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Various Authors & Editors

The Archives of the Church of Uganda
Financial Secretary

The records document the history of the Church of the Province of Uganda. Christianity came to Uganda late compared with many other parts of Africa. The first Church Missionary Society missionaries arrived at King Mutesa's court on June 30, 1877. This was seventy-eight years after the founding of the Church Missionary Society in Great Britain. However, within eight decades, after having passed through much persecution, Uganda had become one of the most successful mission fields in the world. By 1914, through its indigenous teachers and a few European missionaries, nearly the whole of the area today called Uganda had already been evangelized. In 1961 the growth of the Church of Uganda was recognized in the Anglican Communion with the establishment of the Church of the Province of Uganda, Rwanda-Burundi and Boga-Zaire.

This collection is an important source not only for the history of Christianity in Uganda, but also for the political and social development of the country, both before and after its independence.

This collection is also included in the Archives of the Church of Uganda collection.

Various Authors & Editors

The Archives of the Church of Uganda
Archbishop's Office

The records document the history of the Church of the Province of Uganda. Christianity came to Uganda late compared with many other parts of Africa. The first Church Missionary Society missionaries arrived at King Mutesa's court on June 30, 1877. This was seventy-eight years after the founding of the Church Missionary Society in Great Britain. However, within eight decades, after having passed through much persecution, Uganda had become one of the most successful mission fields in the world. By 1914, through its indigenous teachers and a few European missionaries, nearly the whole of the area today called Uganda had already been evangelized. In 1961 the growth of the Church of Uganda was recognized in the Anglican Communion with the establishment of the Church of the Province of Uganda, Rwanda-Burundi and Boga-Zaire.

This collection is an important source not only for the history of Christianity in Uganda, but also for the political and social development of the country, both before and after its independence.

This collection is also included in the Archives of the Church of Uganda collection.

Various Authors & Editors

The Archives of the Church of Uganda
Provincial Secretary

The records document the history of the Church of the Province of Uganda. Christianity came to Uganda late compared with many other parts of Africa. The first Church Missionary Society missionaries arrived at King Mutesa's court on June 30, 1877. This was seventy-eight years after the founding of the Church Missionary Society in Great Britain. However, within eight decades, after having passed through much persecution, Uganda had become one of the most successful mission fields in the world. By 1914, through its indigenous teachers and a few European missionaries, nearly the whole of the area today called Uganda had already been evangelized. In 1961 the growth of the Church of Uganda was recognized in the Anglican Communion with the establishment of the Church of the Province of Uganda, Rwanda-Burundi and Boga-Zaire.

This collection is an important source not only for the history of Christianity in Uganda, but also for the political and social development of the country, both before and after its independence.

This collection is also included in the Archives of the Church of Uganda collection.

Various Authors & Editors

The Archives of the Church of Uganda
Mother’s Union

The records document the history of the Church of the Province of Uganda. Christianity came to Uganda late compared with many other parts of Africa. The first Church Missionary Society missionaries arrived at King Mutesa's court on June 30, 1877. This was seventy-eight years after the founding of the Church Missionary Society in Great Britain. However, within eight decades, after having passed through much persecution, Uganda had become one of the most successful mission fields in the world. By 1914, through its indigenous teachers and a few European missionaries, nearly the whole of the area today called Uganda had already been evangelized. In 1961 the growth of the Church of Uganda was recognized in the Anglican Communion with the establishment of the Church of the Province of Uganda, Rwanda-Burundi and Boga-Zaire.

This collection is an important source not only for the history of Christianity in Uganda, but also for the political and social development of the country, both before and after its independence.

This collection is also included in the Archives of the Church of Uganda collection.

Various Authors & Editors

The Vernacular Press in the Netherlands Indies, c. 1855-1925
In cooperation with the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV), Leiden

After the successful publication in 2004 of the very rare Indonesian-language periodical Tjahaja Sijang [ The Light of Day], 1869-1925, new collections are created to make more such rare periodicals in Malay and other Indonesian languages available.

Below the original titles are given in italics and the modern Indonesian spelling in Roman type. An English translation of the title is in square brackets.

