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Various Authors & Editors

Women in the Netherlands East Indies

Part 1: The Archive of the Colonial School for Girls and Women, The Hague, 1920-1949
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Introduction
Starting in the second half of the nineteenth century a western-style capitalist economy began to develop in the Netherlands East Indies colony. Numerous agricultural , trading , mining and extraction companies were founded to exploit such crops and natural resources as tobacco, rubber and oil, particularly on Sumatra's East coast, but also on the other "outer islands", which were brought under Dutch control during the second half of the nineteenth and first years of the twentieth century. The infrastructure improved through the building of roads, bridges and railways, and steamship and packet boat companies began to operate regular services connecting the various islands of the archipelago on the one hand and Europe with the East Indies on the other with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869. A new so-called "ethical policy" was officially introduced in the colony in 1901 that aimed to develop the East Indies through the use of western methods and technology and the expansion of education among the indigenous population. As a result more European men, and in increasing numbers women, were attracted to the East Indies seeking work and a new life. The previously slow-paced society there - the so-called "tempoe doeloe" - in which the native njai (housekeeper) played an important role, began to change character. Urbanization proceeded apace and western-style tropical suburbs began to develop, but in many places, particularly in the outer islands, the European officials, planters and employees still confronted primitive and isolated conditions. European women who wanted to emigrate to the East Indies, especially to the more remote areas, had to prepare themselves for this challenge. Education was deemed essential and in this context the Colonial School was born.

School founded
The Colonial School for Girls and Women was founded on 11 March 1920 with the goal of giving young women who wanted to live and work in the Dutch East Indies an education that would enable them to adapt more easily to the new and unfamiliar environment. It also addressed itself to women who had been born and brought up in the Indies, but had been living for some time in the Netherlands. In addition to the main course on Dutch and Indonesian cooking and childcare, there were also courses given in the Malay language and on the geography and ethnology of the East Indies. Financial support was given by companies and individuals with an interest in promoting this endeavor and the school was able to open its doors in a building on the Westeinde in The Hague on 24 September 1921. The courses lasted for three months, the initial ones running from 26 September to 22 December 1921. In its promotional and course material the school reflected the role attributed at the time to women in the family, not only in the colony, but also in the Netherlands itself. Not only did the women have to adapt to life in the East, but they were also expected to bring a bit of the home country with them, as can be seen from the courses on Dutch cooking.
In the course of the years the school went through some difficult periods, especially during the crisis of the depression around 1933 when various companies discontinued their sponsorship and fewer students applied, and of course also during the years of the Second World War, when the Netherlands was occupied by the Germans and the East Indies by the Japanese. After the war in 1946 a spirited attempt was made to relaunch the school's activities, but the unfavorable influence exercised by the anticolonial uprising and the events of decolonization in Indonesia could not be overcome. On 26 February 1949 it was decided to change the name of the school to the "East Indian [Indische] School for Girls and Women", but given the political developments in Indonesia it was already too late. The school no longer had a reason for existence and closed for good on 29 December 1949, with the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic of Indonesia.

Part 2: The Kartini-schools for Girls: The Archive of the Kartini Fund, 1912-1960
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

The Ethical policy
Around 1900 Dutch colonial policy made a sharp change of course. The previous "liberal" decades had witnessed a rapid expansion of a western-style modern economy fed by an influx of capital from the Netherlands and other European countries as finally the whole archipelago was brought under Dutch control. At this point good business practice intersected with humanitarian impulses in calling for a general increase in the welfare of the indigenous population in order to further the efficient exploitation of the new colonial economy. This "ethical policy" rested on the pillars of improved education to create better native administrators and workers, irrigation to increase crop yields in order to feed the steadily increasing population, and emigration to relocate people from overpopulated Java to the outer islands to work in new enterprises being developed there.
Education was supposed to be the showcase of the new policy and many initiatives were in fact undertaken by the colonial government up to about 1930, but given the enormous size of the population the ultimate results were disappointing and most benefits were restricted to a tiny male elite. In terms of education for women, the modest efforts of J.H. Abendanon, director of the department of education (1900-1905), to create opportunities for upper-class Javanese women soon foundered on the conservative resistance of both Dutch colonial officials and the Javanese regent class (the bupatis).

