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Edited by W.M. van Haarlem

Early Photographs from Egypt, 1880-1910

Selected photographs of ancient monuments, architecture, country and city life, and flora and fauna of Egypt; includes some of Greece and Turkey.

582 photographs.
The Freya Stark Photograph Collection

This collection of photographs, which this edition is publishing in its entirety for the first time, is a fascinating record of the remarkable travels of Dame Freya Stark, who died in May 1993 at the age of 100. After her death, the entire collection, which documents Freya's many visits to the Middle East and beyond, and consists of nearly 6,000 prints in 42 separate albums, was deposited in the archives of the Middle East Centre at St. Antony's College, Oxford. A point of special interest is that most of the photographs were taken with the same camera: a Leica III, which she bought in 1933 and used on all her travels.
Growing up in a liberal household - her parents were bohemian artists - Freya and her sister Vera enjoyed an unconventional childhood. Their mother Flora had been brought up in Italy, and the two sisters spent part of each year either at their grandmother's house in Genoa, or at the home of a friend of their father in Asolo, near Venice. Although Freya had no formal education until she entered London University's Bedford College at the age of eighteen, by the time she was seven she could already converse in four languages. This unusual accomplishment, and the long walks that she took on Dartmoor and in the Dolomites, made her a natural traveller. She was also a keen mountaineer, and climbed the Matterhorn shortly after the First World War. During the Great War she had worked as a nurse on the Italian-Austrian front.

The Levant
Freya had her first experience of the Middle East in 1927, when she spent three months with the Quaker Mission on the outskirts of Beirut improving the Arabic she had begun learning at home in 1921. In 1928 she moved to Damascus, and travelled on to Amman and Jerusalem before returning to Europe via Cairo. She was to make many return visits to the Levant: in 1977, at the age of 84, she visited it for the last time, when she made her famous journey down the Euphrates on a raft made of reeds.

Iraq and Kuwait
Freya visited Iraq for the first time in March 1929. Three years later she worked for a short time as a sub-editor on the English-language newspaper, The Baghdad Times. She made many subsequent visits to the country before, during and after the Second World War. She made her first visit to Kuwait in 1932 and returned to that country in 1937.

Persia
In 1930 she made her first visit to Persia, the present-day Iran. After a month in Hamadan improving her Farsi, she visited Alamut. In September 1931 she returned to Teheran after being informed of her father's death. She was to visit Teheran on one further occasion, in 1943, while she was on leave from her work for the Ministry of Information.

The Arabian Peninsula
It was in 1935 that Freya first visited the Hadrhamaut region of Yemen, returning in 1938 in the company of the archaeologist Gertrude Caton Thompson. In 1939 she was sent to Aden as Stewart Perowne's assistant in the Government Information Department. Freya married Stewart Perowne in 1947, but the marriage was not a success and they divorced in 1952. She visited Sana'a and North Yemen for the last time in 1976.

Egypt
On her way back to Europe following her first visit to the Middle East in 1927, Freya decided to make a short stay in Egypt. Later, in 1940, she was transferred to Cairo from Aden while working for the Ministry of Information. She visited Egypt for the last time in 1961.

Turkey
Freya made frequent visits to Turkey between 1952 and 1976, often combining them with side-trips either to Greece or, occasionally, to Syria and Iraq. The Collection includes no fewer than eleven albums of photographs of Turkey by far the largest number of photographs in the Collection to be devoted to a single country.

Libya, Greece and Tunisia
Freya's husband Stewart Perowne was appointed adviser to King Idris of Libya in 1950, and Freya joined him in Libya in March of that year. This was also to be the year that she made her first visit to Greece, a country she was to return to on several further occasions during the fifties and sixties. She visited Tunisia in 1960.
Over the course of her long life, Freya also visited Nepal, Afghanistan, India, Cambodia, China, Kenya and Cyprus. In 1948 she also spent five months in Barbados while her then husband was serving as Deputy Governor.
Freya Stark was the author of numerous travel books and several volumes of autobiography. Her strong personality enabled her to survive in societies that were both male-dominated and suspicious of outsiders. It would no longer be possible for a woman, travelling alone except for native helpers, to make the sort of journeys she made. She was indeed a remarkable character, and these photographs are a fitting testimony to her life, as well as being an invaluable record of a rapidly changing Middle East.

Diane Ring, St. Antony's College, The Middle East Centre

Various Authors & Editors

The Hague, 1940-1945

Photographs taken by Dutch photographer Menno Huizinga (1907-1947). Huizinga documented the violence of World War II as it came to The Hague. Subjects include bombardments, evacuations, scenes depicting hunger and other subjects.
Approximately 400 photographs.

