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Maps and Narratives of Spanish Exploration (1567-1606)
Producing the Pacific offers the reader an interdisciplinary reading of the maps, narratives and rituals related to the three Spanish voyages to the South Pacific that took place between 1567 and 1606. These journeys were led by Álvaro de Mendaña, Pedro Fernández de Quirós and Isabel Barreto, the first woman ever to become admiral of and command a fleet.
Mercedes Maroto Camino presents a cultural analysis of these journeys and takes issue with some established notions about the value of the past and the way it is always rewritten from the perspective of the present. She highlights the social, political and cultural environment in which maps and narratives circulate, suggesting that their significance is always subject to negotiation and transformation. The tapestry created by the interpretation of maps, narratives and rituals affords a view not only of the minds of the first men and women who traversed the Pacific but also of how they saw the ocean, its islands and their peoples. Producing the Pacific should, therefore, be of relevance to those interested in history, voyages, colonialism, cartography, anthropology and cultural studies.
The study of these cultural products contributes to an interpretive history of colonialism at the same time that it challenges the beliefs and assumptions that underscore our understanding of that history.
Der vorliegende Band versammelt die Arbeiten von spanischen und österreichischen Literaturwissenschaftlern, die im Rahmen eines von Marisa Siguán (Universität Barcelona) und Karl Wagner (Universität Wien) geleiteten bilateralen Forschungsprojekts intertextuelle und interkulturelle Beziehungen zwischen österreichischer und spanischer Literatur im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert erforscht haben.
Die Beiträge des Bandes konzentrieren auf folgende symptomatische Aspekte der literarisch-kulturellen Entwicklung in Spanien und Österreich:
- auf Differenzen, Besonderheiten und unterschiedliche Prozesse, die Epochenbegriffe wie Realismus und Fin de siècle nachhaltig transformiert haben.
- auf das dynamische Verhältnis von Zentrum und Peripherie in den literarischen Manifestationen, das in besonderer Weise vergleichende Kultur-Analysen herausfordert.
- auf Bewältigungsversuche des Horrors der Geschichte in der Literatur beider Länder, die ein fundamentales Thema für die Literatur der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts darstellt. Dabei interessiert insbesondere auch die Frage, inwieweit sich bei den Tätern und deren Nachfahren ein Bewusstsein von dem gebildet hat, was sie taten; Versuchen, die Monstrosität der je eigenen Vergangenheit revisionistisch zu verharmlosen und mit einer selbstzufriedenen Geschichtslosigkeit kompatibel zu machen, gilt besondere kritische Aufmerksamkeit.
Social and Imaginary Space in Writings by Chicanas
Of interest to informed readers responsive to combined textual and cultural approaches to Chicano/a literature and literature in general, Battleground and Crossroads weaves in various critical and theoretical threads to inquire into the relationship between intimate and public spaces in Chicana literature. Without claiming the borderlands as exclusive of the Chicana/o imagination, this book acknowledges the importance of this metaphor for bringing to view a more intercultural United States, allowing it to become inflected with the particularity of each text. The analyses of Chicana fiction, drama, and autobiography explore the construction of identity through the representation of social space and the transformation of literary space. For discussion of a diacritical territory this volume draws on a interdisciplinary practice that facilitates the journey from the most intimate spaces to the most public spaces of modernity, so that the aesthetic text yields its knowledge of the contingent historical circumstances of its production in material and existential terms. The apparent regionalism and localism of this literature is nothing but a reflection of the relationship between the local and the global, the private and the public, the personal and the political, the aesthetic and the ideological, the subversive and the mainstream. Each text stands by itself while it also reaches out to the sociopolitical imaginary for interpretation through an interdisciplinary methodology that is indispensable to do justice to a politicized aesthetics.
