Browse results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 33 items for :

  • Microfiche/film Primary Source x
  • Langue primair: Dutch x
Clear All Modify Search

Various Authors & Editors

Archive of the State Commission for Slave Emancipation in the Netherlands Colonies, 1853-1856
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Background
Although slavery had been abolished in the British colonies as early as 1833, it persisted in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies and particularly their West Indies colonies of Surinam and the Antilles, which were plantation economies. No serious voices were raised for emancipation in either government circles or public opinion until the publication of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s classic Uncle Tom’s Cabin in the United States in 1852. Questions in the Dutch Parliament concerning the colonial budget for 1854 led the government to appoint a State Commission in November 1853 to investigate the situation of the slave population in the colonies and propose appropriate measures. Former minister of the Colonies and governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies, J.C. Baud, was named chairman and the members were drawn from the colonial civil service, parliament itself and representatives of commercial interests involved in slavery, including plantation owners.
The commission gathered material, heard witnesses and eventually produced two reports in September 1855 (on Surinam) and July 1856 (on the West Indies islands and West Africa, the Gold Coast, then still a Dutch colony) after which it was disbanded. The legislation the commission proposed remained, however, without immediate effect and the government and parliament would continue to wrestle with the question of slave emancipation until slavery was finally abolished on 1 July 1863.

The archive
The commission’s archive contains minutes of its meetings, correspondence, documentation assembled on the condition of the slaves in the various colonies, memoranda and interim reports by members and non-members. It has now been microfilmed by Moran Micropublications in cooperation with the National Archives of the Netherlands. The micropublication includes the two reports and their appendices, which were printed for parliament but never published, as well as a memorandum against the reports written on behalf of the slave owners of St. Martin in the West Indies.

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Papers of Colonial Advisers on Politics, Culture and Religion in the Netherlands (East) Indies, c. 1895-1949

In cooperation with KITLV, Moran Micropublications is making available the papers of three prominent colonial civil servants who advised the government of the Netherlands Indies on matters relating to Islam, indigenous culture and languages, education, politics and nationalism in pre-independence Indonesia.

Part 1. Papers of Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu (1870-1929), period 1895-1929
Short biography
Godard Arend Johannes Hazeu was born in Amsterdam in 1870. After attending secondary school in Arnhem and studying theology briefly in Utrecht, he undertook the study of Indonesian languages, literature and ethnology along with Arabic and Sanskrit at the University of Leiden. He earned a doctorate there in 1897 with a pioneering thesis on the nature and development of different forms of wayang in Java. He was to become a leading expert in this subject and in Indonesian folklore.

After a short time working as a tutor in Leiden he left for the Netherlands Indies where he had been appointed to teach Javanese in the training program for colonial administrators at the Willem III Gymnasium in Batavia. Right from the start he sought contact with Javanese circles to deepen his knowledge of the culture and also frequented the Bataviassch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschpappen (Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences), where he became acquainted with intellectuals such as C. Snouck Hurgronje, the well-known scholar of Islam and eastern languages and adviser to the colonial government on “Inlandsche en Arabische Zaken” (native and Arabic affairs). In 1904 he was attached to his office as a civil servant for Indonesian languages and succeeded Snouck Hurgronje himself as adviser in 1907. During this period he published articles and studies on various aspects of Indonesian literature and culture. In 1912 he was named head of the department of Education and Religion ( Onderwijs en Eeredienst), where he was instrumental in establishing the so-called Dutch-native schools ( Hollandsche-Inlandse school), which offered Indonesian children the possibility of pursuing secondary education. In 1915 he returned to the Netherlands on leave, where education continued to have his interest.

The following year he went back to the Indies as government commissioner ( regeringscommisaris) for native and Arabic affairs ( Regeringscommisaris voor inlandsche en Arabische Zaken). He found, however, a new situation there upon his return in which various nationalist movements, in particular the Sarekat Islam, were growing in influence, causing the colonial government increasing concern. By 1919 violent incidents, such as the murder of government officials at Tolitoli in Celebes, led the governor-general, Van Limburg Stirum, to rely more and more on Hazeu’s knowledge and insight. His position as commissioner also meant that he enjoyed a more direct relationship with the governor-general, which had the effect of alienating the colonial administration ( Binnenlands Bestuur). This circumstance, coupled with Hazeu’s evident sympathy for the Indonesians’ desire for equal treatment, made him the focus of harsh criticism from those advocating a hard hand in suppressing the nationalist movement. Matters came to a head after the Garut incident in West Java, in which the police killed a number of people who had barricaded themselves in a house after refusing to deliver rice to the government. Many thought this was the right way to maintain order, but Hazeu condemned the action of the police as wrong. Having lost his ear with the governor-general, he decided to accept a professorship at Leiden in Javanese language and literature to which he was appointed officially in March 1920.

