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Edited by Chris de Cooker

This work brings together a number of papers written by experts, mostly senior and active international civil servants, but also retired staff, analyzing the measures taken in international organizations in order to obtain greater accountability. Codes of conduct have been introduced, as well as more detailed measures of control. This has also required review of due process and dispute resolution provisions.
The main objective of these codes of conduct is to foster appropriate behaviour of staff, but, ideally, these codes should also be instrumental in avoiding disputes, since staff knew more clearly what is expected of them.
This book is a reflection of exchanges of views and information between administrative lawyers and, to some extent, investigators/prosecutors to ensure that the organizations become more transparent, corruption free and respective of the highest standards. Accountability and transparency have now become the rule, and increasingly also the practice. Much is still to be done, however. Discussions are ongoing in many organizations. This work’s purpose is also to contribute to these discussions.
In addition to the analytic and frank contributions, this work contains various documents of international organizations, reflecting the codes of conduct and charters of values now in place.

A Better United Nations for the New Millennium

The United Nations System - How It Is Now and How It Should Be in the Future


Kamil Idris and Michael Bartolo

F.A.M. Alting von Geusau

Central Eurasia in Global Politics

Conflict, Security, and Development, Second Edition


Edited by Mehdi Amineh and Henk W. Houweling

This anthology brings together studies of post-colonial, post-Cold War Central Eurasia. This part of the world is in transition from Soviet institutions to independent statehood, nation building, resistance against state expansion, cultural change and the release of market forces. The theoretical framework of the study is called ‘critical geo-politics.’ The objective of the work is to better comprehend the nature of the post-colonial ‘Great Game'. Part I studies US power projection activity in the region. America is extending its World War II trans-oceanic 'defense perimeter into the fossile fuel rich area between integrating Europe, recovering Russia and industrializing China. Part II details various aspects of state-nation building and soci-cultural and economic change in the region. Part III studies interactions between outsiders, neighbors and Central Asian Republics. Conflict and cooperation in the Caspian region is studied in part IV, with Aral Sea and Azerbijan as cases.

Revised edition of the book published under the same title in 2004 (ISBN 90 04 12809 3).


Edited by Gert de Nooy

This book aims at defining a rationale for the continued use of military armed force(s) by states. Central to this publication are the answers to fundamental questions pertaining to the convention of war, as formulated by Martin van Creveld: `to define just who is allowed to kill whom, for what ends, under what circumstances, and by what means'. Above all, the authors take into account developments and trends within the elements of the Clausewitzian trinity supporting the Westphalian nation-state: `The People (or the Society)', `The Government' and 'The Armed Forces (or The Military)'.
The change in the Atlantic-European security environment, and the effects that this will have on the form and content of national and multilateral security strategies and doctrines, form the background to this publication. Moreover, the possible impact of societal changes on West European states, as a consequence of European integration, are analysed and discussed. Finally, the consequences of 'out-of-area' and police-type functions for armed forces in addition to the classical defence role are related to the size and composition of future forces.
First, in Chapters Two (Martin van Creveld) and Three (Jan Geert Siccama), the Clausewitzian dictum, trinitarian theory, and the - absence of - alternative theories of warfare are discussed. Next, Chapters Four (Zeev Maoz) and Five (Jan van der Meulen) deal with societal changes and trends within Western Society at large which affect the future use of armed forces. Chapters Six (Koen Koch) and Seven (Jaap de Wilde) concentrate on the future relevance of the nation-state and the governing bodies in relation to the ongoing process of European political integration and multilateralization of diplomatic interaction. Chapters Eight (Jan Willem Honig), Nine (Kees Homan), and Ten (Robert Bunker) address how present-day changes and trends affect the armed forces. Respectively, the authors address issues relating to military strategy, personnel, and technology. Finally, Chapter Eleven (Gert de Nooy and Rienk Terpstra) provides an overview of topical highlights and tentative conclusions emanating from both the chapters and the discussions held during the workshop held in conjunction with this book.
This book will be of interest to European policy-makers, defence planners, officers-under-training in military and defence academies, and students of international relations, political science and security.