Unit 1
1. Bintang Oetara: soerat chabar bhâroe derri tânah sabrang Bârat
Bintang Utara : surat kabar baru dari tanah seberang Barat [Northern star]
Year: 1856-1857.
2. Bientang Timoor: soerat kabar di Soerabaija
Bintang Timur [Eastern star]
Year: 1865-1868
3. Tjahaja India
Cahaya India [Light of the Indies]
Year: 1885-
4. Penghentar: soerat chabar Moluko
Pengentar: surat kabar Maluku [Messenger, a missionary newspaper for the Moluccas]
Year: 1894-1897
5. Soerat chabar soldadoe
Surat kabar serdadu [Soldiers’ newspaper]
Year: 1900-1901
6. Bandera Wolanda: dikaloewarkan saminggoe sekali
Bandera Wolanda [The Netherlands’ flag]
Year: 1901-1903
Irenical Theology: Heidelberg 1583-1622

An attractive university
“During my time in Heidelberg, these four famous men had their glorious days: David Pareus, professor of theology, Dionysius Gothofredus, an outstanding teacher of civil law, D. Lingelsheim and Joan Gruerus. All of these men are such splendid and learned authors and have become so well known, that as long as this world stands, this name can never be erased.”
Thus wrote the British traveler Thomas Coryat in the journal of his trip through Europe. His praise relates to what is called Heidelberg’s “second Calvinistic period.” The first such period was that of Frederic III (1559-1576). After the death of Frederic, his son Ludwig IV (1576-1583) bound the Palatinate to Lutheranism, but after his death Johann Casimir and, later, Frederic IV reintroduced the Reformed confession. This provided the University of Heidelberg with an immense stimulus.
Although there was a general growth in student numbers during the sixteenth century, Heidelberg distinguished itself in at least one respect from the many other universities, namely by the large number of foreign students studying there. In the first years after 1583, 40-50% of the students were from outside the Palatinate, mostly from France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. What is remarkable, however, is the strong presence of a new group, that is, Central and Eastern Europeans. Around 1600, some 30 percent of the foreigners at Heidelberg originated from such areas as Hungary, Poland, Bohemia, and Silesia; a decade and a half later – just before the Thirty Years’ War – this applied to 50 percent of the foreigners. Although these percentages include the students in all four faculties, the student list makes it clear that they also applied to the students at the theological faculty.
One reason for Heidelberg’s attractiveness was the combination of its humanistic training program and the irenical and ecumenical theology taught there by internationally recognized professors. Regarding its success in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, it is more than remarkable that hardly any study has been made of the Heidelberg theological faculty, and that the many writings of its professors have remained almost unnoticed.

An irenical and ecumenical theology
Heidelberg’s success is a result of Johann Casimir’s policy of appointing the right professors. For example, he succeeded in attracting the famous Jacob Gryneaus (1540-1617) from Basel, and Georg Sohn (1551-1589) from Marburg. In addition, Heidelberg was staffed by other outstanding theologians, such as Heinrich Alting (1583-1644), Bartholomeaus Coppen (1565-1617), Franciscus Junius (1545-1602), Bartholomeaus Pitiscus (1561-1613), Abraham Scultetus (1566-1624), and Daniel Tossanus (1541-1602). It was therefore largely the theological faculty that contributed to the glory of Heidelberg. After Gryneaus returned to Basel and Sohn passed away, it was especially David Pareus (1548-1622) who attracted students from close and afar.
Pareus’s best-known publication is his Irenicum. In it, he proposes that a synod be held so that Lutherans and Calvinists can get together and discuss an ecclesiastical reunion. Although the works of the Heidelberg professors deal with the discussions with the Lutherans on predestination, Christology, and the Lord’s Supper, they tend to stress that Luther and Reformed theology belong together. They constantly point out that it is possible for Lutherans and Calvinists to have one theology and one Church. This irenical attitude made it possible for students from a broad range of Protestantism to come to Heidelberg.
Heidelberg in this period has often been called “Calvinistic.” However, the Heidelberg theologians strongly rejected this attribution. This self-understanding provided an opening also for those who did not wish to follow Calvin in all aspects. This makes the theology taught at Heidelberg rather unique. The goal of the theologians was to make it clear that there is no essential difference between Luther and Calvin. This theological position was largely the fruit of professors who had been trained in the school of Melanchthon.
Heidelberg played an important role especially in the issue of predestination. The works of the professors reveal a diversity on this point, which led to their hope that, for example, the Remonstrants and contra-Remonstrants could be reunited at the Synod of Dordt.