Afflicted by poor health, perhaps partially attributable to the rude treatment he was subjected to at the end of his colonial career, he was less productive in his last years and was honorably relieved of his professorial duties in 1928. Hazeu is reckoned among the top three of the “Leiden school” in Indonesian studies along with Snouck Hurgronje and C. van Vollenhoven. He is particularly noted for his dictionary of the Gajo language published in Batavia in 1907. He died in Wassenaar in December 1929.

Hazeu’s papers
In addition to voluminous notes for his magnum opus on Gajo mentioned above (see inventory number 80 below), the papers presented here include
— a great many of Hazeu’s position papers ( adviezen) on such subjects as the nationalist movements, especially Sarekat Islam;
— disturbances in various places including the incidents in Jambi and Garut;
— many diverse matters concerning Islam, such as councils of clerics ( priesterraden), the position of women, marriage, religious movements, various Muslim personalities, mosques and their treasuries, and others;
— Christian missions, their relation with Islam and their role in education;
— education for Indonesians and their inclusion in the civil administration;
— questions of hormat (respect, deference to superiors) and the position of Indonesian regents.

Besides his own work, there are
— papers by Snouck Hurgronje and others
— much documentation in the form of reports and newspaper clippings from the Dutch-language and indigenous press on various subjects.

Part 2. Papers of Emile Gobée (1881-1954), period 1908-1951
Short biography
Emile Gobée was born on 3 December 1881 in Den Helder as son of a naval officer. He attended the Hogere Bugerschool in Rotterdam for three years before following in his father’s footsteps and enlisting in the navy. He graduated from the Royal Naval Institute in Willemsoord in 1901 with the rank of adelborst 1e klasse (second lieutenant). He made his first sea voyage to the Indies in 1903 where he served in a unit making hydrographic measurements in local waters. When his ship cruised in the Tomini Bight of North Celebes he had the occasion to meet the Assistant-Resident of Gorontalo, A.J.N. Engelenberg, who introduced him to the world of colonial administration. He was deeply impressed and decided to join the colonial civil service. In the same period he made the acquaintance of the missionary couple Adriani, who were living in Poso, Celebes. They lived and worked among the Toraja people and were making a major study of their language, Bare’e, which Gobée was later to learn himself.

In 1906 he returned to the Netherlands and resigned his naval commission to study colonial administration in Leiden. After completing his study in record time he served in various posts in the Indies, including a two-year stay in the Poso region, where in the meantime the Adrianis were again living. His next posting was to Aceh in Sumatra, which proved to be a turning-point in his life. It was there that his plan to learn Arabic ripened, which he was able to do upon returning to the Netherlands on leave in 1915 on the last Dutch mail boat to pass through the Suez Canal before the First World War blocked this passage. In Leiden once again, he studied Arabic under Snouck Hurgronje, the celebrated scholar of Islam and eastern languages and a very prominent adviser to the Indies colonial government. Since the war made opportunities in the Indies colonial service uncertain, Gobée quickly seized upon the chance to become Dutch consul in Jeddah, the port city of Mecca, when the opportunity presented itself in 1917. Snouck Hurgronje himself had proposed him without hesitation for this position. Although the Egyptians initially tried to prevent his stationing, he eventually reached Jeddah, where he remained until 1921. The Arab and Muslim world was in ferment at the time and Gobée followed the situation closely, publishing articles in various journals. He was very critical of British policy in the region under Lloyd George and considered the famous Lawrence of Arabia, whom he knew, to be someone “who understands nothing of Islam”.

In 1922 Gobée returned again to the Indies from the Netherlands, serving first as acting adviser for Native Affairs ( Inlandse zaken) and then as the first Assistant-Resident of Poso in Central Celebes, where until this point only a controleur had been stationed. His knowledge of Bare’e was certainly an asset and there he once again renewed his contacts with the Adrianis. In 1926 he was recruited for good as Adviser for Native Affairs, holding this post until he left the service in 1937 and repatriated to the Netherlands.