Edited by Gert de Nooy

The Code of Conduct on Politico-Military Aspects of Security, adopted by OSCE member states during the Budapest Summit of December 1994, has become a significant addition to the range of politically binding documents of the OSCE.
The Code, besides referring to internationally legally binding provisions for the conduct of politico-military affairs, codifies some of the existing norms on the democratic control and use of armed forces for interstate and intrastate purposes. It also lays down guidelines for the personal responsibility and accountability of the individual members of these armed forces. Moreover, this latest product of OSCE norm setting aims at becoming a valuable and effective instrument for the prevention of armed conflict.
The significance, validity, and virtues of the Code are critically examined in this work. It is based on a seminar which was sponsored by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs of Germany and the Netherlands, and organized by the Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael, in cooperation with the German Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik.
The book introduces the Code as a whole and deals with experiences from the negotiating table. It links the Code with international law and evaluates the Code on its early warning and conflict prevention merits. The work also investigates the connections between the Code and civil-military relations in the cases of Poland, the Russian Federation, and Germany and charts the way ahead for implementation of the Code. Finally, the Editor summarizes the main conclusions and highlights of the debate.


Patrick Blannin

One of the most dominant security issues of the twenty-first century has been the US led battle against transnational terrorism – the aptly named Long War. Over the past fifteen years the Long War has been examined using multiple perspectives. However, one central mechanism is missing in current Long War analyses: defence diplomacy. Defence diplomacy enhances the diplomatic and security capacity of a state, providing the only link between executive office and the ministries of foreign affairs and defence, two vital institutions in the Long War. Using a case study of US defence diplomacy in Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014, the paper argues simply that the practice of defence diplomacy far outweighs current theories on what it is, how it works and why it matters. The paper aims to generate a more nuanced understanding of defence diplomacy, as well as identify it as a key component of the US CT/COIN strategy to achieve their Long War policy objectives.

Diplomatic Handbook

Eighth Edition

Ralph Feltham

Diplomatic Handbook aims to provide a concise but comprehensive source of relevant information for those who are embarking on an international and, particularly, a diplomatic career. It is also useful for civil servants who are required to attend multilateral conferences on a wide range of subjects and for those interested in the mechanisms of international relations. Coverage includes: - the establishment and conduct of diplomatic relations - the organisation and functions of a Ministry of Foreign Affairs and of a diplomatic mission - protocol and procedure - diplomatic privileges and immunities - consular officers and consular posts - the European Union, NATO, the United Nations and other international organisations - key elements of international law - conference practice and procedure - information, misinformation, disinformation, and media presentation skills - glossary of diplomatic, consular and economic terms This new edition has been up-dated to take account of the major political, economic, social and technological changes which have taken place since the latest edition was published in 1998.


Edited by Ashok Kapur

Asia has emerged as the centre of international conflict and change in the post-war era. In Europe the post-cold war approach is to adjust East-West power relationships without disturbing the territorial status quo, and to conduct foreign policy according to classical European principles of compromise and compensation. Asians are newcomers in world affairs. Asian diplomatic traditions differ from European ones, and there are many border disputes and power rivalries. The idea of 'Asia' was created by Europeans for Europeans and it led to Western dominance of Asia. From colonial subjects, Asians have become important players in military, economic and diplomatic affairs. To understand the Asian dimension of contemporary world affairs we need to take a fresh look at Asian diplomatic ideas and practices. This volume brings together recognised experts to explain the imperatives and external policies of different types of Asian states.


Edited by Marianne van Leeuwen

The 1995 conference on the review and extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty may well mark an important turning point. The treaty itself, but also the wider international regime built around it are at stake. The Future of the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime deals with various aspects of the problems of nuclear proliferation and the international struggle against it. Authors from Europe, the United States and Australia have contributed to this book, which was produced under the auspices of the Netherlands Institute of International Relations `Clingendael'. The reader is first offered regional case studies on North Korea, South Asia, the Middle East and the former Soviet Union, followed by chapters on nuclear safeguards and export controls systems and contributions on a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and security guarantees. The two concluding chapters evaluate and propose policies to strengthen the non-proliferation regime beyond 1995. It will be of interest to policy-makers, students of international relations and journalists.