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Various Authors & Editors

Rare Printed Sources and Reference Works for the History of Dutch Colonialism
J.P. Coen

on microfiche

MMP115
Coen, Jan Pieterszoon [1587-1629], Bescheiden omtrent zijn bedrijf in Indië. 7 vols. in 8.
's Gravenhage, 1919-1953.

Correspondence and other documents by and to the chief initiator of Dutch colonialism in the East Indies and Asia compiled by H.T. Colenbrander from the originals in the archive of the Amsterdam chamber of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in the National Archives of the Netherlands and supplemented by W. Ph. Coolhaas. Coen first sailed to the Indies in 1607 as an assistant merchant for the Dutch East India Company (VOC). He studied the possibilities for trade and reported on them in detail to the Company when he returned to the Netherlands. The VOC sent him out again in 1612 as chief merchant. He advanced through various positions and was appointed governor general of the Indies in 1617, a post he held until early 1623. During his years in the archipelago, he established a monopoly over the spice trade in the Moluccas and on the Banda islands, suppressing local resistance with a hard hand. He fought to keep English commercial rivals out of the region and against the sultan of Bantam when he challenged Dutch authority by besieging a Dutch fort at their trading post Jacatra on Java. Coen burned down the town and founded Batavia on its ruins in 1619. It was to remain the capital of the Netherlands East Indies colony until Indonesian independence in 1949 when it reassumed its original name as Jakarta. Coen died in Batavia in 1629 during his third (unofficial) stay in the Indies, where he wanted to encourage more Dutch settlement.

Various Authors & Editors

Rare Printed Sources and Reference Works for the History of Dutch Colonialism
Realia: Register

on microfiche

MMP116/1
Realia: Register op de generale resolutiën van het kasteel Batavia, 1632-1805. 2 vols. Leiden 1882-1885.

The “realia” are indexes of the resolutions taken by the Netherlands Indies government represented by the Council of the Indies ( Raad van Indië), which met in Batavia Castle during the period of Dutch East India Company rule. The concepts and spelling are contemporary. Under alphabetical subject headings, each entry gives the short content and date of the resolutions concerning that subject arranged chronologically. The various contemporary registers were brought together, integrated and published in the 1880s under the auspices of the Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences. The original resolutions themselves are kept in the National Archives of Indonesia in Jakarta. Contemporary copies are held by the National Archives of the Netherlands in The Hague.

Various Authors & Editors

Rare Printed Sources and Reference Works for the History of Dutch Colonialism
Repertorium

on microfiche

MMP117
Repertorium op de literatuur betreffende de Nederlandse Koloniën in Oost- en West-Indië voor zover zij verspreid is in tijdschriften en mengelwerken. 11 vols.
Published 1877-1934.

Essential bibliography of the literature found in periodicals and compilations going back to 1595 for the East Indies and to 1840 for the West Indies, both taken up to 1932. It appeared between 1877 and 1934. The first two volumes were the work of J.C. Hooykaas , who compiled more than 21,000 entries on the Dutch colonies in Asia up to 1865. The work was continued by A. Hartman, who included references to the West Indies, and subsequently by others. The volumes are organized systematically and are all indexed.
Reformed Protestantism
5. East Friesland and North-Western Germany

Part I
In the 16th century, the seaport town of Emden at the heart of East Friesland grew into the “mother church” of Dutch Calvinism, which was the driving force behind the Dutch Revolt. Concurrently, in neighbouring North-Western Germany the so-called “second Reformation” took place, that is, the calvinizing of Lutheran lands. From 1555 onwards, the Lutheran cities of Bremen and Hamburg became the scenes of sacramentarian controversies which had an impact far beyond their borders. They marked a critical phase in the transition of German left wing Lutherans to (a form of) Calvinism and in the consolidation processes of the Lutheran and Reformed confessions in North-Western Europe.

• Number of titles: 144
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
• Purchase option: Outright purchase

Location of originals: Johannes a Lasco Library at Emden

Part II
The second part of this collection focuses on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. The collection presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.

• Number of titles: 385
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available

The second part of this collection focuses on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. The collection presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.