The role of the Adviser for Native Affairs was, when asked, to give counsel to the colonial government, in practice this meant the governor-general, in all matters of concern, the principal ones of which were the nationalist movement in all its diversity and other, purely Muslim, questions. The attitude of the governor-general was therefore determinate in whether the adviser was consulted or not. Those staunchly opposed to nationalism were little inclined to ask for advice, confining requests to strictly religious questions. Such was certainly Gobée’s experience in his tenure. Personally he himself always held the trust of the indigenous population and both high and low found the way to his office. The chief issue within Indonesian Islam in this period was the conflict between so-called traditionalists and modernists. At issue was not the sacrosanct nature of the Koran but rather that of Tradition, the modernists arguing that contemporaries were permitted to test its orthodoxy. Being a democratic man, Gobée sympathized with the latter, a standpoint not well appreciated by the traditionalists.

After his retirement from the colonial service he worked with others on a continuing project to make a concordance of Muslim tradition. During the Nazi occupation in the Second World War he fell afoul of the authorities and was interned for a year and a half. After the war, he turned his attention to education in the Indies, which had been totally disrupted by the conflict. and was asked to undertake a study mission there in 1949-1950 to report on the situation. His last work before his death on 7 December 1954 involved publishing position papers of Snouck Hurgronje under the auspices of the Oosters Instituut at Leiden University.

Gobee’s papers
The present collection was held by the Oosters Instituut at Leiden until donated to the Royal Netherlands Institute for Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden in 1979. It contains materials from various stages of Gobee’s career, including
— trainee controller ( aspirant-controleur) in Tentena, North Celebes (district Menado), 1908-1910.
— consul at Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1917-1921
— assistant-resident seconded to the adviser for native affairs, 1922-1924
— assistant-resident at Poso, Central Celebes, (district Menado), 1924-1926
— adviser for Native Affairs, 1926-1937, with materials concerning adat, Islam and political affairs
— documents concerning the investigation into the disturbances at Bantam in 1926
— miscellaneous materials, 1920-1937, including, among others, diary entries, 1928-1930 and political matters in the Middle East, 1920, 1924-1930, education, administrative reform and the future of the Netherlands Indies
— documents from after his retirement, including texts and notes of speeches and lectures on Islam and on various political parties in Indonesia; and correspondence with Ch.O. van der Plas, adviser for native affairs (1946)
— other materials, including nineteenth-century documents on education, newspapers clippings (20th century) on diverse topics, and letters in Arabic.

Part 3. Papers of Rudolf Aernoud Kern (1875-1958), period 1896-1955
Papers from his career as controller and assistant-resident in Java and (acting) adviser for native affairs; later as university teacher in the Netherlands.

Various Authors & Editors

Dutch Trade in Asia
Part 2: Papers of Jan Cock Blomhoff

Short biography
Jan Cock Blomhoff was born in Amsterdam on 5 August 1779. As a youth he served as a cadet in the campaign of 1794 against the French in the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium). After the French invasion of the northern Netherlands in 1795 he fled with his family to Germany where he took service in the regiment organized by the exiled Prince of Orange. He accompanied this unit to England, but returned to the Netherlands after the peace of Amiens with the French (1802) to devote himself to commerce. In 1805 he traveled from Bremen to Java in the Netherlands East Indies. Under the Dutch governor there, Marshall Daendels, he again entered military service in 1808 and was appointed first lieutenant and staff adjutant. In 1809 he assumed the post of pakhuismeester (lit. warehouse master) at the Dutch trading post in Deshima, the artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki where the Dutch had been permitted to stay since 1641. Hendrik Doeff was opperhoofd (head) at Deshima during this period. When the British took control of Java in 1811, their Lieutenant-governor, Thomas Raffles (founder of Singapore), tried the next year to wrest Deshima from the Dutch as well, but Doeff and Blomhoff adamantly refused to cede the post. On a mission to offer a trade agreement to Raffles in Java in 1813 he was instead made a prisoner of war and transferred to England. Liberated in 1815 he was promoted to opperhoofd of Deshima to succeed Doeff, but the return of Napoleon from exile compelled him to postpone his journey. He then served as chief administrator of a military supply depot in Dordrecht. In 1816 he was able to depart for the Indies, but only succeeded in gaining his post in Japan and relieving Doeff in 1817. Against the prevailing rules in Japan, he was accompanied by his young wife Titia and their infant son Johannes, she thus becoming “the first Western woman in Japan”, though not for long (see Bersma below, Literature) . Refused permission to stay at Deshima she returned to the Netherlands in December that same year and died without ever seeing Blomhoff again in 1821.

