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Various Authors & Editors

Early Printed Cyrillic Books
Library of Moscow State University, Belorussian and Ukrainian Publications

National and cultural identity
This collection bears witness to the complex, yet fascinating process of book printing in Belorussia and Ukraine when these countries were still under Polish-Lithuanian rule. Deprived of political rights and freedom of worship, the Orthodox Byelorussians and Ukrainians struggled to preserve their national and cultural identity by printing religious, liturgical, and historical books in the Cyrillic script. Often, these publications had a polemical intent – attacking the Catholics, the Uniates, and the Protestants alike – or propagated an openly nationalist agenda. One of the most popular works included in this collection is the Sinopsis – the first printed book on the history of the Eastern Slavs that promoted the idea of uniting all Slavic peoples. Equally interesting in this respect is the politically charged Trebnik, which was published in 1646 at the instigation of Piotr Mogila, the Metropolitan of Kiev.

The Brotherhoods
The role of the Brotherhoods ( bratstva) was crucial to this process of national emancipation. The Brotherhoods were political organizations that sought to stimulate Belorussian and Ukrainian culture by, for example, establishing schools and printing houses. Alarmed by these initiatives and anxious to curb the activities of the Brotherhoods, the government of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, in tandem with the Catholic and the Uniate Church, banned all politically sensitive publications. However, this did not prevent educated and influential Belorussians and Ukrainians from taking part in printing Cyrillic books. Printing houses specializing in Belorussian or Ukrainian publications existed at some point in time in Kiev, L’vov, Chernigov, Vilnius, Mogilev, and many other places.

Kiev-Perch Laura
The largest and most productive printing house in Ukraine belonged to the famous Monastery of the Caves, in Kiev ( Kieov-pecherskaia lavra). It functioned from 1616 until the end of the 18th century, and is represented in the present collection by 47 titles. These include a 1619 edition of the Anfologion (translated by Iov Boretskii), Pamva Berynda’s Leksikon slavianorusskii (the first Slavic “encyclopedia”), and a number of Besedy (“Conversations” on religious topics) that are especially noteworthy for the exceptionally high quality of the typography. The second largest segment of the collection comprises 20 books printed by the Uspenskii Brotherhood of Lvov, which was one of the most important cultural centers in Ukraine during the 17th and 18th centuries. In Belorussia, the Brotherhoods of Vilna and Eve, as well as smaller printing houses in Mogilev and Kutein, specialized in the printing of Cyrillic books. Among the most valuable of the 23 Belorussian books included in this collection are Kirill Trankvillion Stavrovetskii’s Perlo mnogotsennoe (1699), Akafisty vsesedmichnye (1698) – which was printed by the Brotherhood of Mogilev – and a number of sumptuously illustrated liturgical works and prayerbooks.

Unique collection
The present collection consists of 109 rare or otherwise valuable Belorussian and Ukrainian books printed in the 17th century. As well as having an historical value, the combination of luxurious design and sophisticated typography makes these works stand out as true landmarks of early book printing. The books were often embellished by professional artists, who added illustrations and designed the title pages. Ukrainian and Belorussian books differed from those printed in Moscow in both style and content. Whereas the latter were funded by the government and meticulously censored by the Metropolitan and the Tsar, the printing in the Ukraine and Belorussia was supported primarily by private donations. Their repertoire was also much more diversified. The books’ more colorful design, their covers, dedications, coats of arms, and spectacular illustrations contribute to the uniqueness of this material.

Moscow State University Library
Moscow State University Library (founded 1756) is one of the biggest libraries in Russia. Today, it stores more than 8 million volumes and owns many rare books and manuscripts. The most valuable part of its holdings is in the Rare Books and Manuscripts section, which accommodates over 200,000 items, including unique Western, Oriental, and Slavonic manuscripts, archives, incunabula, prints, and other early works. The unique collection of early printed Slavonic books was obtained largely through donations, purchases, transfers from other libraries, and the work of the Archeographical Expedition (which spent over 30 years working among Russian Old Believers in different parts of the former Soviet Union). Nowadays, the Slavonic collection comprises 2,170 items dating from the 1400s to the 1900s.