Location of originals: Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen; Johannes a Lasco Bibliothek, Emden; Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Bibliotheek Theologische Universiteit Kampen; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; Universiteitsbibliotheek Maastricht; Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht

This collection is also included in the Reformed Protestantism Sources of the 16th and 17th Centuries collection.
The Old Believers movement

The Old Believers
The Old Believers (or “Old Ritualists”) originated as a group of religious dissenters opposed to Patriarch Nikon’s ritualistic innovations in the second half of the 17th century. The dispute over the revision of the service books, which initially had a religious and cultural character, soon escalated and resulted in the schism of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Persecuted by the authorities for adhering to the old rituals and service books, the Old Believers fled European Russia and settled in the sparsely populated areas of Siberia and the far north. Many of their communities lived in almost complete isolation, thus preserving the old liturgical practices that were crucial to their religious and cultural identity.
After years of persecution, the situation improved for the Old Believers in 1905, when Tsar Nicholas II issued the Edict of Toleration. In 1971, the Russian Orthodox Church revoked the anathemas of the 17th century.
Today, there are about 2.5 million Old Believers living in Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the world.
The Old Belief is not only a religious movement, but also a social and cultural phenomenon. From the end of the 17th until the beginning of the 20th century, the Old Believers participated increasingly actively in the social and political processes in Russia. Their books and periodicals are a unique historical source for tracing the relations between Old Believer communities and the world at large, and for establishing the role and status of the Old Believers within Russian society, their influence on the social and cultural processes in Russia, their economic activities, and their cooperation with the representatives of other religious creeds. Today, there are about 2.5 million Old Believers living in Russia, the United States, Canada, Australia and other parts of the world.

Illegal book printing and samizdat
Starting in 1653 with the publication of the first amended service book, the Old Believers rejected the alterations imposed by Patriarch Nikon and recognized only those books that predated his reforms. Because the State had a monopoly on book printing and confiscated old liturgical material, an alarming shortage of old religious books soon became felt. The Old Believers responded by printing their own service books in illegal printing houses in Russia, as well as abroad - Austria, Prussia, and the Kingdom of Poland. They also ran secret print shops (Moscow and its surroundings, the Volga region, the Urals, and Siberia) and often succeeded in misleading the authorities by putting a false place of publication on the title page. Historians agree that these illegally produced materials were the first form of samizdat literature to appear in Russia.

The Golden Age of book printing
The practice of illegal book-printing came to an end with the enactment of the Edict of Tolerance in 1905 – a date generally considered to mark the beginning of the Golden Age of the Old Believers’ book printing.
In only thirteen years more books were published than during the two preceding centuries combined. These years also witnessed a flood of newspapers, journals, calendars and an impressive number of original monographs.
The Old Believers’ book production during the “Golden Age” is estimated to exceed one thousand titles, many of which enjoyed high print runs. Old prayer books dating from before the Nikon reforms were reprinted, some of which for the first time and on the basis of ancient manuscripts: the Apostolos, the Ostrog Bible, Stoglav (a moral codex of “hundred chapters”), the famous Domostroi and the Pomorskie otvety ( Answers from Pomor’e). For the first time chant books could be accurately printed.

Old Believer printing houses
After 1905, there were about a dozen Old Believer printing houses throughout the country, for example, in Moscow, Ural’sk, and Nizhniĭ Novgorod. One of the largest and best known was the one set up in Moscow in 1907 by the prominent businessman, P.P. Riabushinskiĭ. It was housed in a famous building that had been designed by the architect F. Shekhtel´ according to the modern style.

Publishing in exile
This period of freedom was relatively short, however: In 1917, the Bolsheviks seized power and closed down all religious printing houses. For a while, the Old Believers continued printing books (mostly anti-Soviet material) on Russian soil, but only in those areas that were controlled by the White Movement. Between the second half of the 1920s and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Old Believers were again forced to live in exile. They set up print shops in Harbin (China), Chisinau (which was then in Rumania, but is now the capital of Moldova), Poland, Latvia, Switzerland, the United States, and Australia. Until 1991, book production in Russia was limited to a few church calendars, and these were strictly censored and scarcely distributed.

Spiritual heritage
The religious books that were printed prior to Nikon’s reforms have always had a sacred status among Old Believers. Considering any alteration in the text a distortion of the Word of God, they have persisted in using the Old Slavic language and the kirillicheskiĭ shrift.
Rigorous and uncompromizing, the Old Believers have played an absolutely crucial role in the preservation of the Russian book, the Russian icon and Russia’s spiritual heritage at large.

Installment 1: Periodicals
The series on the Old Believers provides a wide variety of materials that will help to shed new light on the fascinating history of this religious minority and its place in Russian history. The present installment includes the most prominent and widely read Old Believers’ periodicals published between 1905 and 1918. The collection includes, amongst others, journals of the Popovtsy ( Zlatostrui, Mirskaia zhizni), of the so-called Pomor´e Union ( Shchit very, Vestnik Vserossiĭ skogo soiuza khristian pomorskogo soglasiia), the Belokrinitskiĭ Hierarchy ( Tserkov’, Staroobriadcheskaia mysl’, Staroobriadets) and the Chapel Consent ( Ural´skiĭ staroobriadets). Published during one of the most dynamic and turbulent periods of Russian history, these periodicals allow us to appreciate the traditional, yet vibrant world of the Old Believers at the eve of the revolution.