A humanistic and scholastic program
One consequence of the humanistic training program was a focus on language studies. Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic were taught intensively. The Heidelberg professors produced Hebrew grammars and dictionaries, and contributed to the discussion on the right translation of the Bible, for example by producing a new translation. Heidelberg was also characterized by a strong interest in classical studies and an openness to the results of the other sciences taught at the University.
Interestingly, this whole program was combined into a scholastic theology that demonstrates how fruitfully and naturally Reformation theology and scholasticism can be united. Until now, the works of the Heidelberg theologians have received remarkably little attention. However, this new IDC collection fills that lacuna. These resources will contribute essentially to further research in the theology of the sixteenth and early seventeenth century, as well as to the history of the early modern university.
Karaite Printing
Rare publications from the 16th century until World War I

History
The Karaites are the oldest living Jewish sect, distinguished by their Biblicism and general rejection of the Talmud and rabbinic oral law. Originating in Babylonia in the eighth century, various dissident groups coalesced into a more or less unified sect by the end of the ninth century. The Karaites flourished in Jerusalem in the tenth and eleventh centuries and for a time posed a serious threat to rabbinic hegemony. The most important late medieval communities were in Egypt and Byzantium. The Byzantine community was established in the late tenth century but grew dramatically in the twelfth century after the fall of Jerusalem to the Crusaders in 1099. From Byzantium, the Karaites gradually moved on into Eastern Europe following the paths of the major trade routes to the Baltic Sea. Major communities during the late Middle-Ages and the early modern periods were established in Crimea, Galicia, and Lithuania. The introduction of the printing press and the mass production of books using movable type seem to have had little impact on this insular community. For several centuries only a handful of Karaite works were printed and these by non-Karaite publishers. It was not until the 18th century that the first Karaite press was established, in Chufut-Kale, only managing to produce an edition of the Karaite liturgy before closing down. In 1804 another press was established in Chufut-Kale, but it too was short-lived and its output limited. It was not until 1833 that a longlasting Karaite press was established, this time in Eupatoria. This was a time when the Karaite community in Eastern Europe was asserting its independence and forging a new identity separate from that of the Jewish community. The press in Eupatoria produced a steady stream of important Karaite works for over thirty years, before closing in 1867. During the remaining part of the century Karaite works were published by Rabbanite presses in Vilna, Vienna and Odessa. In 1894 the Karaite press was revived in Eupatoria and functioned until the outbreak of the First World War.

The Collection
Karaite works were produced in small print runs and are therefore very scarce. Many of the more obscure items can only be found in the libraries of the Former Soviet Union, in other major Judaica libraries in Israel, Europe or the United States, or in private collections. IDC’s staff combed the holdings of the major depositories of Karaite works and put together a comprehensive collection of Karaite published works, comprising the bulk of the publishing output of this community until the early twentieth century. These works, which include prayer books, biblical commentaries, philosophical works, halakhic treatises, works on astronomy and the calendar, textbooks and works of general interest published to educate the Karaite reader, offer a unique opportunity to explore the intellectual and spiritual world of this important but somewhat neglected sect. In recent years, since the fall of the Soviet Union, and the opening of the great Soviet libraries to scholars form the West, much interest has been generated by the vast manuscript collections in St. Petersburg and Moscow which hold many Karaite works as yet unpublished. This collection offers the reader an almost complete view of what the Karaites were reading in the nineteenth century, or at least of what the leaders of the community thought their members should be reading.

Audience
This collection should be of interest to scholars of sectarianism, Karaism, History of Judaism, and East European Jewish History.