Edited by Charles Gunnoe

Reformation in Heidelberg

Part I
This collection has been gathered for the purpose of illuminating the intellectual and religious developments during the reigns of Ottheinrich (1556-1559) and Frederick III (1559-1576). Its primary goal is to present the complete works of the major Heidelberg figures (Bouquin, Erastus, Olevianus, Ursinus, Zanchi) and a major sampling of the works of many secondary figures. Secondarily, its aim is to illuminate the theological development of the Palatinate including the origins and reception of the Heidelberg Catechism. Here the collection ventures outside the strict bounds of Reformed Protestantism to include attacks on the Palatine confession by Lutheran scholars.

• Number of titles: 99
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

Location of originals: Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel

Part II
This collection completes the series The Reformation in Heidelberg. It comprises a wide array of rare primary sources gathered from libraries in Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It expands the number of works available by such theologians as Pierre Boquin and Zacharias Ursinus, and features more works by the prominent medical humanists, Thomas Erastus and Johannes Lange.

• Number of titles: 78 primary titles, 23 secondary titles
• Languages used: mainly Latin and German, also English, Dutch and French
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

Location of originals: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München; Bodleian Library, Oxford; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart; Zentralbibliothek Zürich

Various Authors & Editors

Russia and the Holy Land
Orthodox Missions in Palestine

The Pilgrimages and Journeys
The first pilgrimage to the Holy City of Jerusalem dates to the very early period of Russian Christianity. The initiator of holy pilgrimage was hegumen Daniil, who visited “the Holy Sepulchre” at the dawn of the 12th century. Many people – commoners and clergymen, the wealthy and the poor, the educated and the uneducated – joined one of the numerous journeys to the Holy Land. Their numbers steadily increased, reaching a peak at the end of the nineteenth century. The sacred journeys to Palestine ( khozhdeniia) were led by, among others, hegumen Daniil (1104- 1107), Archimandrite Agrephenii (1470s), Ignathii Smol’nianin (late 1400s), Hierodeacon Zosima from the Troitse-Sergiev monastery (1419-1422), the celibate priest Varsonophii (1456, 1461-1462), and V.G. Grigorovich- Barskii (1723-1747). As a consequence of the frequent religious trips, the center of Slavic culture was formed in the Laura of the Reverend Sabba the Blessed (†532) near Jerusalem. Later, it became the main departure point for Russians setting off on a pilgrimage through the Holy Land.

Travel accounts
The Russian pilgrims describe in their accounts the trip itself, their impressions, the Holy Places, the Christian monuments, the divine service, the nature of Palestine, and the economic activities of the people, as well as the biblical and apocryphal legends, and the political events they witnessed. Readings of the khozhdeniia accounts were very popular among the people, and played an important role in spreading knowledge about, for example, religion, geography, ethnography, and history. The famous Zhitie i Khozhdenie (“Life and Journey”) by Daniil is the first of the writings in this genre. Many copies have survived and it has been translated into several foreign languages. It stands out among the descriptions of that time for its accuracy, detail, and brilliant literary merit, and served as an example for subsequent writings. In due course, khozhdeniia acquired a more pragmatic character, as a result of a new type of traveler who had both commercial and diplomatic aims (Triphon Korobeinikov, Vasilii Pozniakov, Vasilii Gagara, Arsenii Sukhanov, Iona Malen’kii, etc.). In the nineteenth/early twentieth centuries, the research journeys were rather frequent: the Holy Land had become a destination for secular tourists. Accounts of journeys to the Holy Land were left by famous explorers of the Orient, writers, and statesmen, such as D.V. Dashkov, A.N. Murav’ev, A.S. Norov, V.K. Kaminskii, A. Dmitrievskii, and A.A. Vasil’ev.
The pilgrims’ descriptions of the Holy Land and the travelers’ accounts are the most important historical source for the studies of the spiritual life of the Russian people, and of the cultural ties between Russia and the Near East, the historical geography of Palestine and Jerusalem, and church archaeology.