Kartini
The cause of education for (elite)women had been taken up and championed by Raden Ajeng (=Lady) Kartini (1879-1904), a daughter of the progressive regent of Jepara in north central Java. Quite unusually for the time and place she had attended the European lower school in the regency and learned to speak and write fluent Dutch. Although still very young she made many influential contacts among Dutch colonial officials and politicians in the Netherlands itself and carried on an extensive correspondence in which she advocated female education and emancipation, in particular ending the practice of polygamy by the males of her class. She died at the age of twenty-five following complications on the birth of her first child. Although it would be anachronistic to call her a nationalist or feminist, she was later revered by the national movement for independence as a pioneer and her birthday is now a national holiday in Indonesia.

The Kartini fund
Among her many correspondents were Abandanon himself and his wife. In 1911 he edited a selection of her letters to them and others and published them under the title Door duisternis tot licht ("Through darkness to light", later translated into English as Letters of a Javanese princess). Kartini had inspired many people in the colony and the home country with her ideals. Royalties from the book and other donations made possible the creation of the "Kartini Fund" in 1913, a privately administered foundation to realize her goal of providing Dutch-language secondary education to Javanese girls. That same year the first "Kartini school" opened in Semarang, Central Java. Many were to follow in subsequent years.

The Kartini schools
Set up as simple boarding schools for Javanese girls who had been through the European lower school, they were to provide secondary education for a maximum of seven years. The teaching staff was to be entirely female and was encouraged as much as possible to live in so as to constitute "one big family" with the pupils.

The archive
The archive contains correspondence, reports, statutes, minutes of meetings, financial documents, teaching materials, photos, brochures, periodicals, press clippings and other types of documentation concerning the founding and adminstration of the Kartini schools in general and the individual schools in Java. The complete inventory is available for consultation and will soon be posted on our website.

Various Authors & Editors

Women in the Netherlands East Indies. Part 1: The Archive of the Colonial School for Girls and Women, The Hague, 1920-1949
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

Introduction
Starting in the second half of the nineteenth century a western-style capitalist economy began to develop in the Netherlands East Indies colony. Numerous agricultural , trading , mining and extraction companies were founded to exploit such crops and natural resources as tobacco, rubber and oil, particularly on Sumatra's East coast, but also on the other "outer islands", which were brought under Dutch control during the second half of the nineteenth and first years of the twentieth century. The infrastructure improved through the building of roads, bridges and railways, and steamship and packet boat companies began to operate regular services connecting the various islands of the archipelago on the one hand and Europe with the East Indies on the other with the opening of the Suez canal in 1869. A new so-called "ethical policy" was officially introduced in the colony in 1901 that aimed to develop the East Indies through the use of western methods and technology and the expansion of education among the indigenous population. As a result more European men, and in increasing numbers women, were attracted to the East Indies seeking work and a new life. The previously slow-paced society there - the so-called "tempoe doeloe" - in which the native njai (housekeeper) played an important role, began to change character. Urbanization proceeded apace and western-style tropical suburbs began to develop, but in many places, particularly in the outer islands, the European officials, planters and employees still confronted primitive and isolated conditions. European women who wanted to emigrate to the East Indies, especially to the more remote areas, had to prepare themselves for this challenge. Education was deemed essential and in this context the Colonial School was born.

School founded
The Colonial School for Girls and Women was founded on 11 March 1920 with the goal of giving young women who wanted to live and work in the Dutch East Indies an education that would enable them to adapt more easily to the new and unfamiliar environment. It also addressed itself to women who had been born and brought up in the Indies, but had been living for some time in the Netherlands. In addition to the main course on Dutch and Indonesian cooking and childcare, there were also courses given in the Malay language and on the geography and ethnology of the East Indies. Financial support was given by companies and individuals with an interest in promoting this endeavor and the school was able to open its doors in a building on the Westeinde in The Hague on 24 September 1921. The courses lasted for three months, the initial ones running from 26 September to 22 December 1921. In its promotional and course material the school reflected the role attributed at the time to women in the family, not only in the colony, but also in the Netherlands itself. Not only did the women have to adapt to life in the East, but they were also expected to bring a bit of the home country with them, as can be seen from the courses on Dutch cooking.
In the course of the years the school went through some difficult periods, especially during the crisis of the depression around 1933 when various companies discontinued their sponsorship and fewer students applied, and of course also during the years of the Second World War, when the Netherlands was occupied by the Germans and the East Indies by the Japanese. After the war in 1946 a spirited attempt was made to relaunch the school's activities, but the unfavorable influence exercised by the anticolonial uprising and the events of decolonization in Indonesia could not be overcome. On 26 February 1949 it was decided to change the name of the school to the "East Indian [Indische] School for Girls and Women", but given the political developments in Indonesia it was already too late. The school no longer had a reason for existence and closed for good on 29 December 1949, with the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic of Indonesia.