Aspects of Creolization in the Caribbean
The terms ‘creole’ and ‘creolization’ have witnessed a number of significant semantic changes in the course of their history. Originating in the vocabulary associated with colonial expansion in the Americas it had been successively narrowed down to the field of black American culture or of particular linguistic phenomena. Recently ‘creole’ has expanded again to cover the broad area of cultural contact and transformation characterizing the processes of globalization initiated by the colonial migrations of past centuries.
The present volume is intended to illustrate these various stages either by historical and/or theoretical discussion of the concept or through selected case studies. The authors are established scholars from the areas of literature, linguistics and cultural studies; they all share a lively and committed interest in the Caribbean area – certainly not the only or even oldest realm in which processes of creolization have shaped human societies, but one that offers, by virtue of its history of colonialization and cross-cultural contact, its most pertinent example. The collection, beyond its theoretical interest, thus also constitutes an important survey of Caribbean studies in Europe and the Americas.
As well as searching overview essays, there are
– sociolinguistic contributions on the linguistic geography of ‘criollo’ in Spanish America, the Limonese creole speakers of Costa Rica, ‘creole’ language and identity in the Netherlands Antilles and the affinities between Papiamentu and Chinese in Curaçao
– ethnohistorical examinations of such topics as creole transgression in the Dominican/Haitian borderland, the Haitian Mandingo and African fundamentalism, creolization and identity in West-Central Jamaica, Afro-Nicaraguans and national identity, and the Creole heritage of Haiti
– studies of religion and folk culture, including voodoo and creolization in New York City, the creolization of the “Mami Wata” water spirit, and signifyin(g) processes in New World Anancy tales
– a group of essays focusing on the thought of Édouard Glissant, Maryse Condé, and the Créolité writers
and case-studies of artistic expression, including creole identities in Caribbean women’s writing, Port-au-Prince in the Haitian novel, Cynthia McLeod and Astrid Roemer and Surinamese fiction, Afro-Cuban artistic expression, and metacreolization in the fiction of Robert Antoni and Nalo Hopkinson.
Transcultural Traffic and the U.S. National Imaginary
Author: Paul Allatson
A welcome addition to the fields of Latino and (trans-)American cultural and literary studies, Latino Dreams focuses on a selection of Latino narratives, published between the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, that may be said to traffic in the U.S.A.’s attendant myths and governing cultural logics. The selection includes novels by authors who have received little academic attention—Abraham Rodriguez, Achy Obejas, and Benjamin Alire Sáenz—along with underattended texts from more renowned writers—Rosario Ferré, Coco Fusco, and Guillermo Gómez-Peña. Latino Dreams takes a transcultural approach in order to raise questions of subaltern subordination and domination, and the resistant capacities of cultural production. The analysis explores how the selected narratives deploy specific narrative tactics, and a range of literary and other cultural capital, in order to question and reform the U.S.A.’s imaginary coordinates. In these texts, moreover, national imperatives are complicated by recourse to feminist, queer, panethnic, postcolonial, or transnational agendas. Yet the analysis also recognizes instances in which the counter-narrative will is frustrated: the narratives may provide signs of the U.S.A.’s hegemonic resilience in the face of imaginary disavowal.
Estudios subalternos/contextos latinoamericanos estado, cultura, subalternidad
El presente volumen reúne los trabajos del Grupo Latinoamericano de Estudios Subalternos, del Grupo Surasiático de Estudios Subalternos, y de algunos investigadores identificados con el subalternismo. El título contiene todos los temas del volumen. La convergencia de tiempos se refiere a la relación entre dos grupos con intereses afines localizados en dos continentes diferentes, Asia y Latinoamerica. Los trabajos estan organizados en tres secciones: una explica qué son los estudios subalternos; otra, cómo se realizan estos estudios dentros de los contextos latinoamericanos y una tercera se refiere al estado, la cultura y la subalternidad. La primera sección discute conceptos de subalternidad y del significado presente de los estudios subalternos; la segunda problematiza los traslados de teorías, o lo que se ha llamado “teorías viajeras” de un lugar geográfico a otro y la tercera reúne trabajos de campo en los cuales la subalternidad sirve de marco general desde el cual se reexaminan el estado y la cultura. El propósito del debate es por tanto contribuir a una reformulación de los campos del saber en los cuales se promueve el cruce de disciplinas, se cuestiona la hegemonía de los saberes europeos y eurocentristas, y se alientan las conversaciones entre las áreas postcoloniales. El diálogo iniciado entre subalternistas de un continente y otro puede promover formaciones disciplinarias que abarquen áreas continentales y experiencias disciplinarias que vayan más allá de los campos establecidos y que vengan a contribuir no sólo a la provincialización de los saberes europeos sino también a compartir las experiencias locales de todos los territorios de ultramar.