Religious Component of State Ideology
The Russian land, united under the power of Moscow, had a religious symbolic image of itself as a new incarnation of the Christian Kingdom, the extension of the Roman and the Byzantine empires, and Moscow as the Third Rome after the fall of Constantinople. Transforming Russia into the center of the Orthodox world became Russian state policy after the Romanov dynasty came to the throne. In the middle of the seventeenth century, the aspiration to form a unified ecclesiastic space for the whole Orthodox world led to the reforms of Patriarch Nikon, during which the differences between the religious rites of the Greek and of the Russian Church were eliminated. Nikon sent the monk and scribe Arsenii Sukhanov to Mount Athos and Palestine to obtain old Greek manuscripts, he corrected the divine service books, and in 1656 he founded the New Jerusalem monastery on the banks of the Istra river as the symbolic and architectural duplicate of the Holy City.
During the reign of Catherine II (1762-1796), the “Greek” theme became the main priority of Russian foreign policy. Such policy had always had a certain ideological content: the countries of Oriental Christianity were perceived by the Russian Empire as an extension of its own world, and therefore they needed its protection and patronage. This matter became especially tense in the nineteenth century, when the conflict over the patronage of the Holy places was one of the main factors which led to the outbreak of the Crimean war.
In 1858, a separate Russian Consulate was established in Jerusalem. The Palestine Committee (1859-1864), which was headed by Grand Duke Constantine Nikolaevich, was established to receive donations and to help pilgrims. In 1864, the Committee was replaced by the Palestine Commission, which was attached to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and whose remit was to improve the life of pilgrims.
This collection provides the opportunity to study in great detail both the intellectual sources of the emerging state ideology and the centuries-old history of the religious-ethnic selfidentification of the Russians of very different social strata – the common people, the clergy, state officials, and scholars – as well their attitudes toward the problem of the Orthodoxy in the Orient.

The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission
In 1847, six centuries after the “discovery” of the Holy Land, the Holy Synod decided to send the first Russian Ecclesiastical Mission to Jerusalem. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the official Mission in Palestine became part of the state policy of Russia. Its purpose was to offer Russian pilgrims spiritual supervision, provide assistance, and sponsor charitable and educational work among the Orthodox Arab population of Palestine and Syria, and to carry out the divine service in Church Slavonic. The Mission was guided by Archimandrite (later Bishop) Porfirii (Uspenskii), the outstanding scholar, archaeologist, and traveler. Bishop Porfirii was the first in a long line of most distinguished monks-presbyters, who were famous not only for their excellent education and ability to combine church service with academic work, but also for their ability to honorably serve Russia’s interests in the Middle East. Among the successors of Bishop Porfirii were such outstanding personalities as Bishop Kyril (Naumov), a famous theologian and Rector of the Ecclesiastic Academy in Kiev, Archimandrites Leonid (Kavelin) and Anthonin (Kapustin), who contributed to the Byzantine and who Paleoslavonic studies, Archimandrite Cyprian (Kern), patrologist and pastorologist and Metropolitan Nikodemos (Rotov). All of them left an abundance of materials on, and about the study of, the history and the antiquities of the Holy Land. The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem functioned until the 1917 Revolution, when its activities were suspended.

Russian Achievement
The results of the missionary activities were appreciable: lots of land was bought, and many temples, monasteries, hotels for pilgrims, and educational and medical institutions were built. At the same time, the Mission promoted the spread of education among the local Arab inhabitants, and established a network of Russian schools. To list but a few of Father Antonin’s achievements: purchases of land in Hebron (including the Oak of Mambre), the summit of the Mount of Olives, property in Jaffa, gardens in Jericho, and a plot of land in Tiberias on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, Under his supervision, churches were built in Jaffa, on the Mount of Olives, in Ein- Karem, and in Gethsemane. He was also actively involved in the excavations that uncovered the Threshold of Judgement Gate. By the eve of the First World War, there was a considerable amount of Russian property in Palestine: eleven churches, seventeen hotels, seven monasteries, a hotel in Jerusalem, four out-patients’ clinics, etc. The Russian church in Jerusalem was the largest piece of property in the town. Since 1856 the transportation of pilgrims to the Holy Land, and their settlement there, had been effected by the Russian Society of Steam Navigation and Trade ( Russkoe obshchestvo parohodstva i torgovli, ROPIT).
This collection deals with the activities of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Jerusalem, and with the history of its relations with other government and private institutions and organizations. It includes official and reference editions, the research and religious works of the heads of the missions, and biographical material.

The Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society
The Orthodox Palestine Society (later, the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society; Imperatorskoe Pravoslavnoe Palestinskoe Obshchestvo, IPPO) was established in 1882. It was chaired by Zhivopisnye vidy Sviatykh miest Palestiny. S.-Peterburg, 1853. Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich until his assassination by terrorists in 1905, when his widow Elizaveta Fedorovna took over. Its foundation was the result of the efforts of one man, Vasilii Nikolaevich Khitrovo (1834-1903), nobleman and ministerial official. The idea of establishing the Society had come to Khitrovo during his first visit to Palestine as a pilgrim. He was so stirred by the deplorable living conditions of Russian pilgrims and the dismal state of the local Orthodox inhabitants, that he devoted the rest of his life to strengthening the Orthodoxy positions in the Near East. Khitrovo published many articles and reviews on the Palestine studies and on the problems associated with the Society’s activities. The aim of the Society was to promote the Russian pilgrimage, to strengthen the Orthodoxy among the local inhabitants, and to study the country, its antiquities, and its sacred places. The Society was the most important instrument of Russian cultural policy in the Near East. Although it was subsidized by the government, its main income came from donations received in churches and cemeteries, and from contributions from members of the royal family and individual patrons. The Society had its own eparchial departments, and carried out an enormous amount of educational and humanitarian work. The Orthodox Arabs received free medical aid in hospitals and outpatients’ clinics in Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth. Graduates from Russian schools formed the nucleus of the rising group of Arab intellectuals. After the 1917 Revolution, the Palestine Society became a research institution.
This collection includes numerous sources on the history of the Society as well as biographical material on its officials, in particular V.N. Khitrovo. It contains all the Society’s editions: Pravoslavnii Palestinskii sbornik, Chteniia o Sviatoi Zemle, Soobscheniia and Otchety.

The Beginning of Academic Studies of the Holy Land
The original Russian schools of Oriental and Byzantine studies were founded in the second half of the nineteenth century. Representatives of such were active members of the IPPO, of the Obschestvo Lubitelei drebnei pis’mennosti (Society of Ancient Written Language Lovers), and of other research institutions. The heads of the ecclesiastical missions, starting with father Porphirii (Uspenskii), willingly engaged in biblical archaeology. Researchers focused special attention on the collections of medieval manuscripts of the Athos monasteries in Greece, the cloistral collections in Palestine, the collections of manuscripts in Constantinople, and especially those of the Sinay cloister of Saint Catherine. Among the researchers of the treasuries of manuscripts were Archimandrite Porphirii (Uspenskii) – who had the honor of discovering the famous Sinay Codex of the Bible – and such outstanding Russian scholars as A.S. Norov, A.Kh. Vostokov, N.F. Krasnosel’tsev, and A.A. Dmitrievskii. The research heritage of the Society was realized in 63 editions of Pravoslavniy Palestinskiy Sbornik (PPS), published in 1881-1917; they are represented with exhaustive completeness in this collection. Both the research works, which are dedicated to the history and the culture of the peoples of the Near East, and the historical sources and the literary monuments were published in the PPS editions. The history of the Orthodox divine service and liturgics was a special theme of research. Besides the research works, this series consists of Greek, Slavonic, Georgian, and Latin descriptions of Palestine, descriptions of Christian sacred places in Palestine, Russian and foreign khozhdeniia, hagiography, and so on.

Images of the Holy Land
The reconstruction of images of the Holy Land in Russian architecture that flourished in the 17th century is a characteristic feature of the cultural heritage of the Orthodox Mission in Palestine. Patriarch Nikon (†1681) created a replica of Jerusalem and its surroundings (known from Evangelic texts), which was situated near Moscow on the banks of the Istra river. This replica was a symbol of the most successful attempts to embody the reminiscences of biblical events. The dimensions, structure, and layout of the Voskresenskii cathedral, which was in the center of the monastery, resembled those of the Temple of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The city of Sinay was the source of numerous artefacts, descriptions of which entered the paleographic history of Greece and the Holy Land. The illustrated manuscripts of monastic libraries in Palestine and Sinay were studied by A.S. Norov, A.Kh. Vostokov, N.F. Krasnoseltsev, A.A. Dmitrievskii, and V.N. Beneshevich.