The archive
Among others things, the archive contains the following sorts of documents:
- Minutes of meetings of the school's administration, 1920-1949
- Minutes of members' meetings, 1920-1949
- Incoming correspondence and copies of outgoing correspondence, 1921-1949 [1953]
- Correspondence of the school's president, 1921-1926
- Annual reports, 1920-1949
- Documents concerning the foundation and opening of the school
- Documents concerning the school's personnel and students, including photos of lessons and correspondence received from former students
- Documents concerning the courses and teaching materials, books used, etc.
- Financial affairs of the school, including lists of members and contributors
- Promotional and recruiting materials for the school, such as prospectuses, circulars, course descriptions, transcripts of radio talks, etc.
- Newspaper and magazine stories concerning the school

Importance for research
Researchers into a variety of questions will profit from use of this archive, for example those interested in:
- the role of women in a colonial state
- "ethical" thinking on education for European women in the colonial context
- background, motivations, reflections and experiences of the women involved
- background and motivations of sponsors and supporters
- background and motivations of teachers and administrators
- subjects taught and teaching materials used and their content, propaganda for the school and colonialism
- reactions to the growing national awareness of the colonized in this period; colonial mentalities, attitudes toward colonialism and indigenous peoples
- the vagaries of the colonial enterprise in increasingly difficult economic and political times as reflected through the history of the school

Various Authors & Editors

Women in the Netherlands East Indies. Part 2: The Kartini-schools for Girls: The Archive of the Kartini Fund, 1912-1960
National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague

The Ethical policy
Around 1900 Dutch colonial policy made a sharp change of course. The previous "liberal" decades had witnessed a rapid expansion of a western-style modern economy fed by an influx of capital from the Netherlands and other European countries as finally the whole archipelago was brought under Dutch control. At this point good business practice intersected with humanitarian impulses in calling for a general increase in the welfare of the indigenous population in order to further the efficient exploitation of the new colonial economy. This "ethical policy" rested on the pillars of improved education to create better native administrators and workers, irrigation to increase crop yields in order to feed the steadily increasing population, and emigration to relocate people from overpopulated Java to the outer islands to work in new enterprises being developed there.
Education was supposed to be the showcase of the new policy and many initiatives were in fact undertaken by the colonial government up to about 1930, but given the enormous size of the population the ultimate results were disappointing and most benefits were restricted to a tiny male elite. In terms of education for women, the modest efforts of J.H. Abendanon, director of the department of education (1900-1905), to create opportunities for upper-class Javanese women soon foundered on the conservative resistance of both Dutch colonial officials and the Javanese regent class (the bupatis).

Kartini
The cause of education for (elite)women had been taken up and championed by Raden Ajeng (=Lady) Kartini (1879-1904), a daughter of the progressive regent of Jepara in north central Java. Quite unusually for the time and place she had attended the European lower school in the regency and learned to speak and write fluent Dutch. Although still very young she made many influential contacts among Dutch colonial officials and politicians in the Netherlands itself and carried on an extensive correspondence in which she advocated female education and emancipation, in particular ending the practice of polygamy by the males of her class. She died at the age of twenty-five following complications on the birth of her first child. Although it would be anachronistic to call her a nationalist or feminist, she was later revered by the national movement for independence as a pioneer and her birthday is now a national holiday in Indonesia.

The Kartini fund
Among her many correspondents were Abandanon himself and his wife. In 1911 he edited a selection of her letters to them and others and published them under the title Door duisternis tot licht ("Through darkness to light", later translated into English as Letters of a Javanese princess). Kartini had inspired many people in the colony and the home country with her ideals. Royalties from the book and other donations made possible the creation of the "Kartini Fund" in 1913, a privately administered foundation to realize her goal of providing Dutch-language secondary education to Javanese girls. That same year the first "Kartini school" opened in Semarang, Central Java. Many were to follow in subsequent years.

