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Religious Minorities: The Waldenses
Polemic and historiography of a religious minority between 1510 and 1712

The aim of the Reformation
Nowadays "new" is considered good and "old" obsolete. Values were different in the 16th century, when "antiquity" symbolized truth and goodness. Anything new was suspect. That was why Catholic theologians accused Luther, Zwingli and Calvin of devising a new doctrine and founding new churches. Protestant theologians disagreed, arguing that the aim of the Reformation was to do away with the novelties unrelated to the Bible that popes had introduced over the preceding centuries, such as the doctrines of purgatory, transubstantiation and papal primacy. The Reformation was an effort to restore the "old" doctrine of the "old" church rather than a quest for innovation. As had been the case in the old Apostolic Church, the Bible should once again become the sole standard for the Christian doctrine and way of life.

Return to the Apostolic Church
Protestant theologians interpreted "antiquity" as the return to the Bible and the Apostolic Church rather than continuity with the medieval church. They regarded the Middle Ages as a period in which the Catholic Church had suppressed the old Biblical truth and substituted its own novelties. Even in these dark ages, though, they believed that God had preserved a "remnant" faithful to the Bible. They considered such individuals to be the ones condemned by the Catholic Church as heretics, such as John Wycliffe, Jan Hus and Savonarola, who henceforth counted as "precursors" to the Reformation.

The Waldenses
In 1556 Flacius Illyricus published his major work Catalogus testium veritatis, in which he paid tribute to the Waldenses by assigning them an honorary position in "the chain of witnesses to the truth." The Waldenses were one of the few remaining medieval heretical movements. They had survived all persecutions in the Western Alps on the border between France and Italy. In 1532 they joined the Reformation and by 1556 were starting to form their own communities after the model of Calvin in Geneva. Historically, the Waldenses originated with Peter Waldo of Lyon, who, following the example of the apostles, decided to travel around in poverty as a preacher in 1174. Since the 13th century, however, the Waldenses themselves claimed to have their basis in the apostles. They maintained this stand after joining the Reformation movement.
Flacius Illyricus remained sceptical about this legend. In the 17th century, however, many Dutch Calvinist, Lutheran and Anglican theologians believed the reports in the Waldensian historiographies that this group dated back to the apostles and regarded the adherence of the Waldenses to the Reformation as proof that Protestantism had truly restored the "old" doctrine and church. Henceforth, the Waldenses came to be regarded as "progenitors of the Reformation". This view became so widespread that the Waldenses consistently received political and financial support from Protestants throughout Europe whenever they were persecuted.

Modern histiography
Catholic theologians, on the other hand, had by the Middle Ages already challenged the view that the Waldenses had their basis in the apostles. This polemic climaxed with Bossuet's Histoire des variations published in 1688. The modern historiography of the 19th and 20th centuries has definitively "de-mythologized" the Waldenses by presenting sources linking the Waldenses to Waldo and refuting any ties to the apostles. In addition, it is demonstrated in this historiography that the Waldenses abandoned virtually all their medieval traditions upon joining the Reformation and were therefore definitely not Protestants before the fact.
Nonetheless, the Waldenses retained a special significance in Protestant circles. They continue to be regarded as "precursors" to the Reformation, and some churches in North America, such as the Baptists and the Adventists, even claim to be rooted in the medieval Waldenses.

This collection
This microfiche series documents the historiography and polemic about the Waldenses between 1510 and 1712 and reveals how prominently the Waldenses figured in the debate over whether the Reformation churches were old or new. Accordingly, this series is worthwhile both for historical research on impressions of the Reformation and for the very current question as to the raison d'être of Protestant churches today.
This series features a unique collection of rare books and pamphlets about the Waldenses, of which many are the only copies in existence. They have been collected from thirty libraries, most from the library of the Società di Studi Valdesi in Torre Pellice and the Biblioteca Reale in Turin. This collection is therefore of tremendous value for studying the history of books. The series also comprises the reference works by Crespin, Pantaleon, Flacius Illyricus and Bossuet, which are still immensely important for historical research on "heretical" movements during the Middle Ages and the Protestant "martyrs" of the 16th century.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-2: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra & the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955