The National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia was established at the end of the 18th century. Today, it is one of the biggest libraries in the world: it possesses over 30 million items. The National Library of Russia occupies ten large buildings in St. Petersburg. It is more than just a library: it is a cultural center with concert halls, information centers, and its own publishing house.
The library is famous for its collections of liturgical writings and descriptions of numerous sacred journeys, which were published by the Orthodox Palestine Society, ecclesiastic academies, and many private publishers in Russia. “Russia and the Holy Land” is part of a vast collection of the National Library of Russia. It contains monographs, periodicals, maps, and illustrations. Among the monographs are biographies, bibliographies, and religious, political, economic, archaeological, geographic materials related to the Russian Missions in the Holy Land.

Various Authors & Editors

Sorbian Publications, 1693-1853
Library of Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg

Sorbian writings
Sorbian writings are the cultural heritage of a small West Slavic language group that used to be spoken in what is now south-eastern Germany. It is closely related to Polish, Kashubian, Czech, and Slovak, and is still used in Upper and Lower Lusatia.
This is the first time that this collection of Sorbian works, comprising 64 books and 5 periodicals dating from the end of the seventeenth/beginning of the nineteenth century, is being published. The materials presented in this collection are written in Upper and Lower Sorbian, Latin, and German.

Exclusive collection
The first extensive written Sorbian texts - translations of the religious literature of the Reformation - were composed in the sixteenth century. This collection contains the oldest works on Sorbian linguistics, for example, De Originibus Linguae Sorbicae by A. Frenceli, Vocabularium Latino-serbicum by J. Swetlik, and fourteen Bibles in Upper and Lower Sorbian. Sorbian Literature started flourishing in the end of the 18th century after being strongly influenced by the ideas of Enlightment. Writings from the beginning of the nineteenth century, such as educational brochures, early magazines, and scientific monographs, reflect the period of the national renaissance of Sorbian culture. Such periodicals as Serbska Jutnicka, Jutnitzka, Serbski Nowinkar, etc. are almost complete, which demonstrates the exclusiveness of this collection. MA collection of seven Wittenberg brochures Jadno pratkowane na nezelu, issued by a group of young Sorbian translators, strongly influenced the development of Sorbian literary language. They are extremely rare and practically unknown to Western scientists. The collection also contains Pjesnicki hornych a delnych Luziskich Serbow - a unique publication of Sorbian folk songs and tales collected by L. Haupt and J.E. Smoler.

Translations of The Bible
The pride of the collection is fourteen translations of the Bible into Upper and Lower Sorbian. Because of the religious division of Sorbs, the Bible has been translated into two languages - Upper Sorbian, which was meant for Catholics (printed in Bautzen/Budeshin) and Lower Sorbian - for Reformed (printed in Cottbus/Choschobus). One can find here the very first and complete translation into Upper Sorbian, dated 1728. First examples of Lower Sorbian, which are translations of the Old and New Testament date back to 1796 and 1709 (the latter item used to belong to Prince Aleksei, son of Peter the Great).

The Russian Academy of Sciences Library (BAN)
BAN is the oldest library in Russia and one of the biggest libraries in the world. It consists of three sections - Russian, Slavic and Foreign, which store more than 20,000,000 volumes. The Slavic section of BAN is a universal information source for researchers in Slavic Studies. It contains around 270,000 volumes, printed between the 17th century and 1930 in all Slavic languages, except Russian. The most valuable items of the Slavic section have been acquired between the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Sorbian Publications, 1693-1853 is the oldest part of a vast Sorbian collection of BAN. Today the Russian Academy of Sciences Library owns 271 Sorbian books and 22 Sorbian periodicals, which were collected between 1900 and 1920. Sorbian materials arrived in BAN in several different ways. A part of the collection was donated by linguists A. Muka (1854-1932) and I.I. Sreznevskii (1812-1880) form their private collections, and some were obtained from the Russian linguist A.L. Petrov in 1924. The rest of the collection comes from various sources, starting with the year 1908. The collection is very rare, as fascists destroyed the central archive and library of Sorbs in 1937.
Russian Genealogy

Family ties
The major significance attached to family class ties in Imperial Russia (right up to the 1917 October Revolution) is a well-known fact. This means that information about the family ties of some historical figure or other may help to explain the reasons for some of his/her actions, any career advancements, as well as other events. This was an entirely typical aspect of life in Russian pre-revolutionary society. Genealogical literature was very well established in Russia between the 18th and early 20th centuries, both from a theoretical and practical standpoint. Family trees were published for virtually all the relatively well-known families. Furthermore, groups of nobles published lists of nobles in their own provinces.