The Kartini schools
Set up as simple boarding schools for Javanese girls who had been through the European lower school, they were to provide secondary education for a maximum of seven years. The teaching staff was to be entirely female and was encouraged as much as possible to live in so as to constitute "one big family" with the pupils. According to the statues the curriculum was to consist of among others:
- continued Dutch, with the aim of fostering a taste for edifying reading
- Javanese language and literature
- geography and history
- drawing and aesthetics
- home economics, with some gardening
- refresher lessons in arithmetic, especially in the context of simple bookkeeping
- practical and fine needlework
- principles of hygiene and first aid
- principles of education
- singing and principles of musical theory
Finally, those who wished to train for professions open to native women were to be given every assistance within the limits of the available teaching staff.

The archive
The archive contains correspondence, reports, statutes, minutes of meetings, financial documents, teaching materials, photos, brochures, periodicals, press clippings and other types of documentation concerning the founding and adminstration of the Kartini schools in general and the individual schools in Java. The complete inventory is available for consultation.

Various Authors & Editors

The Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters

The Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters is a matchless source of material on theater life in Russia, published by the Directors of the Imperial Theaters in St. Petersburg during the period 1892-1915. The Yearbook contains general essays on Russian and foreign theatrical art, critiques of performances and accounts of the actors and repertoires of the Imperial Theaters in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Chronicles of theater life, obituaries, anniversary essays and reports of the activities of the Theater and Literary Committee are also recorded.

The periodical was edited in turn by A. Molchanov, S. Diagilev, P. Gnedich and N. Driezen. When Diagilev became Chief Editor of the Year Book of the Imperial Theaters in 1899, he changed its format and invited the best artists from the artistic group Mir Iskusstva to provide illustrations. A new era in the history of this periodical began when Baron Driezen became editor in 1908. Driezen invited contributions from scholars and top theatrical journalists, such as M. Voloshin, V. Briusov, A. Vengerov and A. Koni, and critics E. Stark, Iu. Slonimskaia and N. Efros.

Originally, The Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters was issued once a year, but later became irregular. From the 1893-94 season onwards, supplements were published in addition to the main issue. From 1909, there were several issues a year (up to seven) plus supplements. In total there were 28 issues with 38 supplements in the period 1894-1906, and 44 magazines issues dating from 1909. The magazine closed in 1915. Despite attempts to revive the Yearbook in the early Soviet years, only one issue, prepared in 1920, came out in 1922 under the title Yearbook of the Petrograd State Theaters, but there were to be no further issues.

The Anansi Folk Tales Collection

Spider Trickster Tales from Jamaica

Various Authors & Editors

Spider Trickster Tales from Jamaica: The Anansi Folk Tales Collection
From the John J. Burns Library of Rare Books and Special Collections, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts

On 35mm microfilm

According to Robert Hill, Professor of History & Editor-in-Chief of The Marcus Garvey & UNIA Papers at UCLA, these Anansi tales are the single most important collection of original folktales from the Caribbean in existence for facilitating research and teaching in the area of cultural studies of the African Diaspora, popular culture, and ethnomusicology.

The collection
The collection consists of nearly 5,000 handwritten stories, each with a typed transcript, giving variants of about 200 basic trickster tales. The texts were written in Creole by 1,124 school children from 97 primary schools (both public and private, including various religious denominations) in Jamaica in 1930-1931 in response to a contest organized by the Jesuit missionary and ethnologist Joseph John Williams to collect material on the oral tradition of tales concerning the spider "Anansi" (usually written "Anancy" in Jamaica) and/or other animal and human figures. It is the largest manuscript collection of Anansi folk tales in existence.
The original manuscripts are contained in school "bluebooks" per student. The penmanship is usually quite good and the stories are easily legible. Many are illustrated with drawings made by the children and include music and the lyrics of songs. The transcripts are typewritten one to a single sheet and interleaved with the relevant stories. The collection has been microfilmed in its entirety.

Trickster tales
Trickster tales concerning animal or human protagonists are a well-known feature of oral traditions worldwide. The trickster is often an animal, but can also be a human figure and is thought to possess special powers. The tales combine elements of violence, deception and magic and the hero is variously perceived to be godlike or a fool, a destructive villain or an innocent prankster. The tales may be grouped in cycles and serve both ritualistic and entertainment purposes. Various trickster protagonists are the coyote among Native Americans of the west and the African trickster hare, who became "Brer Rabbit" in the US southeast. The spider trickster of the peoples of West Africa, "Anansi", was transmitted to the Caribbean by slaves brought over in the colonial period, especially to Jamaica, where he is known as "Anancy" or "Brea Nancy".

