sponsored persecution of Babylonian paganism. The Mandaeans would survive to become one of many groups known as Ṣābians by their Muslim neighbors. Rather than seeking to elucidate the history of Mandaeism in terms of other religions to which it can be related, this study approaches the religion through the history of its social contexts.

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Brian Janeway

Did an invasion of the Sea Peoples cause the collapse of the Late Bronze Age palace-based economies of the Levant, as well as of the Hittite Empire? Renewed excavations at Tell Tayinat in southeast Turkey are shedding new light on the critical transitional phase of the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age (ca. 1200–1000 B.C.), a period that in the Northern Levant has until recently been considered a “Dark Age,” due in large part to the few extant textual sources relating to its history. However, recently discovered epigraphic data from both the site and the surrounding region suggest the formation of an Early Iron Age kingdom that fused Hieroglyphic Luwian monumental script with a strong component of Aegeanizing cultural elements. The capital of this putative/erstwhile kingdom appears to have been located at Tell Tayinat in the Amuq Valley.
More specifically, this formal stylistic analysis examines a distinctive painted pottery known as Late Helladic IIIC found at the site of Tayinat during several seasons of excavation. The assemblage includes examples of Aegean-style bowls, kraters, and amphorae bearing an array of distinctive decorative features. A key objective of the study distinguishes Aegean stylistic characteristics both in form and in painted motifs from those inspired by the indigenous culture.
Drawing on a wide range of parallels from Philistia through the Levant, Anatolia, the Aegean Sea, the Greek Mainland, and Cyprus, this research begins to fill a longstanding lacuna in the Amuq Valley and attempts to correlate with major historical and cultural trends in the Northern Levant and beyond.

Edited by K. Lawson Younger

The Context of Scripture, Volume IV Supplements offers important additions to the previously published three volumes of The Context of Scripture, a major tool for research in the Bible and the ancient Near East. It provides translations of recently discovered texts, alongside new translations of better-known texts, all of which illuminate the literary output found in the Hebrew Bible.

Just like the earlier volumes, Volume IV utilizes the same page layout and large format, generous cross-referencing to comparable Bible passages, and new, up-to-date bibliographical annotations with judicious commentary. It is a wonderful enhancement to this standard reference work of the 21st century.

This book is also available in hardback.

The Star of Bethlehem and the Magi

Interdisciplinary Perspectives from Experts on the Ancient Near East, the Greco-Roman World, and Modern Astronomy

Edited by Peter Barthel and George van Kooten

This book is the fruit of the first ever interdisciplinary international scientific conference on Matthew's story of the Star of Bethlehem and the Magi, held in 2014 at the University of Groningen, and attended by world-leading specialists in all relevant fields: modern astronomy, the ancient near-eastern and Greco-Roman worlds, the history of science, and religion. The scholarly discussions and the exchange of the interdisciplinary views proved to be immensely fruitful and resulted in the present book. Its twenty chapters describe the various aspects of The Star: the history of its interpretation, ancient near-eastern astronomy and astrology and the Magi, astrology in the Greco-Roman and the Jewish worlds, and the early Christian world – at a generally accessible level. An epilogue summarizes the fact-fiction balance of the most famous star which has ever shone.

Cover illustration: © Michael Farrell

Hasard, ordre et changement

le cours du droit international

James Crawford

Comprendre le droit international, c’est en comprendre l’évolution dans le temps. L’ambition de ce cours est de promouvoir cette forme de connaissance, qui implique de se départir des présentations habituellement rencontrées dans les manuels, axées sur des thématiques comme les sources, les sujets, les compétences. Etudier le cours du droit international, c’est étudier ses problèmes irrésolus, qui, de ce fait même, mettent en cause son autonomie en tant que discipline. Or ces problèmes sont, sinon résolus, du moins atténués par une lecture novatrice de nos pratiques juridiques communes et de notre histoire partagée. L’accent est ainsi mis sur le processus, qui forme en vérité le droit international. En effet, les institutions internationales – au premier rang desquelles les Etats – se trouvent dans un rapport dialectique avec le droit : elles le façonnent tout en étant façonnées par lui, elles l’élaborent tout en étant élaborées par lui. Mais, pour illustrer ce rapport dialectique, le cours fait abondamment référence à la pratique. Partant, il est également un cours classique de droit international.