Installment 2: Old Believer Cyrillic-script books
The printing of Old Believer books in kirillicheskiĭ shrift is a unique phenomenon in book history. The Old Believer movement carried on the traditions of Russian Orthodox Christianity into the middle of the 20th century. The Old Believer culture was outstanding in its rigorous acceptance of Cyrillic Church Slavonic texts, and in its guarded attitude toward the same texts printed in grazhdanskiĭ shrift, which were introduced by Peter I in 1708. The books printed in Cyrillic have therefore always been the main source of information concerning the history and spiritual faith of the Old Believers. The beginning of the 20th century witnessed an avalanche of printed Old Believer religious literature. This literature comprises a number of original monographs, titled books, and icon-painting originals, as well as reprinted anti-Old Believer pamphlets in krillicheskiĭ shrift bearing polemic comments written by Old Believer adepts.

Installment 3. Old Believer secular literature
At the dawn of the 20th century, the Old Believers exhibited an amazing ability to adapt to the new social and economic conditions without abandoning their traditional culture or their religious beliefs. This period saw the birth and subsequent blossoming of the widely known business dynasties. One of the main driving forces behind the printing of books in grazhdanskiĭ shrift was the revival of the polemic disputes between the Old Believers and the official Church. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Old Believers printed their secular literature in grazhdanskiĭ shrift, in order to draw attention to their crucial need for a greater number of sympathizers from the outside.
The variety of this type of Old Believer literature is extensive, ranging from historical and ethnographic works, polemic and political essays, scholarly works on philosophy, economics, and statistics, to works on theology and law, the minutes of Old Believer assemblies, fiction, and even poetry.
The recourse by the Old Believers to grazhdanskiĭ shrift and their deliberate orientation toward the “outside” reader and secular themes, makes this literature both more accessible and richer in substance and variety of topics.

Libraries
The project is executed in close cooperation with Russia’s main libraries: the State Historical Public Library in Moscow, the National Library of Russia and the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences (BAN) in St. Petersburg.
The Old Believers movement
Periodicals, 1905-1918
The series on the Old Believers provides a wide variety of materials that will help to shed new light on the fascinating history of this religious minority and its place in Russian history. The present installment includes the most prominent and widely read Old Believers’ periodicals published between 1905 and 1918. The collection includes, amongst others, journals of the Popovtsy ( Zlatostrui, Mirskaia zhizni), of the so-called Pomor´e Union ( Shchit very, Vestnik Vserossiĭ skogo soiuza khristian pomorskogo soglasiia), the Belokrinitskiĭ Hierarchy ( Tserkov’, Staroobriadcheskaia mysl’, Staroobriadets) and the Chapel Consent ( Ural´skiĭ staroobriadets). Published during one of the most dynamic and turbulent periods of Russian history, these periodicals allow us to appreciate the traditional, yet vibrant world of the Old Believers at the eve of the revolution.

This collection is also included in the Religious Dissent in Russia: Old Believers collection.
The Old Believers movement
Cyrillic-Script Books, 1906-1916
The printing of Old Believer books in kirillicheskiĭ shrift is a unique phenomenon in book history. The Old Believer movement carried on the traditions of Russian Orthodox Christianity into the middle of the 20th century. The Old Believer culture was outstanding in its rigorous acceptance of Cyrillic Church Slavonic texts, and in its guarded attitude toward the same texts printed in grazhdanskiĭ shrift, which were introduced by Peter I in 1708. The books printed in Cyrillic have therefore always been the main source of information concerning the history and spiritual faith of the Old Believers. The beginning of the 20th century witnessed an avalanche of printed Old Believer religious literature. This literature comprises a number of original monographs, titled books, and icon-painting originals, as well as reprinted anti-Old Believer pamphlets in krillicheskiĭ shrift bearing polemic comments written by Old Believer adepts.