As head of Deshima, Cock Blomhoff vigorously promoted Dutch commercial interests, twice undertaking the strenuous hofreis (journey to the court of the shogun in Edo, now Tokyo). His account of this voyage in 1818 has recently been republished in an annotated edition (see Literature below). Besides his activities as a merchant, he was an avid collector of Japonica, assembling a significant collection of art and artifacts on behalf of the Royal Cabinet of Curiosities, which he took with him upon leaving Japan in 1823 for Batavia. The collection was later purchased by King William I (1826) and is now divided between the National Museum of Ethnology (Museum Volkenkunde) in Leiden and the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. In 1824 he returned to the Netherlands, for good as it turned out. He remarried in 1827 and lived in various places in the Netherlands before building the manor Birkhoven near Amersfoort where he died in 1853.

The archive
This small, but interesting collection of papers includes Dutch translations of dispositions and other official documents issued to him by the Japanese authorities in Nagasaki, more than 100 letters to him in Dutch from Japanese people (inventory number 4), bills and other documents concerning goods handled by the factory and repairs to its buildings and notes concerning customs and mores in Japan and other places (no. 13). Worth noting also are a catalogue of objects sent to Blomhoff by the shogun’s chief botanist in Edo (no. 6) and the extensive list of gifts required by the shogun for 1824 (no. 7). An intriguing part of the collection is formed by the letters written to Blomhoff in Japanese (almost completely in hiragana script) (no. 14) by (or for) a woman, presumably his mistress, a woman called Hana, who addressed him as “Captain” (“Kapitan” or “Mr. Ka” (see Legêne below, pp. 244-247) and the illustration on p. 13 below.

This archival collection was acquired by the National Archives of the Netherlands in 1907. An important addition to the original collection is the account made by E.H. Bergsma, Titia’s father, for Blomhoff and Titia’s son Johannes written around 1827 (no. 15), a photocopy of which was donated to the National Archives in 1996.

Literature

Bersma, René P. Titia: The First Western Woman in Japan. Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing, 2002.
De hofreis naar de shogun van Japan. Naar een persoonlijk verslag van Jan Cock Blomhoff, bezorgd door F.R. Effert, ingeleid en geannoteerd door Matthi Forrer. Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2000.
Legêne, Susan. De bagage van Blomhoff en Bruegel. Japan, Java, Tripoli en Suriname in de negentiende-eeuwse Nederlandse cultuur van het imperialisme. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, 1998.
Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Vol. I, pp. 374-375. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1911.

Note on the microfiches
The microfiches were made by Moran Micropublications by first filming on 35 mm microfilms the original documents made available by the National Archives and then reformatting these to 105 mm format (microfiche). The microfiches are numbered consecutively from 1 to 24. The headers are in Dutch and give the inventory numbers found on the fiche, among other information.

A great effort was made to film the documents in the appropriate text direction. For documents in Dutch this is of course left to right; for documents in Japanese right to left. For Japanese documents too long to be filmed in a single exposure (especially in inventory number 14, but also elsewhere), first the right side was filmed and then the left side with a significant overlap between the two shots to avoid loss of text. At times it was necessary to film the reverse of documents to capture small fragments of text. Again, especially in inventory number 14, but also in numbers 11-13, documents contained both Japanese and Dutch texts written in different directions. In these cases the documents were filmed twice, rotating the document as appropriate to achieve easy legibility for both languages. Inevitably perhaps in this complicated process a tiny number of filming errors were made, for which the publisher apologizes.

Acknowledgment
The publisher wishes to thank Dr. Matthi Forrer, head of the Research Department at the National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden, for his help and advice with the Japanese texts in this collection. Any errors are of course the responsibility of the publisher.