The collector
Joseph John Williams, S.J. (1875-1940) was a prominent ethnologist with a strong interest in religious beliefs and psychic phenomena in Jamaica and their links to West African culture. He first visited Jamaica in 1907 and served as a missionary there in the period 1912-1917 becoming closely acquainted with the African-Jamaican population of the island's central and western "parishes" (districts) and their folklore and customs. His first book, Whisperings of the Caribbean (1925), contains recollections of his experiences there. He went on to publish major studies of West Indian religious culture, including Voodoos and Obeahs (1932) and Psychic Phenomena of Jamaica (1934). Starting in 1932 he lectured in cultural anthropology at Boston College, where he established a very extensive collection of mostly printed materials on Africa and the Caribbean, named in honor of his father Nicholas M. Williams. The Anansi manuscripts form part of this collection. They were gathered with the cooperation of the Jamaican Director of Education, who distributed Williams's circular calling for contributions to his contest to schools all over the island.

Importance for research
Such a body of material forms a unique resource for research, but until today the collection is not as widely known as it should be. Covering the whole island as it does with contributions from children from varied religious and social backgrounds, who would have heard these stories at home from parents and grandparents or in other cultural contexts, it provides a truly remarkable snapshot of Jamaica's oral traditions at a moment when they were still very much alive. It is fortunate indeed that these stories were captured and preserved thanks to Williams's initiative. Now their publication on microfilm will make them more easily accessible to scholars working in various fields, including Caribbean studies, African and African-American studies, ethnology, folklore, and linguistics.

Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900

This collection of art sales catalogues on microfiche is based on the famous art historical reference work Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt, covering art sales catalogues of the period 1600 to 1900. Customers for this collection receive a free subscription to the online edition of Lugt's Répertoire. Lugt's Répertoire online provides detailed microfiche information for easy access to the fiche collection.

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Art sales and auction catalogues of previous centuries offer one of the most important resources for the study of the history of collecting, as well as a primary means of establishing a work of art's history and provenance. There are some sale catalogues which have survived intact since the early seventeenth century but the practice of issuing such catalogues really began to come into its own from around the end of the same century. Since then, the number of catalogues issued has grown steadily year by year.
Many sales catalogues, especially the older ones from the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, have become extremely rare and of some but one or two copies have survived. Because these sometimes contain marginal notes concerning the lots, prices and purchasers, researchers are often forced to go in search of information in libraries spread all over the world. For the archivists and librarians in whose hands responsibility for the fragile catalogues now rests, the large demand for access or for photocopies is a source of concern.
The systematic recording of original catalogue details on microfiche offers researchers optimal access to the catalogues, while also making a significant contribution to their conservation.

Part I, 1600-1825
The first such volume of sales catalogues appeared in 1987, being a collection of more than 5,472 catalogues from the period 1600 1825, assembled from thirteen libraries in the Netherlands. One of the libraries which made its catalogues available was that of the Netherlands I nstitute for Art History ( Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie), which owns one of the three largest collections of this type in the world. Since 1987, the list has grown to include the catalogue collections of libraries in Switzerland and Great Britain, and further expansion to this first volume is still going on. As a result of this expansion, part of the collection of catalogues described by Frits Lugt in the first volume of the Répertoire des Catalogues de Ventes Publiques is now available.
In addition, Part I contains several hundred catalogues which have come to light since completion of Lugt's Répertoire.

Part II, 1826-1860
In 1997, exactly ten years after the inception of this project, the second part became available. This involved making records of the 8,090 catalogues dating from the period 1826-1860 to be found in the Netherlands Institute for Art History's collection. This represents yet another important step forwards in making these valuable sources of information accessible to all researchers.
Part II corresponds with the second volume of Lugt's Répertoire, published in 1953. However, as with Part I, subsequent material has been included. One of the highlights of this series is the complete documentation pertaining to the famous auction of King Willem II of the Netherlands' collection of paintings, held in 1850. This documentation is rarely to be found in complete form, as here, and the various annotated examples complement each other with regard to marginal notes, etc.