This collection is also included in the Religious Dissent in Russia: Old Believers collection.
The Old Believers movement
Old Believer Secular Literature, 1906-1918
At the dawn of the 20th century, the Old Believers exhibited an amazing ability to adapt to the new social and economic conditions without abandoning their traditional culture or their religious beliefs. This period saw the birth and subsequent blossoming of the widely known business dynasties. One of the main driving forces behind the printing of books in grazhdanskiĭ shrift was the revival of the polemic disputes between the Old Believers and the official Church. At the beginning of the 20th century, the Old Believers printed their secular literature in grazhdanskiĭ shrift, in order to draw attention to their crucial need for a greater number of sympathizers from the outside.
The variety of this type of Old Believer literature is extensive, ranging from historical and ethnographic works, polemic and political essays, scholarly works on philosophy, economics, and statistics, to works on theology and law, the minutes of Old Believer assemblies, fiction, and even poetry.
The recourse by the Old Believers to grazhdanskiĭ shrift and their deliberate orientation toward the “outside” reader and secular themes, makes this literature both more accessible and richer in substance and variety of topics.

This collection is also included in the Religious Dissent in Russia: Old Believers collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Science in a Colonial Context
Part 1: Scientific Expeditions in the Netherlands East Indies, 1888-1948 – The Archive of the Indies Committee for Scientific Research and Related Bodies

From the National Archives of the Netherlands

on microfiche

Background
Trade follows the flag, but it also follows science, or so believed the Dutch with regard to their immense colony in the Indonesian archipelago. At the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth there were still many white spots on the map and many things to be learned about the people and islands under Dutch control, in particular the second largest island in the world, the virtually unexplored New Guinea. Such knowledge would lead to a more efficient economic exploitation of the colony for agriculture, industry and mining. In keeping also with a current of thinking in colonial policy going back to the 1840s (J.C. Baud), knowledge of the indigenous peoples and cultures was necessary for good governance and public acceptance of Dutch rule. Finally, in this "age of imperialism" the Dutch feared that if they did not undertake the exploration and opening up of the remoter parts of their island empire, other nations just might be tempted to try.

Origins of the Committee
By the late 1880s dissatisfaction with the less than successful efforts of the Royal Dutch Geographical Society (1873) in organizing and carrying out scientific expeditions led to the founding of new organizations for this purpose. In 1887 Dr. Melchior Treub, director of the Botanical Gardens in Buitenzorg (Bogor), founded the "Commission for the Promotion of Research in the Natural Sciences in the Dutch Colonies" in Amsterdam. He firmly believed a base in the Indies was needed for successful organization of expeditions and in 1888 he set up an " Indisch Comité" (Indies Committee) in Batavia, whose members were recruited from local learned societies and included such distinguished figures as the linguist and ethnologist C. Snouck Hurgronje. Two years later L. Serrurier founded the "Society for the Promotion of Research in the Natural Sciences in the Dutch Colonies", which soon eclipsed and took over the Commission. It used the Indies Committee as its executive branch in the colony. Unlike the Commission, the Society eagerly sought to raise funds from the colonial government and the business community and entrusted the Indies Committee with administering and spending the annual government subsidy of 10,000 guilders it received. In 1897 the Indies Committee became an official legal entity for that purpose under the name Indisch Comité voor Wetenschappelijke Onderzoekingen (ICWO) (Indies Committee for Scientific Research) and came more and more to regard itself not as a subsidiary, but rather as the equal of the Society and other bodies. In the course of the years it strove to achieve an independent status and to raise money from business to supplement the subsidy. In the period from the 1890s until the advent of the Great Depression in the 1930s, when sources of funding dried up, it used its resources to organize a series of scientific expeditions, support and encourage research in other ways and maintain contacts with scientific organizations and institutions internationally. Among the disciplines in which the ICWO sought to stimulate work were, in addition to geography and cartography, zoology, botany, geology, topography, hydrology, oceanography, linguistics, anthropology, ethnography and ethnomusicology.

Expeditions undertaken
In its heyday the ICWO organized and sent out major general scientific expeditions usually preceded by reconnaissance missions accompanied by military personnel. In addition it organized oceanographic and geological expeditions as follows:

General Scientific Expeditions
• Borneo: 1892, 1897-1898, 1925
• Buru (1921)
• New Guinea: 1895, 1902-1903, 1909-1910, 1912-1913 (south, Snow Mountains), 1920-1921 (central), 1920-1921 (north), 1926 (joint American expedition, central-north, Nassau Mountains), 1932 (north, plans)
• Sangi and Talaud islands, Morotai: 1926
• Oceanographic (the "Snellius") expedition: 1928

Reconnaissance expeditions
• New Guinea: 1904-1906 (de Rochemont), 1905 (SW coast), 1908-1912 (military, south), 1910 (cover for an English expedition), 1910 (west); 1909-1910 (Humboldt Bay, north), 1910-1912 (west); 1912 (north), 1914 (north, survey books), 1926 (north, survey book)