Various Authors & Editors

The Colonial Economy in the Netherlands Indies.
Part 1: The Commission to Investigate the Sugar Manufactories on Java, 1854-1857

Short background
In the early 1830s the Dutch introduced the “cultuurstelsel” (cultivation system) into their East Indies colony of Java. This system amounted to forcing the native Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops, in particular sugar and coffee, to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company ( Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and by the early 1850s circumstances such as new famines and decreasing sugar prices and increasing beet-sugar production led the minister of the Colonies to order an extensive investigation into the system of government sugar cultivation in Java. A commission headed by the former inspector of cultivations, G. Umbgrove, was appointed by the governor-general to accomplish that task by a decision of 8 December 1853. After nearly four years of continuous work, which met with resistance from various quarters among the “residents” (district governors) whose cooperation was necessary to carry out the research, they produced a voluminous report with many appendices on 14 September 1857. The commission was disbanded in February 1858. The report and accompanying documentation were then sent to the director of cultivations and later the Council of the Indies for their advice and was submitted to the minister in The Hague by the governor-general in February 1859. In June 1860 he issued new principles for the government’s sugar cultivations and in 1862 the report and appendices were also sent to Parliament as background information for the debate on the ministry’s budget for 1863. Parliament decided to have the report and some of the appendices printed for its own use (only a few copies are extant in the Netherlands). Dissatisfaction with the cultivation system remained and it was gradually abolished. The Agrarian Law of 1870, which made the establishment of private enterprises in the Indies possible, was a decisive moment in the process. A more extensive history of the Commission and its activities in Dutch by archivist H.B.N.B. Adam can be found below on pages 11-18. It also includes lists of the colonial officials of this period, the vagaries of the documents in the ensuing years, including details of what was printed by parliament, and the principles he followed in compiling his inventory.

The collection
Besides the report itself (inventory number 1 below, in clear-hand manuscript), the collection contains a major series of descriptions and statistics (called “monographs” by the Commission) for all the sugar manufactories in 13 residencies on Java. These documents contain a wealth of information, not only on sugar cultivation itself, but also on the social situation of the native population in the sugar-producing areas and form the core of this archive. They were never printed and are available only in manuscript (see inventory numbers 10-197 below). They are arranged by residency and divided by Adam into two sections, the monograph itself (inv. nos. 10-103) and the answers by the residents to the so-called “twelve questions” about the cultivations posed by the governor-general (inv. nos. 104-197).

In addition to these, other appendices cover objections to and complaints about the system ( bezwaren) from the indigenous population, colonial officials and holders of the government sugar-cultivation contracts (Appendix S, inv. nos. 199-211). These are also arranged by residency and are extant in both the printed and manuscript versions (indicated by hs. for handschrift). Other appendices concern the Commission’s conclusions (inv. nos. 212-214), proposals (nos. 215-227, also never printed), and summaries of the situation in each residency (nos. 228-240). Various numbers reproduce circulars, model contracts, models for the research to be carried out, and overviews and tables concerning surface area cultivated, yields and other matters (nos. 2-9, 198, 241). The availability of this valuable, but insufficiently known source material on microfiche will excite broad interest among historians of colonialism and other scholars.

Various Authors & Editors

The Colonial Economy in the Netherlands Indies
Part 2: The Commission for Industrial Development in the Netherlands Indies, 1915-1926

Short background
In the early 1830s the Dutch introduced the “cultuurstelsel” (cultivation system) into their East Indies colony of Java. This system amounted to forcing the native Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops, in particular sugar and coffee, to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company ( Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and by the early 1850s circumstances such as new famines and decreasing sugar prices and increasing beet-sugar production led the minister of the Colonies to order an extensive investigation into the system of government sugar cultivation in Java. A commission headed by the former inspector of cultivations, G. Umbgrove, was appointed by the governor-general to accomplish that task by a decision of 8 December 1853. After nearly four years of continuous work, which met with resistance from various quarters among the “residents” (district governors) whose cooperation was necessary to carry out the research, they produced a voluminous report with many appendices on 14 September 1857. The commission was disbanded in February 1858. The report and accompanying documentation were then sent to the director of cultivations and later the Council of the Indies for their advice and was submitted to the minister in The Hague by the governor-general in February 1859. In June 1860 he issued new principles for the government’s sugar cultivations and in 1862 the report and appendices were also sent to Parliament as background information for the debate on the ministry’s budget for 1863. Parliament decided to have the report and some of the appendices printed for its own use (only a few copies are extant in the Netherlands). Dissatisfaction with the cultivation system remained and it was gradually abolished. The Agrarian Law of 1870, which made the establishment of private enterprises in the Indies possible, was a decisive moment in the process. A more extensive history of the Commission and its activities in Dutch by archivist H.B.N.B. Adam can be found below on pages 11-18. It also includes lists of the colonial officials of this period, the vagaries of the documents in the ensuing years, including details of what was printed by parliament, and the principles he followed in compiling his inventory.