Part III, 1861-1880
In 2001, the third part of the collection of Art Sales Catalogues was published, based on (the first section of) the third volume of Frits Lugt’s Répertoire des Catalogues de Ventes Publiques intéressant l’Art ou la Curiosité. Volume III (The Hague, 1964). For this part 5,655 catalogues in the Rijksbureau voor Kunsthistorische Documentatie (The Hague) were filmed.

Part IV, 1881-1900
In 2003, the fourth part of Art Sales Catalogues was completed, based on the third volume of Lugt's Répertoire des Catalogues de Ventes Publiques intéressant l’Art ou la Curiosité. Volume III (The Hague, 1964). Part four contains 8,885 auction catalogues.

R.E.O. Ekkart, Director, Netherlands Institute for Art History (The Hague)

The collection is completed by the Supplement from Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, Brussels collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part IV: 1881-1900

Part 4 is based on (the second section of) Volume 3 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 8,885 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 6,664 different Lugt numbers and 227 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.

Various Authors & Editors

Catalogue of French-language Medieval Manuscripts in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek [Royal Library of the Netherlands] and Meermanno-Westreenianum Museum, The Hague
Compiled by Edith Brayer, Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, Paris

On microfiche

With a printed guide and introduction by Anne S. Korteweg, Curator of Manuscripts, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague

The catalogue
In the early 1950s the well-known Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes (IRHT) in Paris sent its staff researcher Edith Brayer on a mission to describe and analyze medieval manuscripts in the French language held by various libraries in Europe. One of her stops was The Hague, where in 1954 and 1956 she spent months studying, analyzing and describing the relevant manuscripts in the collections of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library ) (112) and the Meermanno-Westreenianum Museum for the History of the Book (19). The manuscripts originated in France, the southern Netherlands (Belgium) and in one case England. Her efforts resulted in a catalogue in French of some 1,500 typed pages kept in the Section Romane of the IRHT and never before published in any form.
In addition to the manuscripts of the two collections above, she further described some 90 transcriptions of medieval French manuscripts made at the end of the eighteenth century by G.J. Gérard (1734-1814), also held in the Royal Library. The historian Gérard was secretary of the Academy of Sciences and Letters in the southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and librarian of the famous Burgundian Library in Brussels. Over the years he had made many transcriptions of manuscripts held in that library, in the library of the Chambre des Comptes in Lille and in private collections. Some of these manuscripts can still be traced in the Royal Library in Brussels and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, but for others Gérard's transcription is all that remains.

Contents of the catalogue
The descriptions in the catalogue consist of:
• an extensive codicological analysis of the manuscript, with collation and description of the decoration and miniatures
• an extensive analysis of the text, with transcription of the rubricated chapter and section headings
• transcriptions of important passages, such as prologues, incipits and explicits, and in the case of manuscripts with poems, sonnets, etc. extensive transcriptions of these as well
• an overview of the history of the manuscript
• an overview of the most important literature on the manuscript
The microfiche edition also contains a complete list compiled by Anne S. Korteweg, Curator of Manuscripts of the Royal Library in The Hague, of all the miniatures found in the illuminated manuscripts to supplement the descriptions made by Mademoiselle Brayer. In addition an article by Mlle Brayer is included that she published in the Bulletin d'information de l'Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes from 1964, in which she analyzed the French texts of some 40 Books of Hours (prayer books for lay people normally written in Latin in France and the southern Netherlands, but usually also containing a number of texts or prayers in French). With the inclusion of this article all the work done by Mlle Brayer in The Hague has been brought together and this important documentation system has been made available to aid scholars in their research.

Printed guide
The microfiches are accompanied by a guide written in English by Anne S. Korteweg, with short-title descriptions of all the manuscripts from the collection of the IRHT, supplemented by some 20 manuscripts for which no description is available, thus providing a complete overview of all the medieval manuscripts in French held by both institutions in The Hague. Furthermore, additional information on the provenance of the manuscripts has been included as well as the most recent bibliographical references, indices of shelf marks, authors and titles, scribes, illuminators, bookbinders, and former owners.