The works have been filmed in the following libraries:
Bibliotheca Rosenthaliana, Amsterdam; British Library, London; Ets Haim Livraria Montezinos, Amsterdam; Hebrew Union College - Jewish Institute of Religion, Cincinnati; Jewish National and University Library, Jerusalem; Russian National Library, St Petersburg; Russian State Library - Oriental Centre, Moscow
Medici Oriental Press, Rome 1584-1614
Typographia Medicea

The Art of Printing
The press was founded by Cardinal Ferdinando I de’ Medici (1549-1609), who later became Grand Duke of Tuscany. Politically he supported several military campaigns against the Ottomans and the Barbary principalities, but at the same time he established a press that would have a significant impact on the study of Islam in the West. His considerable financial investments were used to employ an outstanding type-cutter, who manufactured moveable metal type, the superb technical skill of which continues to impress today. The cursive Arabic script reproduced in the works of the Medici Press bettered all previous attempts in Europe, and would remain unsurpassed long after the press had closed.

West meets East
The press was not only an intellectual enterprise, it was also a commercial one. Raimondi clearly hoped to sell his books in the East, rather than the West, because the selection of the works he produced showed little consideration with the type of material European scholars in this period needed. While the works failed to sell in the Ottoman Empire, however, they did significantly stimulate the study of the Middle East in Europe.
Ferdinando de’ Medici had ordered Raimondi to print ‘all available Arabic books on permissible human sciences which had no religious content in order to introduce the art of printing to the Mohamedan community.’ Only more than a century after the Medici Press in Rome had closed, did it finally have the envisaged impact in the Levant; Ibrahim Müteferrika, the first Muslim printer, referring to it in his plea to the sultan to allow him to open his own printing house at Istanbul, which happened in 1729.

The collection
IDC Publishers now brings together the publications of the Medici Press, the limited number of which is outweighed by their importance for the study of Middle Eastern science and literature; the study of the Muslim world in the West; and book history, both European and Middle Eastern.

The collection contains:
• 1590/91 - The Gospels in two versions (Arabic only, and Arabic and Latin)
• 1592 - Ibn al-Hājib’s (d. 1249) al-Kāfiyya, a tract on Arabic grammar
• 1592 - Al-Muqaddima al-ājurrūmiyya by the Moroccan scholar, Ibn Ājurrūm
• 1592 - The Nuzhat al-mushtāq fi dhikr al-amsār, an anonymous abridgement of the Geography composed by al-Idrīsī (1099-1166), who is known in the West as Dreses
• 1592 - Alphabetum Arabicum, a Latin introduction to the Arabic alphabet
• 1592/94 - A Missal in Syriac and Karshūnī
• 1593 - Two works by the famous Avicenna (Ibn Sīna), Al-Qānūn fi al-tibb, known in Europe as the Canon, and his philosophical work, Kitāb al-Najāt
• 1594 - Euclid’s Elements ( Tahrīr usūl li-Uqlidas) in an Arabic recension attributed to Nāsir al-Din al-Tūsī (1201-1274), the Persian philosopher, scientist and mathematician
• 1595 - The Jesuit scholar, Giambattista Eliano’s I‘tiqād al-amānah al-urtūdūksiyyah ( Tenets of the Orthodox Religion) produced for Eastern Christians
• 1610 - The Kitāb al-Tasrīf ( Book of Derivation), a work on Arabic grammar, by al-Zanjānī (990/91-1078/9)
• The edition of the Gospels of 1619

Maurits H. van den Boogert

Various Authors & Editors

Western Travellers in the Islamic World, Part 1

These texts document the political, diplomatic, commercial, and cultural relations between the Islamic world and the West in the pre-modern period. Some focus on military conflicts, others on peaceful contacts, but all allow us to reconstruct the shifting images and biases in the West, concerning Muslims and the Islamic world, that are still relevant today.

Well-known works include those by Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq (1520/1-1592); Pietro della Valle (1586-1652); J.B. Tavernier (1605-1689); Jean de Thevenot (1633-1667); John Chardin (1643-1713); Cornelis de Bruyn (le Brun; 1652-1726); J.P. de Tournefort (1656-1708); Richard Pococke (1704-1765); James Bruce (1730-1794); and Carsten Niebuhr (1733-1815).
Less often quoted, but equally interesting are the accounts of Palestine of Jewish travellers in the fifteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century; Chandler's Travels in Asia Minor; B.E.A. Rottiers, Itinéraire de Tiflis à Constantinople; and Adolphus Slade's Records of Travel , and several accounts of travel to Afghanistan, Kurdistan, and Central Asia.