The collection
Besides the report itself (inventory number 1 below, in clear-hand manuscript), the collection contains a major series of descriptions and statistics (called “monographs” by the Commission) for all the sugar manufactories in 13 residencies on Java. These documents contain a wealth of information, not only on sugar cultivation itself, but also on the social situation of the native population in the sugar-producing areas and form the core of this archive. They were never printed and are available only in manuscript (see inventory numbers 10-197 below). They are arranged by residency and divided by Adam into two sections, the monograph itself (inv. nos. 10-103) and the answers by the residents to the so-called “twelve questions” about the cultivations posed by the governor-general (inv. nos. 104-197).

In addition to these, other appendices cover objections to and complaints about the system ( bezwaren) from the indigenous population, colonial officials and holders of the government sugar-cultivation contracts (Appendix S, inv. nos. 199-211). These are also arranged by residency and are extant in both the printed and manuscript versions (indicated by hs. for handschrift). Other appendices concern the Commission’s conclusions (inv. nos. 212-214), proposals (nos. 215-227, also never printed), and summaries of the situation in each residency (nos. 228-240). Various numbers reproduce circulars, model contracts, models for the research to be carried out, and overviews and tables concerning surface area cultivated, yields and other matters (nos. 2-9, 198, 241). The availability of this valuable, but insufficiently known source material on microfiche will excite broad interest among historians of colonialism and other scholars.

Various Authors & Editors

Dutch Trade in Asia
Part 1: Papers of Hendrik Doeff

Doeff in Japan
The name Hendrik Doeff (1777-1835) is a celebrated one in the history of Dutch cultural and commercial relations with Japan and the East. As a young man of nineteen he went out to the Indies to work in Batavia for the East India Company. In 1799 he was assigned to the Dutch trading post on the artificial island of Deshima in Nagasaki harbor, working his way up from clerk to director by 1803. During his stay in Japan he acquired a vast amount of knowledge of the country, its people, culture and language.

He saw to it that the Dutch maintained their monopoly of trade with Japan, which they had held as the only western power since the closing of the country in 1639. During the French annexation of the Netherlands (1810-1813) Deshima was one of only two places in the world where the Dutch flag continued to fly (the other was Elmina on the Gold Coast in West Africa). When the English took possession of the Dutch colony of Java in 1811 during the Napoleonic wars, the lieutenant-governor of the East Indies, Thomas Stafford Raffles (founder of Singapore) made attempts to take over Deshima as well, sending out ships that year and the following to persuade Doeff to strike the flag in favor of the English. Whatever offers they made, he adamantly refused and the English left empty-handed: “it was easy to say, but not so easily done, as the governor of Java found out”, Doeff later noted in his memoirs Herinneringen uit Japan (Haarlem 1833, p. 225*). On 6 December 1817, Doeff turned over control of the post to his successor Jan Cock Blomhoff and said farewell to “Japan, where I had spent half my life” (p. 254).

Scholarly pursuits
In addition to his commercial talents, Doeff had a keen scholarly interest in Japan and undertook research into Japanese customs, mores and religion. He learned the language quickly and worked almost daily with the Japanese interpreters to teach them Dutch, which they used as a vehicle to gather knowledge of the West (so-called rangaku “Dutch learning”). These linguistic exchanges resulted in a manuscript for a Dutch-Japanese dictionary, which he hoped to have published in Europe. The Japanese authorities, however, forbade him to take his work with him. He managed to make a copy in secret and smuggled it out of Deshima when he left, but this text and his entire collection of artifacts and scientific papers were all tragically lost in the shipwreck of the Admiral Evertsen during his return voyage to the Netherlands from Batavia in 1819. The ship had gotten into trouble in the Indian Ocean and though for a tense moment all on board “looked death in the eye” (p. 256), they were ( continued on reverse) rescued by an American sealer, the Pickering, off Diego Garcia. His pregnant wife survived the wreck, but died soon after on the next leg of the homeward journey.