Short biography
Auke Johannes Vleer was born in Friesland in 1911. After finishing his secondary education he left for the Netherlands Indies in 1930 to follow with success a two-year training course in colonial administration ( bestuursschool). His first assignments were in the residencies of Aceh and Riau from 1932 to 1936. In October 1936 he returned to the Netherlands and studied Indology at the University of Leiden, specializing in Indonesian law ( Indisch recht), obtaining his degree in 1940 (he would later also earn a degree in Dutch law). The outbreak of war in Europe and the German occupation of the Netherlands prevented him from resuming his career in the colony. During the war he worked for the Dutch Red Cross. At war’s end he was among the first group of colonial civil servants to be dispatched to the Indies under the authority of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) to restore order. Posted to Medan on Sumatra’s East Coast he served as liaison officer with the British troops stationed there to supervise the Japanese surrender. In 1946 he was appointed head of the local administration in Banka and Billiton where he first became involved in Dutch attempts to set up a federal United States of Indonesia (see below). In 1948-1949 Vleer assumed the role of secretary at the Federal Conferences (FC) held at Bandung and then that of secretary-general of the Assembly for Federal Consultation ( Bijeenkomst voor federale overleg, BFO). In this capacity he took part in the Round Table Conference held in The Hague from August to November 1949 that finally resulted in the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949.

Work in Sumatra
In 1950 Vleer accepted a position as Commissioner for the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra with Palembang as base until growing political tensions led him to return to the Netherlands in 1956. While in Indonesia he had also taught law and sociology at universities in Jakarta and Palembang. Back in the Netherlands he played a role in setting up a new technical college (now university) in Eindhoven and ended his public career as mayor of Enschede from 1965 to 1977. He died in 1981.

Part 2.2 Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra, and the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955
Vleer’s career spanned the divide represented by the transfer of sovereignty of December 1949 and he continued working in independent Indonesia for another six years in South-Sumatra, parts of which had formed one of the federal states from September 1948. The history of these early years of the Republic is beginning to attract more research attention, but sources have been generally less available than for the preceding period. For this reason this section of Vleer’s archive (inventory nos. 203-234) has also been selected for micropublication. It includes

• incoming and outgoing correspondence, memos and reports on the general and political-social situation in South-Sumatra;
• outgoing monthly economic reports compiled by Vleer on South-Sumatra;
• confidential “economische notities” published in stencil by the Bureau for Research and Documentation of the High Commission on the economic situation in Indonesia, 1950-1955; and others

Edited by L.D. Couprie

Art History

The first systematic catalogue in the field of art and art history. The emphasis has been placed on serials and monographs concerning the history of western art. The monographs are divided over 8 different subjects:
• Reference works;
• Individual artists;
• Iconography and iconology;
• Public festivities and splendid ceremonies;
• Practical handbooks;
• Theory of art;
• Descriptions of collections, Catalogues of museums etc.;
• Miscellaneous.

417 monographs and 100 serials.

Various Authors & Editors

Brazilian Workers' Party
Part 1: PT Publications 1980-2002 and Newspaper Clippings 1980-1984

This collection
Perhaps the PT's development and presentation of various innovative approaches and instruments to confront the nation's major economic and social challenges explains both its successes and the peak in (international) attention.

This set focuses on the PT national periodicals and single-issued publications and clipping collection, besides other items such as the party first book of acts. After extensive research, all printed and electronic publications issued by the party National Board and Secretariat - with only small gaps related to missing issues - were assembled and microfilmed.

Those publications, up to that moment, had been scattered. In most cases many incomplete collections could be found in diverse locations and others were only available in digital form. The clipping collection provides a very useful tool for researchers interested not just in an important set of news related to different moments of PT life but also in understanding the ways in which the party itself was analyzing each specific political conjuncture from its origins to 1984.

Fundação Perseu Abramo
Up to 1997, all PT's documentation was kept in boxes without identification, in terrible conditions of organization in a basement of the National Directory in São Paulo. Since 1997/98, with the creation of the Projeto Memória & História of the Fundação Perseu Abramo (FPA), this documentation received a special care.

FPA is a foundation of the PT that organizes debate, research and publication. Through its Projeto Memória & História, the Foundation has established a historical documentation center: Centro Sérgio Buarque de Holanda - Documentação e Memória Política. Here, the PT's historical archives and publications are stored, maintained and managed. The Fondação Perseu Abramo applied successfully for external funding to describe and catalog the archive and publications, and have the materials preserved on microfilm. A grant was awarded by the David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies, Harvard.