This collection will be published in two parts. This first part contains titles previously published in other IDC collections (Early Western Books, Travels, Armenian Sources).
Dialogue with People of Living Faiths

Religious dialogue
An important instrument in the ecumenical movement, the WCC’s initiation of a dialogue with people belonging to other religions signaled a willingness to make sense of the fact that “Christians today live out their lives in actual community with people who may be committed to faiths and ideologies other than their own”. It also implies that dialogue “be recognized as a welcome way of obedience to the commandment of the Decalogue: ‘You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor’… not to disfigure the image of our neighbors of different faiths”.

People of Living Faiths
Recognizing that those committed to other religious traditions are people of living faiths is an invitation to Christians to reflect afresh on “what God may be doing in the lives of hundreds of millions of men and women who live in and seek community together with Christians, but along different ways”. “Ideologies”, once part of the program, was dismantled following the collapse of state Socialism in eastern Europe. One could question the decision but from the beginning we responded to the need for good relations between Christians in countries dominated by Marxist ideologies.

An ‘adventure of the churches’
The 1971 Central Committee understood "the engagement of the World Council in dialogue … as a common adventure of the churches". The word adventure takes on several meanings at once. It may mean a hazardous or even questionable undertaking, but it may also signify an unusual or exciting experience. The issue of interreligious relations and dialogue in the history of the World Council of Churches resonates with both meanings of the word ‘adventure’. Interreligious dialogue has always been and will continue to be closely scrutinized. Some Christians fear that such dialogue is equivalent to syncretism or a fusion of religions, but there have also always been Christians for whom dialogue is a way to constructively acknowledge religious plurality and look for ways to take today's context seriously. “More than ever, we sense a growing need not just for dialogue with people of other faiths but for genuine relationships with them. Increased awareness of religious plurality, the potential role of religion in conflict, and the growing place of religion in public life present urgent challenges that require greater understanding and cooperation among people of diverse faiths.” What was considered an adventure almost 35 years ago is a necessity in today’s world of rapid change and globalization.

Different ways of dialogue
If dialogue thirty years ago was mainly associated with formal conversation between two groups, dialogue today is manifest in many different ways. Most common is the dialogue of life that goes on in all pluralistic communities. People of many different faiths - Christians, Muslims, Jews, Hindus, Buddhists - live and work together sharing a common life. Although these dialogues go unnoticed and are not consciously religious, these encounters help establish solid human relationships. A similar dialogue also takes place where people of different traditions come together to struggle for justice, peace, human rights and other issues that concern society at large.
There are three types of organized dialogue. In the most common forms, multi-lateral and bi-lateral dialogues, representatives come together to explore a subject relevant to the communities concerned such as the relationship of religion to the family, to education, to the state, etc.. In addition to clarifying differences, such dialogues facilitate the building up of trust and openness between religious groups.
A second type of organized dialogue could be called ‘academic dialogue’; exponents of different religious faiths meet and discuss the theological or philosophical bases of their traditions. Genuine attempts are made to arrive at a common appreciation of the way in which each religious tradition has sought to explain and approach reality. Such dialogues help break down century-old prejudices and misconceptions. They enrich, deepen, challenge and correct the way some religions have understood and approached the religious life of other traditions.
Another form of dialogue could be described as ‘spiritual dialogue.’; believers attempt to meet each other, as it were, in the "cave of the heart". They become familiar with each other's spiritual and worship life. Often such dialogues take the form of participating in prayer or mediation. This type of dialogue remains controversial because Christians are not agreed on whether it is possible to participate in the spiritual life of their neighbors without compromising their own faith.

The Office on Interreligious Relations and Dialogue serves the WCC constituency:
• in relations and dialogue with communities of people of other faiths;
• in promoting sustainable relations between Christians and neighbors of other faiths primarily through multi-lateral and bi-lateral dialogue;
• in drawing ecumenical attention to issues of religious plurality and the role of religion in the world today;
• in fostering dialogue among churches and the ecumenical movement on Christian self-understanding in a world of religious plurality;
• in monitoring major trends in religion and in relations between faith communities;
• in providing advice and assistance regarding the interfaith dimension of WCC priorities.