Various Authors & Editors

Early Printed Cyrillic Books
Library of Moscow State University, Belorussian and Ukrainian Publications

National and cultural identity
This collection bears witness to the complex, yet fascinating process of book printing in Belorussia and Ukraine when these countries were still under Polish-Lithuanian rule. Deprived of political rights and freedom of worship, the Orthodox Byelorussians and Ukrainians struggled to preserve their national and cultural identity by printing religious, liturgical, and historical books in the Cyrillic script. Often, these publications had a polemical intent – attacking the Catholics, the Uniates, and the Protestants alike – or propagated an openly nationalist agenda. One of the most popular works included in this collection is the Sinopsis – the first printed book on the history of the Eastern Slavs that promoted the idea of uniting all Slavic peoples. Equally interesting in this respect is the politically charged Trebnik, which was published in 1646 at the instigation of Piotr Mogila, the Metropolitan of Kiev.

The Brotherhoods
The role of the Brotherhoods ( bratstva) was crucial to this process of national emancipation. The Brotherhoods were political organizations that sought to stimulate Belorussian and Ukrainian culture by, for example, establishing schools and printing houses. Alarmed by these initiatives and anxious to curb the activities of the Brotherhoods, the government of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, in tandem with the Catholic and the Uniate Church, banned all politically sensitive publications. However, this did not prevent educated and influential Belorussians and Ukrainians from taking part in printing Cyrillic books. Printing houses specializing in Belorussian or Ukrainian publications existed at some point in time in Kiev, L’vov, Chernigov, Vilnius, Mogilev, and many other places.

Kiev-Perch Laura
The largest and most productive printing house in Ukraine belonged to the famous Monastery of the Caves, in Kiev ( Kieov-pecherskaia lavra). It functioned from 1616 until the end of the 18th century, and is represented in the present collection by 47 titles. These include a 1619 edition of the Anfologion (translated by Iov Boretskii), Pamva Berynda’s Leksikon slavianorusskii (the first Slavic “encyclopedia”), and a number of Besedy (“Conversations” on religious topics) that are especially noteworthy for the exceptionally high quality of the typography. The second largest segment of the collection comprises 20 books printed by the Uspenskii Brotherhood of Lvov, which was one of the most important cultural centers in Ukraine during the 17th and 18th centuries. In Belorussia, the Brotherhoods of Vilna and Eve, as well as smaller printing houses in Mogilev and Kutein, specialized in the printing of Cyrillic books. Among the most valuable of the 23 Belorussian books included in this collection are Kirill Trankvillion Stavrovetskii’s Perlo mnogotsennoe (1699), Akafisty vsesedmichnye (1698) – which was printed by the Brotherhood of Mogilev – and a number of sumptuously illustrated liturgical works and prayerbooks.

Unique collection
The present collection consists of 109 rare or otherwise valuable Belorussian and Ukrainian books printed in the 17th century. As well as having an historical value, the combination of luxurious design and sophisticated typography makes these works stand out as true landmarks of early book printing. The books were often embellished by professional artists, who added illustrations and designed the title pages. Ukrainian and Belorussian books differed from those printed in Moscow in both style and content. Whereas the latter were funded by the government and meticulously censored by the Metropolitan and the Tsar, the printing in the Ukraine and Belorussia was supported primarily by private donations. Their repertoire was also much more diversified. The books’ more colorful design, their covers, dedications, coats of arms, and spectacular illustrations contribute to the uniqueness of this material.

Moscow State University Library
Moscow State University Library (founded 1756) is one of the biggest libraries in Russia. Today, it stores more than 8 million volumes and owns many rare books and manuscripts. The most valuable part of its holdings is in the Rare Books and Manuscripts section, which accommodates over 200,000 items, including unique Western, Oriental, and Slavonic manuscripts, archives, incunabula, prints, and other early works. The unique collection of early printed Slavonic books was obtained largely through donations, purchases, transfers from other libraries, and the work of the Archeographical Expedition (which spent over 30 years working among Russian Old Believers in different parts of the former Soviet Union). Nowadays, the Slavonic collection comprises 2,170 items dating from the 1400s to the 1900s.