Activities in the Netherlands
Back home Doeff remained occupied for the rest of his life with the Japanese and East Indies trade, acting as an advisor to the government and various merchants and commercial enterprises. He played a role in the founding of the “Nederlandsche Handel¬maatschappij” (NHM) (Netherlands Trading Society) in 1824 under the patronage of King William I, which was intended to exploit the East Indies colony and develop trade with it and with Asia more generally. He also pursued his scholarly interests, engaging in a controversy with P.F. Von Siebold over the authorship of the Dutch-Japanese dictionary claimed by the latter. His memoirs of Japan cited above have recently been translated as Recollections of Japan (2003). He died in Amsterdam in 1835.

Contents of the collection
The papers in this collection cover the following subjects:
• several episodes during his tenure at Deshima, including the visit to Japan of the Russian ambassador in 1804
• his commercial activities and advice in the Japan and Indies trade after his return (1819-1835) including
• much incoming and outgoing correspondence with political and commercial figures, firms and organizations
• documents concerning the selection and sending of gifts for the Shogun and the governor of Nagasaki
• many documents concerning the founding and functioning of the Nederlandsche Handelmaatschappij (NHM) (1824-1835)
• documents of a personal nature concerning among others his pension and claims against the English government, is role as curator or manager in various property questions and legacies, and an article and newspapers clippings on his life and work
• his scholarly writings and other documentation, including manuscripts of “Herinneringen uit Japan”, correspondence concerning his lost dictionary and that compiled by J.F. Overmeer Fisscher, the controversy with Von Siebold, various reviews, notes and comments, and others.

Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 2: The Expeditions of H.A. Lorentz to New Guinea, 1903-1914

National Archives of the Netherlands

on microfiche

Background
In 2004 Moran Micropublications started a new series of archival publications on microfiche on the theme of science in a colonial context. The first part consisted of the archive of the “Indies Committee for Scientific Research” (order number MMP112) (in Dutch Indisch Comité voor Wetenschappelijke Onderzoekingen), which organized and sent out many scientific expeditions to various parts of the Indonesian archipelago in the last years of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth centuries. In these years the world’s second largest island, New Guinea, was still largely unknown to the outside. The Dutch, who claimed half the island as part of their East Indies colony, were anxious to explore it for both commercial and scientific reasons and organized a series of expeditions there, among others in 1903, 1907, and 1909-1910. H.A. Lorentz (1871-1944, not to be confused with the Nobel-prize winning Dutch physicist Hendrik A. Lorentz, 1853-1928) participated in the first and led the second two. His personal archive of the three expeditions contains a great deal of correspondence with individuals and institutions in several countries and languages with an index of correspondents in the appendix (Bijlage I, pp.21-26 below); much information on the organization and infrastructure of the expeditions; and of course diaries, field notes, draft reports and other documents concerning the local population and the geography, flora and fauna of the regions explored. Also included are several maps, newspaper clippings and articles and manuscripts of his two major publications in which he recounted the first and third of the expeditions: Eenige maanden onder de papoea’s [Several months among the Papuans] (1905) and Zwarte menschen, witte bergen [Black people, white mountains] (1913, new edition 2005). His archive forms a valuable supplement to that of the Indies Committee.

Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 3: Papers of Prof. C.G.C. Reinwardt (1773-1854) on the East Indies (c. 1755-1828)

National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

on microfiche

Background
In 2004 Moran Micropublications started a new series of archival publications on microfiche on the theme of science in a colonial context. The first part consisted of the archive of the “Indies Committee for Scientific Research” (order number MMP112) and the second that of “The Expeditions of H.A. Lorentz to New Guinea, 1903-1914” (order number MMP130). Here we present part 3 of this series with order number MMP131.

The collection
Caspar Georg Carl Reinwardt was born in the Rhineland province of Prussia in 1773, but moved to the Netherlands at a young age. He studied science and philosophy there, later becoming a professor of natural history. From 1817 to 1822 he served the Dutch in the East Indies, recently recovered from British control after the Napoleonic wars ended in 1815, as director of affairs for agriculture, arts and sciences. He is best known as the founder of the famous botanical gardens at Buitenzorg (now Bogor) on Java (1817). He traveled extensively in the archipelago in these years. His papers micropublished here concern among others gathering samples of flora and fauna for the natural history collections in the Netherlands and scientific investigations into various subjects, such as earthquakes and volcanoes, mining and agriculture. Also included are various papers and memoranda (memories) of officials of the VOC (Dutch East India Company) from the second-half of the eighteenth century, as well as a short travel account by the Belgian artist A.A.J. Payen and a few documents from Reinwardt’s period as professor in Leiden after his return from the Indies.