Various Authors & Editors

The Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Collection
The Univerity of Birmingham Library

Lawrence Alma-Tadema was born in Friesland, The Netherlands, in 1836. He trained in Antwerp with Baron Henri Ley (1815-1869), a painter of 16th century Flemish historical subjects, and with Louis de Taeye (1822-1890) a painter and professor of archaeology. During his honeymoon in 1863, Alma-Tadema visited Italy. He was very impressed by the archaeological remains he saw in Florence, Rome, Naples and Pompeii and his love for Roman antiquity was born. He began to acquire a reputation, particularly in England, as a painter of historical subjects. He therefore decided to move to London in 1870, and his popularity continued to grow. In 1876 he became a member of the Royal Academy. Throughout the remainder of his life he enjoyed great fame and fortune and was knighted by Queen Victoria in 1899. When he died in 1912 he was accorded the rare privilege of being buried in St. Paul's Cathedral.

The photographs
Alma-Tadema used many elements of Roman art and architecture in his paintings. He strove for historical authenticity in every small detail and in order to achieve this he made use of photographs. He had in fact collected photographs since his journey through Italy in 1863, such photographs being at the time a popular medium for archaeological documentation as well as for "Grand Tour" souvenirs. Alma-Tadema bought hundreds of photographs during his many journeys, of which many, but by no means all, are of Italian subjects.
He stored these photographs, glued on cardboard mounts, in portfolios. These are sorted according to subject: Roman aqueducts, triumphal arches, Egyptian architecture, flowers and animals, etc. Details from the photographs are often to be recognized in his paintings. The names of the photographers are usually unknown because Alma-Tadema did not write their names on the mounts: he regarded the subject matter as important, not the photographs' value to art history. However, recent studies have established that among the photographers represented are such famous names as Sommer, Tuminello, Simelli, Plüschow, Salzman, Du Camp, Bonfils and Beato.
The original 164 portfolios and 6 albums, containing some 5,300 photographs, together with some original drawings, tracings and prints, were donated in 1915 to the Victoria and Albert Museum. In 1947 they were transferred to Birmingham University Library.

The correspondence
In addition to the visual material, the Alma-Tadema Collection of Birmingham University Library contains letters from Lawrence Alma-Tadema (and some written by his wife Laura and daughter Anna) to friends and patrons. Letters to his friend the singer and composer Sir George Henschel (1850-1934) form a large part of the collection.

The guide
The printed guide, accompanying the microfiches, is based on the 1915 inventory of the photographs, drawings, prints and tracings made for the Victoria and Albert Museum by E. Onslow Ford, and on the inventory of correspondence made by the University of Birmingham Library. Cross-reference of each item with its exact location on the microfiches makes the collection readily accessible.
Sultan 'Abdulhamid II Photograph Collection
Early Turkish photographs

The collection of photographs published for the first time in this edition was presented to the British Museum (London) in 1893 by the Ottoman Sultan Abdulha-mid II, who reigned from 1876 to 1909. The fifty-one albums, now preserved in the British Library, contain over 1800 photographs. These pictures afford a fascinating view of some aspects of the Ottoman Empire in the 1870s and 1880s.
More than 1,800 photographs in 51 albums.

Various Authors & Editors

Villani Photo Archives: Art and Architecture
From the Archivi Alinari, Florence

Collection consists of the art and architecture photographs of the Villani Archives, from the Archivi Alinari in Florence. The photographs covering the years 1920 to 1980 document the art and architecture of Italy, especially Bologna and other parts of Emilia-Romagna, but they also illustrate the economic, social, cultural, and political aspects of twentieth-century Italy.
8,970 Glass negatives and 512 positive prints, photographs.

Various Authors & Editors

Wulz Photo Archives
Trombetta Collection

Photographs taken by Giuseppe, Carlo, Wanda and Marion Wulz between 1860 and 1980. Collection includes not only images produced in their studio in the Palazzo Hirschl but also views of Trieste - documenting the growth of the city, its port, the sea shore, the fortifications. Photos also document the art, architecture and monuments of Trieste.

This collection is also included in the Wulz Photo Archives collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Wulz Photo Archives
Wulz Collection

Photographs taken by Giuseppe, Carlo, Wanda and Marion Wulz between 1860 and 1980. Collection includes not only images produced in their studio in the Palazzo Hirschl but also views of Trieste - documenting the growth of the city, its port, the sea shore, the fortifications. Photos also document the art, architecture and monuments of Trieste.

This collection is also included in the Wulz Photo Archives collection.
Alinari Photo Archive
From the Archivi Alinari, Florence

In some instances enough photographs have been assembled to make up a complete collection, for example the Demidoff Collection which was broken up at the end of the last century, the Chigi-Saracini Collection, which also no longer exists, and other minor collections. One of the last sections of the collection comprises landscapes and Italian cities photographed in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Historical Photographs of the Middle East

A selection of photographs dated between 1858 and 1973 from the photo archive in the Middle East Centre of St. Antony's College, Oxford. The collection documents political, historical, archaeological and anthropological events and subjects in the Middle East.
16,122 photographs.