Historical documentation
The historical documentation of the PT also starts to be integrated with the most important centers of reference (nationally and internationally) specialized in the history of the Left, such as: São Paulo's State Archive, Archive Edgar Leuenroth at Unicamp, Harvard University Library and the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam.

Exclusive distributor
The Fondação Perseu Abramo is working with IDC Publishers, of the Netherlands, to make the microfilms available for distribution to librarians and researchers. IDC Publishers us the exclusive distributor for microfilms, produced by the program. This set-up will continue for the duration of the program.

Still in 2004, the microfilming of newspaper's clipping and the periodicals regarding the trends of the party as "In Time", "The Work", among others will be concluded. The expectation is to have about 80 more rolls, reaching roughly 150,000 microfilmed pages in 2005.
Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries
Part 2

The genre of occasional poetry, verse written to celebrate milestones in the life of private citizens, was introduced into the young Dutch Republic in the late sixteenth century. Starting from Leyden academic circles, it rapidly gained popularity among large sections of Dutch society; a poem written on the occasion of a wedding or a funeral must have been a status symbol for the well-to-do citizen. Publication of these virtually unknown poems ensures their survival, but also their availability to scholars all over the world. Together with Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries - Part 1 this collection will constitute a firm base for many kinds of research, for historians, art historians, students of genealogy, musicologists, and students of book history.

This collection is also included in the Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries collection.
Early Armenian Printing

Early development
The new art of printing had a quick impact on the Armenian community. Armenian printing started in 1511, that is within fifty years after the first edition of Gutenberg’s Bible. The early development of the printing press among the Armenians is commonly dated to the years 1511– 1800. Books printed in that period are called in Armenian “hnatip” (old printings). Within this period one distinguishes the period of 1511 – 1695 as the period of Armenian “incunables”; it is the period in which Armenian printing was not yet consolidated, and various efforts in different places were being made to establish printing houses.

Early Armenian printing houses
The first Armenian printings were published in Venice. In the 16th and 17th centuries printing in the Ottoman Empire proved to be too difficult. The cities chosen for the printing houses were the European commercial centers; apart from Venice one may mention Livorno, Marseille, Amsterdam. The choice of these places is related to the way these endeavors were financed: the first Armenian printers were financially dependent on the Armenian mercantile network of the time. Early Armenian printing was very much stimulated by the Armenian church who wished to issue the Armenian version of the Bible and other liturgical books in printing. This main goal succeeded in 1666 with the publication of the Bible in Amsterdam by bishop Oskan of Erevan. The books printed in the Armenian printing houses were intended for export to the Armenian communities in the Ottoman Empire and Iran. Next to these there originated a European learned and ecclesiastical interest in Armenian Studies; publications that originated from such circles were printed in Milan, Rome and Paris.

Armenian renaissance
In the 18th century Armenian book printing was more consolidated. Three main centers emerge: Constantinople, Venice, and Rome. The books printed in Venice and in Constantinople reflect the so-called “Armenian renaissance”, a renewed interest in Armenian history and education, which had its center at the Armenian patriarchate in Constantinople and in the establishment of the Mekhitarist monk order at the island of San Lazzaro in Venice. The printings coming from Rome reflect again the interest of the Vatican in missionary efforts towards Armenia.

This selection
The selection offered here is a selection from existing holdings and does not intend to offer a truly representative or systematic overview over the early Armenian editions as a whole. Nevertheless the books from Venice listed below give a very good overview of the early Mekhitarists printings, among them many key works of the founder of the order himself, Mkhitar of Sebaste.
Likewise, the books listed here from the Amsterdam Armenian printing house give a fair view on the total production. Among them are the editiones principes of the Armenian Bible (1666) and of the History of Movses of Chorene.
The books from Constantinople can only offer a glimpse of the total rich production. We are fortunate to find here a number of text-editions that still have not been replaced by more modern ones, among them Athanasius of Alexandria and the Commentary on the Gospel of John by John Chrysostom.
Lastly, the books in this list from Paris and Rome are good samples of the Western learned tradition concerning Armenia that originated in this time.
Ethics in the Early Modern Period

While many of the disciplines and sub-disciplines pertaining to philosophy during the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries are now part of other academic fields and subject-matters, ethics has remained as a resilient area of philosophical inquiry to this day. Textbooks on ethics were published throughout the early modern period, together with sections on ethics within encyclopaedic writings devoted in whole or in part to philosophy. And academic disputations were devoted to specific topics and questions pertaining to ethics.