More materials sought
As appears from the introduction to Reinwardt and the present collection by A. M. Tempelaars reproduced below on pages 9-12 in Dutch and English, other archival materials from Reinwardt seem to have found their way into the holdings of the University Library in Leiden. From other sources as well it appears that there are still other repositories with Reinwardt holdings. Moran Micropublications will be making efforts to identify and also micropublish these documents if possible.

More information
More information on Reinwardt’s career and scientific achievements can be found on the website of the Netherlands National Herbarium in Leiden:

http://www.nationaalherbarium.nl/fmcollectors/R/ReinwardtCGC.htm

and in the publications cited below in the Guide (p. 9).

Various Authors & Editors

The Indonesian Hajj
Part 2: The archives of the Dutch Vice-consulate and Medical Officer at Mecca, Saudi Arabia, 1937-1950

Background
In 1872 the Dutch opened a consulate (elevated to legation in 1930) in the Red Sea port of Jiddah (also spelled Jeddah), the gateway to the holy city of Mecca, to care for and monitor the activities of the thousands of pilgrims coming each year from the Netherlands East Indies for the hajj. The consulate’s archive is available from Moran on microfiche (order no. MMP106).

Vice-consulate in Mecca
The Netherlands enjoyed a good reputation in Arabia and the Indonesian pilgrims were regarded as the “rice of the Holy Land”. They were often the most numerous as well as being the wealthiest and most willing of pilgrims. In recognition of this situation, the Netherlands, alone of all countries, including Muslim lands, was granted the privilege of opening a vice-consulate in Mecca itself in 1923, staffed by an Indonesian Muslim. He was joined there in 1927 by a medical doctor, also an Indonesian Muslim, who ran a permanent policlinic for the benefit of the visiting pilgrims and the important Djawa colony of some 2,000 Indonesians living full-time in Mecca (the so-called Moekimien). The archives of vice-consulate and legation doctor covering the years 1937-1950 are now also available on microfiche as a small, but interesting supplement to the Jiddah archive.
The pilgrimage was not only a religious event, but also formed an essential source of income for the cities of Mecca and Medina, the Hejaz region along the Red Sea coast and the country as a whole until supplanted by royalties from the production of oil. A primary task of the consulate and vice-consulate was therefore to protect the Indonesian pilgrims from possible exploitation by unscrupulous locals. A second major concern was the health of the individual pilgrims and the maintenance of public health by preventing contagious diseases such as small pox and cholera.

War and decolonization
The period covered by these archives stands in the shadow of the Second World War, the Indonesian revolution of 1945 and the ensuing drama of decolonization leading to the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949. In its best years between 1927 and the Depression an average of 40,000 Indonesians per year had made the pilgrimage. The 1930s were more difficult due to the economic collapse and the coming of war in 1939 stopped the flow of pilgrims entirely. The occupation of the Netherlands by the Nazis in May 1940 and especially the fall of the Netherlands Indies to Japan in 1942 brought difficult times for the Indonesian community in Mecca as remittances from home became impossible. The legation doctor in these years was reduced to making his own small-pox vaccine with whatever means he had at hand. After the war a cautious reprise begins for the Indonesian hajj in 1946, but the political and military conflict between the Dutch and Indonesian Republican nationalists continued to disturb the flow of pilgrims, as well as causing tensions among the Moekimien and among the Dutch-Indonesian diplomatic personnel. In 1947 some 4,000 Indonesians made the journey to Mecca. With more than 10,000 pilgrims in 1948 the best results in 10 years were achieved, but it was to be the last pilgrimage under the complete “door to door aegis” of the Dutch. The second “police action” against the Republic of Indonesia in December-January 1948-1949 was a military success, but a diplomatic disaster that finally forced the Netherlands to let its colony go. The 1949 hajj was overshadowed by the coming transfer of sovereignty, while that of 1950 was under Indonesian control, though for the final time Dutch ships were still used to transport the pilgrims. On May 1 of that year the Dutch diplomatic representation in Jiddah and Mecca passed to independent Indonesian hands and the archives of the legation and vice-consulate were repatriated to the Netherlands.

Source
H.H. Dingemans, Bij Allah’s buren [ With Allah’s neighbors]. Rotterdam, 1973.
Dingemans was chargé d’affaires at Jiddah in 1939-1940 and legation head ( gezant) from 1945 until the mission’s closing in 1950.