The earliest important work
The earliest important work in Russian genealogy was a publication by N.I. Novikov known as the Velvet Book ( Genealogical Book of Russian and Emigré Princes and Nobility, St Petersburg 1787). Although the material in this work has been elucidated by subsequent publications, it contains the closest reproduction of the genealogical system used prior to Peter the Great. The Velvet Book also provided the basis for the structure of power right up to the end of the 17th century. This covered the formation of the Boyar's Duma and the introduction of mestnichestvo, a system of precedence where positions of representatives from the various families were defined in a hierarchy of power.

Development of Genealogy
The major highlight of the development of genealogy in Russian was the publication of the 4-volume reference work by Prince Petr Dolgorukov entitled Russian Genealogical Book (St Petersburg, 1854-1857). However, the impartiality of some of the information provided in the publication led to the author being condemned and exiled, which meant that his work remained unfinished. Nevertheless, this publication provided the first comprehensive collection of information about the main noble families and most important of all, it encouraged the further development of genealogy. Dolgorukov's material, including the unpublished material, was used by A. Lobanov-Rostovsky in his two-volume publication Russian Genealogical Book (1st edition published St Petersburg, 1873-75). During preparation of this work for publication, particularly in the case of the second edition, the major specialists in the field of genealogy at that time also became involved: L.M. Savelov, V.V. Rummel et al.

Russian and Ukrainian nobility
The work produced by V. Rummel and V. Golubtsov, Genealogical Collection of Russian Noble Families, 2 vol. (St Petersburg 1886-1887) was the continuation of Prince A. Lobanov-Rostovsky's work. This publication mainly focuses on the families omitted by Dolgorukov and Lobanov-Rostovsky. Unfortunately, the third and fourth volumes of this publication were not printed. The major reference work on the Ukrainian nobility, which is almost not referred to at all in other genealogical publications, is the work of V. Mozdalevsky, Genealogy of Minor Russia, 4 vol., (Kiev, 1908-1914). This publication remains virtually the only source detailing the history of the families described in it even right up to the present day. A particularly eminent position in Russian genealogy is occupied by Leonid Mikhailovich Savelov, the major Russian specialist in the field of genealogy. His works, primarily his bibliographical publications, are the prime source any researcher will initially refer to when seeking information about the Russian nobility. For this reason, the present collection contains all his major works, the most important among them being The Bibliographical Index of the history, heraldry and genealogy of the Russian nobility, 2nd edition (Ostrogozhsk, 1897). There is also a manuscript included in the collection, which is a work by the genealogist, K. Gubastov, entitled Genealogical information about the Russian nobility and noble families originating from natural unions. The manuscript contains notes and corrections from another renowned genealogist, A. Sivers.

Genealogical Notes
An important source of information for history researchers is also provided by genealogical notes. Although they do not provide the reader with genealogical tables or family trees, they do give details of sources of genealogical information. Furthermore, these works can provide information about how reliable certain published genealogical material is, as well as about the problems which have remained unsolved when the final genealogical table has been prepared (information about persons with the same surname, but not featuring in the family tree, for instance). Finally, they also contain information on the history of families for whom complete family trees were never prepared. Frequent references are made to these sources by L. Savelov's work Genealogical Notes, containing information about ancient noble families up until 1700, but which unfortunately only goes as far as the letter "E".

Periodical publications
There is a wide range of genealogical information contained in two periodical publications devoted to genealogy. In 1898 the Russian Genealogical Society was formed in St Petersburg and it began issuing the publication Russian Genealogical Society News from 1900. In 1904 an alternative association was set up in Moscow by L.M. Savelov called the Historical Genealogy Society, which published the Historical Genealogy Society Chronicle. The "News" mainly published material about the history of families in the 16th and 17th centuries, whereas the "Chronicle" dealt with a much wider range of issues dating from the birth of Russian statehood up to the 20th century.