The Politics of Memory in the Spanish Transition to Democracy
Most accounts of the Spanish transition to democracy have been celebratory exercises at the service of a stabilizing rather than a critical project of far-reaching reform. As one of the essays in this volume puts it, the “pact of oblivion,” which characterized the Spanish transition to democracy, curtailed any serious attempt to address the legacies of authoritarianism that the new democracy inherited from the Franco era. As a result, those legacies pervaded public discourse even in newly created organs of opinion. As another contributor argues, the Transition was based on the erasure of memory and the invention of a new political tradition. On the other hand, memory and its etiolation have been an object of reflection for a number of film directors and fiction writers, who have probed the return of the repressed under spectral conditions.
Above all, this book strives to present memory as a performative exercise of democratic agents and an open field for encounters with different, possibly divergent, and necessarily fragmented recollections. The pact of the Transition could not entirely disguise the naturalization of a society made of winners and losers, nor could it ensure the consolidation of amnesia by political agents and by the tools that create hegemony by shaping opinion. Spanish society is haunted by the specters of a past it has tried to surmount by denying it. It seems unlikely that it can rid itself of its ghosts without in the process undermining the democracy it sought to legitimate through the erasure of memories and the drowning of witnesses' voices in the cacaphony of triumphant modernization.
Editor: Otto Zwartjes
La conquista y la colonización del Nuevo Mundo iban acompañadas por el gran esfuerzo de los misioneros por la enseñanza y el adoctrinamiento de los indios. Los clérigos y los políticos sintieron la necesidad de predicar en las lenguas indígenas. En esta monografía se recogen estudios sobre las gramáticas de lenguas amerindias. Se comentan gramáticas de las lenguas otomí, tarasco, náhuatl, quechua, mapuche, guaraní y el millcayac. A modo de epílogo se analiza la política lingüística española y se da una respuesta a la cuestión de hasta en qué medida se encuentran repercusiones de los ’descubrimientos lingüísticos’ del Nuevo Mundo en el pensamiento lingüístico español.
Author: Sonja Herpoel
Bajo la dirección de un superior jerárquico, centenares de mujeres emprenden en el Siglo de Oro la relación de su vida, haciendo que la autobiografía femenina llegue a constituir un importante fenómeno sociocultural. Esta particular práctica discursiva se origina en 1562 de manera explosiva con el Libro de la Vida. Recluidas entre los tapiales del convento, las religiosas sienten la amenaza permanente de la Inquisición. Describen los usos y costumbres de la época, pero también las tensiones entre los diferentes estratos sociales. Aportan nuevos datos sobre ciertas tendencias heterodoxas del pensamiento religioso español. También comentan la casi siempre conflictiva relación hombre/mujer o la estima en la que era tenido el clero. En fin, las páginas de estas mujeres informan al lector moderno acerca de cada uno de los aspectos imaginables de la vida turbulenta en el Siglo de Oro, vistos, además, desde otra óptica que la acostumbrada.
En el presente libro se comentan los orígenes del discurso femenino, así como su desarrollo y apogeo. A continuación, la autora se interroga sobre los resortes de la escritura para terminar con el análisis de unos textos ejemplares que demuestran cómo la autobiógrafa encuentra su propio espacio en los intersticios de la rigidez discursiva del sistema que la tiene bajo su control como mujer y religiosa.