Moral virtue
Within general discussions of ethics during the early modern period the concept of moral virtue (virtus moralis) normally was accorded a central role. Moral virtue was normally conceived as the mean between extremes (mediocritas). The bulk of textbooks on ethics was normally devoted to examination the individual moral virtues (e.g., fortitude, humility, justice, modesty, taciturnity, and temperance) and often accompanied by discussion of corresponding vices (e.g., audacity and cowardice as the two vices corresponding to fortitude).

Additional concepts
General discussions of ethics also focus on a number of additional concepts related in some manner to moral virtue; these generally included intellectual virtue (sub-categories of which could be wisdom, prudence, and sometimes individual arts and science disciplines), dispositions (habitus), friendship, free will, honor, happiness, and moral actions. Charity, faith, hope, and piety also were frequently given attention. From the late 17th century onwards, natural law was sometimes also discussed. Good and evil, which normally were examined within the subject-matter of metaphysics, nonetheless were generally accorded direct and/or indirect attention within ethics. Moral good (which has its origin at least in part from God) is sometimes placed alongside morality, which normally based upon human conventions.

Ethics in the 21st century
During the early modern period, ethics served as a foundation of family life, politics, and moral theology. At an elementary level, fables, phrases, and stories were used to teach ethical precepts. But in the 21st century, ethics is an increasingly important factor in the context of business, law, and health professions as well as within the realms of character education and general professional ethics.

Prof. Joseph S. Freedman, Alabama State University in Montgomery, Alabama

Various Authors & Editors

Faces of Eurasia
Caucasus

Together with its three counterparts ( Faces of Eurasia: General, Faces of Eurasia: Central Asia, and Faces of Eurasia: Siberia), this exciting collection of travel accounts, notes, diaries, and ethnographic descriptions dating from the seventeenth through the early twentieth century, features the vast region of "Eurasia" as seen through the eyes of Western travelers. It offers a unique opportunity to experience some of the awe and bewilderment that these explorers must have felt, while simultaneously inviting one to take a critical look at the cultural and national stereotypes on which they relied. The collection will appeal to historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, linguists, and all scholars interested in the clash between Western civilization, the world of Islam, and the many different cultures that existed in the Asian parts of the Russian empire.

This collection is also included in the Faces of Eurasia collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Faces of Eurasia
Central Asia

Together with its three counterparts ( Faces of Eurasia: General, Faces of Eurasia: Caucasus, and Faces of Eurasia: Siberia), this exciting collection of travel accounts, notes, diaries, and ethnographic descriptions dating from the seventeenth through the early twentieth century, features the vast region of "Eurasia" as seen through the eyes of Western travelers. It offers a unique opportunity to experience some of the awe and bewilderment that these explorers must have felt, while simultaneously inviting one to take a critical look at the cultural and national stereotypes on which they relied. The collection will appeal to historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, linguists, and all scholars interested in the clash between Western civilization, the world of Islam, and the many different cultures that existed in the Asian parts of the Russian empire.

This collection is also included in the Faces of Eurasia collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Faces of Eurasia
General

Together with its three counterparts ( Faces of Eurasia: Caucasus, Faces of Eurasia: Central Asia, and Faces of Eurasia: Siberia), this exciting collection of travel accounts, notes, diaries, and ethnographic descriptions dating from the seventeenth through the early twentieth century, features the vast region of "Eurasia" as seen through the eyes of Western travelers. It offers a unique opportunity to experience some of the awe and bewilderment that these explorers must have felt, while simultaneously inviting one to take a critical look at the cultural and national stereotypes on which they relied. The collection will appeal to historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, linguists, and all scholars interested in the clash between Western civilization, the world of Islam, and the many different cultures that existed in the Asian parts of the Russian empire.

This collection is also included in the Faces of Eurasia collection.