Necropolises
One other significant source of information for historical and genealogical research is provided by necropolises containing lists of people buried there. While not, strictly speaking, part of genealogical literature, they provide, nevertheless, valuable information on the history of families. They have a major role to play in the works of V.I. Saitov produced under the patronage of Prince Nikolay Mikhailovich and in those of V. Chernopatov. This includes necropolises in Moscow, St Petersburg, various provinces in Russian and abroad.

Limited access to publications
In general, genealogical publications have had very low circulation rates, with numbers of copies ranging from 20 to a few hundred. Moreover, many print runs have not completely sold out (as was the case, for example, for the work by V. Rummel and V. Golubtsov, which led to publication being stopped). It is therefore hardly surprising that one famous genealogist in Russia called his regularly published notes "For the few". As a result of this, there is, in fact, limited access to this type of information nowadays. Only a few major libraries in Russia and the rest of the world have relatively complete collections of this literature. These include the State Historical Public Library of Russia, which has provided the basis for the present collection. The Historical Library, which has been built up on the basis of private book collections belonging to historians and bibliophiles living in the 19th and early 20th centuries, has acquired the most valuable collections of genealogical literature.

Dr. M. Afanasiev, State Historical Public Library of Russia

Series:

Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part III: 1861-1880

Part 3 is based on (the first section of) Volume 3 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 5,655 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 4,614 different Lugt numbers and 153 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.

The Critical Editions of the New Testament

The Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts on Microfiche

Edited by David C. Parker

The Critical Editions of the New Testament
The Greek Text, Versions, and Transcriptions of Manuscripts on microfiche

The oldest texts
The recovery of the oldest available text of the New Testament continues to occupy the attention of biblical scholars. Because the early printed editions were based on late and incorrect texts, scholars had to study the materials to find older forms of the text. We now know that to study the text of the New Testament and to recover the oldest forms of it, scholars have available over 5,500 Greek manuscripts, translations into early languages, including especially important ones in Syriac, Latin, and Coptic, and quotations in early Christian writers. The task of examining these witnesses, and collecting from them the relevant data, has occupied scholars for over three hundred years.

Principal critical editions
This collection contains the principal critical editions of the Greek New Testament produced in that time. They are of continuing value in biblical and textual scholarship, for the following reasons:
1. As some of the highest achievements of biblical scholarship.
2. Because they sometimes contain materials no longer available.
3. Because the editorial decisions of scholars of the past continue to act as a guide and resource to successive generations of scholars.

This collection
This series makes available for the first time in a single place the principal critical editions, lists of variant readings and collections of manuscript transcriptions and collations from the late seventeenth to the early twentieth century. In addition, a number of the most useful editions of the ancient versions and of ancillary materials have been included. It begins with the first large collection, compiled by John Mill and published in 1707, and ends with von Soden’s huge work of 1902-13. It thus spans two centuries of scientific and technical advance, and of manuscript discoveries. This development is parallel to the collection and classification of materials in the natural sciences. The materials in Parts 3 and 4 have been chosen because of their scarcity, their continuing value for scholarly research, and their significance in the development of the discipline.

Dr D.C. Parker, Reader in New Testament Textual Criticism and Palaeography, University of Birmingham (UK)

Various Authors & Editors

Freemasonry
Early sources, 1717-1870, from the Grand Lodge Library in The Hague

The collection documents the history and literature of European Freemasonry in the period from its official founding until the Paris commune of 1870. The Kloss collection, which contains the private library of the 19th century German Freemason and masonic scholar, Georg Kloss, forms the nucleus of the collection.
Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries
Part 1

The genre of occasional poetry, verse written to celebrate milestones in the life of private citizens, was introduced into the young Dutch Republic in the late sixteenth century. Starting from Leyden academic circles, it rapidly gained popularity among large sections of Dutch society; a poem written on the occasion of a wedding or a funeral must have been a status symbol for the well-to-do citizen. Publication of these virtually unknown poems ensures their survival, but also their availability to scholars all over the world. Together with Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries - Part 2 this collection will constitute a firm base for many kinds of research, for historians, art historians, students of genealogy, musicologists, and students of book history.