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Michael Shenkar

Winner of the the Roman and Tania Ghirshman Prize 2015 by the French Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. This prize was established in 1973 by the donation made by Roman Ghirshman, one of the prominent French archaeologists of Pre-Islamic Iran. It is awarded annually for a publication in the field of Pre-Islamic Iranian Studies.

In Intangible Spirits and Graven Images, Michael Shenkar investigates the perception of ancient Iranian deities and their representation in the Iranian cults. This ground-breaking study traces the evolution of the images of these deities, analyses the origin of their iconography, and evaluates their significance. Shenkar also explores the perception of anthropomorphism and aniconism in ancient Iranian religious imagery, with reference to the material evidence and the written sources, and reassesses the value of the Avestan and Middle Persian texts that are traditionally employed to illuminate Iranian religious imagery. In doing so, this book provides important new insights into the religion and culture of ancient Iran prior to the Islamic conquest.

Exodus und Eisodus

Komposition und Theologie von Josua 1–5

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Joachim J. Krause

For this book the author has received THE MANFRED LAUTENSCHLAEGER AWARD FOR THEOLOGICAL PROMISE 2015

Kein Auszug ohne Einzug – erst mit dem Eisodus in das verheißene Land kommt der Exodus aus Ägypten an sein Ziel. Es verwundert daher nicht, dass der erste Teil des Josuabuches in den Kapiteln 1–5, in dem dieser Einzug dargestellt wird, vielfältige literarische Bezüge zur Exodusüberlieferung im Pentateuch aufweist. Wie aber sind diese Bezüge zu erklären, als intratextuelle Bindeglieder ein und desselben Werkes oder als intertextuelle Bezugnahmen? Mit dem Aufweis einer sukzessiven Ausgestaltung der Ereignisse beim Eisodus nach dem Vorbild des Exodus bietet die vorliegende Untersuchung der Komposition und Theologie von Josua 1–5 in den drei überlieferten Ausgaben des Josuabuches (MT, LXX, Qumran) Antworten auf alte, angesichts der gegenwärtigen Debatte um Hexateuch und Deuteronomistisches Geschichtswerk hochaktuelle Fragen der Forschung.

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The Exodus from Egypt is perfect only with the Eisodus into the Promised Land. It does not come as a surprise, therefore, that the first part of the Book of Joshua, which is dedicated to the entry into the land, features a variety of literary affinities to the Exodus tradition as found in the Pentateuch. But how are these affinities to be explained? Do they testify to an original literary work which covered both Exodus and Conquest, or do they rather betray subsequent connections through intertextual references? Analyzing the composition and theology of Joshua 1–5 in the three extant versions of the book (MT, LXX, Qumran), the present study contributes to the current debate of the Pentateuch, Hexateuch, and Deuteronomistic History.

A Concise Lexicon of Late Biblical Hebrew

Linguistic Innovations in the Writings of the Second Temple Period

Avi Hurvitz

The Hebrew language may be divided into the Biblical, Mishnaic, Medieval, and Modern ‎periods. Biblical Hebrew has its own distinct linguistic profile, exhibiting a diversity of styles ‎and linguistic traditions extending over some one thousand years as well as tangible diachronic ‎developments that may serve as chronological milestones in tracing the linguistic history of ‎Biblical Hebrew. Unlike standard dictionaries, whose scope and extent are dictated by the contents of the ‎Biblical concordance, this lexicon includes only 80 lexical entries, chosen specifically for a ‎diachronic investigation of Late Biblical Hebrew. Selected primarily to illustrate the fifth-century ‘watershed’ separating Classical from ‎post-Classical Biblical Hebrew, emphasis is placed on ‘linguistic contrasts’ illuminated by a rich collection ‎of examples contrasting Classical Biblical Hebrew with Late Biblical Hebrew, Biblical Hebrew with Rabbinic Hebrew, and Hebrew with Aramaic.‎

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William G. Dever

This volume is the final report of excavations carried out in the Hebron hills and the Negev desert in 1967-1980 on behalf of Hebrew Union College in Jerusalem and the University of Arizona. They were pioneering, multidisciplinary projects that helped to illuminate what was then a poorly known “Dark Age” in the cultural history of ancient Palestine, a nonurban interlude of pastoral nomadic movements over several centuries (ca. 2400–2000 B.C.E.) between the great urban civilizations of the early Bronze Ages. Eighteen appendixes by specialists in many disciplines analyze all aspects of material culture and human and animal remains. A history of previous scholarship and a synthesis of the EB IV period in both Israel and Jordan conclude the volume, which will be a landmark study for many years.