Geological expeditions
• New Guinea (north), 1932-1933, 1933-1935

The Archive
The archive contains among others:
minutes of the Committee's meetings from 1888 to 1940
• a very large body of (international) correspondence with scientists, scientific organizations and laboratories, museums, libraries and universities, and with government officials, businesses, etc. indexed by the National Archives
plans and proposals for expeditions and other forms of research
• published and unpublished reports and results of the expeditions undertaken
diaries and field notes
• printed and hand-drawn maps and drawings
• photos
• requests for research and publication subsidies
• fundraising appeals
• financial and administrative papers

Archives of related bodies
Also included in the present micropublication are two related archives. The Natuurwetenschappelijke Raad van Nederlandsch-Indië (Natural Science Council of the Netherlands East Indies) (1925-1941) was an organ set up in Batavia to provide advice to the Netherlands Indies government on all science-related issues and to stimulate and coordinate research. Its archive has (international) correspondence, all indexed, and other documents, including those relating to an expedition to New Guinea in 1938.

Founded after the Second World War, the Coordinatie Commissie voor Natuurwetenschappelijke Zaken (1945-1948) (Coordinating Commission for Natural Science Affairs) had the task of getting scientific organizations running again after the Japanese occupation and also corresponded internationally ( indexed ), including with the Netherlands New Guinea Exploration Committee in 1946-1948.

Various Authors & Editors

Rare Indonesian-Language Periodical: Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), 1869-1925

Background
In cooperation with the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia and the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies, Moran Micropublications has made an edition on microfiche of the very rare twice monthly newspaper Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), which was published in Manado in the Minahasa region of northern Sulawesi between 1869 and 1925. It is one of the oldest Malay-language newspapers of the Netherlands East Indies and the first, and for five decades, only one published in the Minahasa. It is of great importance for the history of the local and regional press in Indonesia.

Founder and goals
It was founded by Nicolaas Graafland, a missionary of the Protestant Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, with the goal of fostering the development of the indigenous people of the Minahasa, not only in a religious sense, but also socially, intellectually and morally through reading and education. Graafland himself had been sent to the East Indies to help set up teacher training schools and viewed the paper as an extension of such work. In this regard the paper was part of a current of colonial thinking promoting the uplifting of the people through education that would crystallize into the “Ethical Policy” around 1900. The choice of name is no accident. Its task was to bring light to the population, not only the light of the Gospel, but also that of western civilization banishing the dark age of tradition and superstition that had prevailed until then. Newspapers with names in which light played a role sprang up in other parts of the archipelago in this period.

To accomplish its ends Tjahaja Sijang published articles and editorials on a great variety of subjects, both secular and religious, ranging from traditional versus Christian conceptions of marriage to economic and social issues such as systems of money and exchange and the use of forced labor. Although founded by, edited and written for by Dutch missionaries, Tjahaja Sijang attracted more and more Indonesian contributors, such as district and village heads, assistants from coffee plantations, school teachers and doctors. The many letters to the editor it published provide an invaluable primary source for probing the thinking of the local population. Increasingly the paper also published news from other regions and countries, thus exposing the people to the wider world. By the end of the period, the newspaper was entirely in Indonesian hands and had shed much of its missionary trappings. It had also grown more political, although never as radical as the nationalist press emerging elsewhere in the islands in the 1920s.

Malay
The use of the Malay language as spoken in the Minahasa also makes Tjahaja Sijang interesting from a linguistic point of view. Malay was the obvious choice for publication because it had long been the lingua franca of the region and was in use in education and by the colonial administration. Its use in turn by the paper during more than 50 years no doubt helped form the local variant of the language and promote its adoption by the people of the Minahasa. This linguistic link to the wider Malay-speaking world initiated by Dutch missionaries may then, albeit unintended, have acted as a factor in the process of national integration that was starting to unfold during these years.

Source: “Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), its significance for the History of the Indonesian Local Press,” by A.B. Lapian in Proceedings: Seventh IAHA Conference 22-26 August 1977 . Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press 1979. Vol. 2, pp. 910-923

Technical note on the microfiches
The microfiches published here were made for Moran Micropublications by reformatting 35mm microfilms of Tjahaja Sijang originally made by the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia, lent to us by the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden, the Netherlands. The films were made under technically less than optimal conditions and some images were of poor quality.
During the reformatting process an effort was made to achieve better quality images, which by and large succeeded. In a few cases, however, the quality could not be enhanced.