Various Authors & Editors

Finding Aids for Dutch Colonial History from the National Archives of the Netherlands
Part 1: Index to the Public Archives of the Ministry of the Colonies, 1814-1849

The Ministry
The Ministry of the Colonies of the Netherlands was set up by royal decree in 1814 after French domination of the country under Napoleon had ended. It continued to exist until 1959 and saw to all colonial affairs for the Dutch East Indies (Indonesia) and Dutch West Indies, including the mainland South American colony of Surinam and the Caribbean islands of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The West African "coast of Guinea" (present-day Ghana) was also a Dutch colony until it was ceded to Great Britain in 1872. It further was charged with maintaining contacts with the authorities of the colonies of other countries, such as Great Britain and with the governments of China and Japan. Its archives are kept in the National Archives of the Netherlands in the Hague (the former General State Archives) and are used extensively by historians and other scholars of Indonesia, the Caribbean and European colonialism.

Finding aids
The archives are ordered chronologically and are accessible through a series of indexes, calendars and registers compiled by the civil servants of the Ministry. These essential finding aids are the key to locating specific documents in the vast series that comprise these archives. Among the many subjects that can be traced using the indexes are:
• colonial government in general
• government of particular regions and places
• relations with indigenous authorities
• agriculture, mining and industry
• trade and relations with other powers
• finance, military matters, culture and religion
• political movements and unrest

Dutch colonialism in East and West, 1814-1960
The East
From 1816 onwards when the Dutch regained the East Indies from the British after the Napoleonic wars, they began to reassert and expand their control. A new East Indian army (the KNIL), was set up and the exploitation of the colony for the benefit of the metropole began in earnest. By the 1820s social unrest among the Indonesian population was widespread. The rebellion that broke out on Java in 1825, under the leadership of Diepo Negoro, took five years to defeat and cost the lives of an estimated 200,000 people.

The cultuurstelsel
By the late 1820s colonial finances had been sapped and the Dutch were eager to make the colony a paying proposition. The authoritarian philanthropist and military officer Johannes van den Bosch launched his "cultuurstelsel" initiative at this time and was appointed governor general by King William I to install it. This system amounted to forcing the Indonesians to cultivate various cash crops to be paid to the colonial government, which would then sell them on the world market through the Dutch Trading Company (Nederlandsch handelmaatschappij) set up in 1824 under royal patronage. By 1840 the first famines provoked by increased exploitation were reported. By mid-century the system had brought great wealth to the colonial power, but was coming under more and more criticism both in Indonesia and the Netherlands. The constitutional reforms in the Netherlands in 1848 brought a measure of parliamentary control over colonial affairs and partial abolition of the cultuurstelsel in the 1850s. During the second half of the nineteenth century, however, the colony was opened to economic development by European capital.

Nationalism, war and decolonization
By the early twentieth century the Dutch had brought all the remaining areas of the archipelago, including Aceh on Sumatra, Bali, South Celebes and Lombok under colonial control with a series of military expeditions. At this time the so-called ethical policy was introduced to promote the interests of the Indonesian population through education. Although it only benefited a small group, increased education helped the incipient nationalist movement to gain ground. An Islamic mass movement was launched in 1912; the Indonesian Communist Party was founded in 1920; and in 1927 Sukarno's PNI saw the light of day. The Dutch reacted to these developments with repression, opening an internment camp for radicals and nationalists at Boven-Digul in New Guinea. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945), the nationalists were freed and encouraged, but the Indonesian population was harshly exploited. At war's end in August 1945, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. The Dutch attempted to regain control of the colony by military means and by political maneuvering designed to divide the Indonesians. Increasing international pressure, especially from the United States, forced the Dutch to negotiate at a Round Table Conference that led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949.

The West
In the west a plantation economy using slave labor, which was not to be abolished until 1863, continued to characterize the Dutch colonies after their return by the British. But since the British had abolished the slave trade in 1806, it was not possible to replenish the supply of slaves and the West Indies possessions entered into decline, despite the efforts of King William I to make them a commercial pivot between Europe and America. With the abolition of slavery, many former slaves refused to work on the plantations and a system of contract labor had to be introduced whereby thousands of migrant workers from British India and Java were imported to Surinam, thus creating a much more heterogeneous society there. The discovery of bauxite in Surinam in 1922 led to the growth of a mining industry, while the establishment of a major oil refinery on Curaçao by Royal Dutch Shell prompted by the opening of the Panama canal (1914) had a great influence in the islands. After the Second World War, when allied troops were stationed in the West Indies, the growing desire for more autonomy led to two Round Table Conferences in 1948 and a new statute in 1954 that ushered in home rule. Surinam became independent in 1975, but the Antilles are still part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.