This collection is also included in the Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries collection.
French Revolutionary Periodicals

The first politicians
Half a century after the outbreak of the revolution of 1789, when the French historian Alexis de Tocqueville was searching for the causes of this epochal event, he concluded that the French writers of the middle of the 18th century had become the first politicians of their country – a fact which, as we know, would have deep repercussions for the history of France, and even the whole world. In fact, we can extend de Tocqueville's observation by stating that the political journalist, publicist and pamphletist were as essential to the French Revolution, as the philosophical writer was for the phenomenon of the Enlightenment. No other profession had such a profound influence on the development of the revolution. This is a fact of paramount importance, as the historical research of recent years has increasingly stressed.

Usteri
For this reason, we have not only completed our previous edition of reproductions of sources of the French Revolution, but also enlarged it with a new series. Besides the Usteri pamphlet collection, which has recently been edited, the Zentralbibliothek in Zürich houses another very precious and rare collection periodicals from the time of the French Revolution. A selection of 31 of these titles is now accessible to the scientific public for the first time. Like the pamphlets, these journals formed part of the private library of Paul Usteri, a Swiss enthusiast of the revolution, who had also been an editor for a brief time after the Jacobin dictatorship.

Important journals
The collection constitutes the most important journals from the revolutionary centre in Paris. It also contains a significant example of the liberal-conservative press from the periphery: the virtually complete collection of the Strassburger Kurier (1793-1798).

Many of the 31 French periodicals are completely preserved. They cover the whole range of the political and ideological opinions held by the different groups and parties during the revolutionary decade. Apart from one exception, the Mercure Britannique, which was edited in London by the exiled Swiss Mallet du Pan, all journals were edited in Paris. At the time of the Constituante and the Legislative, official, patriotic and liberal papers (the Journal des Droits de l'Homme, and Louis-Marie Prudhomme's Révolutions de Paris) dominated not only the Feuillants' press ( Le véritable Père-Duchêne by Lemaire), but ultimately the press of the radical Jacobin Club: for example, the L'Ami des Citoyens by the later thermidorian Tallien, and the famous journal Le Défenseur de la Constitution by Robespierre, including his Lettres àses commettans. The decidedly anti-royalist papers like the Orateur du Peuple by Freron, and the numerous Courriers by Gorsas (who later became a Girondist), refer to early forms of radicalism in the political debate. After the fall of the monarchy, Republican papers dominate, like Labenette's Journal de la Savonette républicaine, or Le Républicain, along with some papers agitating for the radical Montagnards: for example, Marat's Ami du Peuple, ou Le Publiciste parisien and Desmoulins' Le Vieux Cordelier.

Reviving the spirit
After the fall of Robespierre, censorship became more relaxed and, by the end of 1794, the press was trying to regain its dynamic: by reviving the spirit of the beginning of the revolution ( Le Rédacteur by Thuau-Granville), by reviving revolutionary republicanism ( Le Bulletin politique by Antonelle), or by condemning the rule of the Jacobins ( Journal des Patriotes de 89 by Réal and Méhée de La Touche, and Dusaulchoy de Bergemont's La Fusée volante).

True rarities
The moderate press of the time of the Directory is very well documented, partly because of L'Esprit public by Toulongeon, but also because of the fact that liberal-bourgeois publicists like Usteri himself no longer just collected revolutionary articles, but became actively involved in the discussion. Thanks to this new commitment, the collection now boasts almost complete copies of true rarities like the journal L'Historien by Dupont de Nemours, the Journal d'économie publique by Pierre-Louis Roederer, and substantial coverage of the neo-royalist papers ( L'Accusateur public by Richer de Sérizy and Paris pendant l'année 1795[-1797] by Jean-Gabriel Peltier).

Prof. Erich Pelzer, University of Freiburg, Germany

Publisher’s notes
1. The editor and IDC Publishers have aimed to limit this microfiche edition to periodicals that are not otherwise available (in microform, or as reprints).
2. The periodicals cover the whole range of political and ideological positions of different factions throughout the revolutionary decade:
- patriotic and liberal papers;
- early radicalism, anti-royalist;
- radical Jacobin;
- (revolutionary) republican;
- liberal bourgeois;
- neo-royalist.
3. The material has been collected by the 18th-century Swiss editor Paul Usteri. A liberal-bourgeois publicist, he became actively engaged in public debates. He has collected a large number of revolutionary pamphlets that have also been released on microfiche by IDC Publishers ["French Revolutionary Pamphlets"].