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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Supplement from the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium

This supplement to the existing microfiche collection contains approximately 1100 catalogues from the period 1600-1900. Some of them are unique copies. The majority of the catalogues are listed in Frits Lugt’s Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … but some were overlooked by Lugt and have been described especially for this publication.

Scope: c. 1100 art sales catalogues.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.
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Various Authors & Editors

Screen and Stage: The Russian Cinematographic and Theater Press, 1889-1919
Material from the National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg

This collection contains a wide range of information on various forms of mass culture and performance art in pre-revolutionary Russia:
• Cinema
• Theater
• Theater of miniatures
• Cabaret theater
• Circus
• Operetta

The collection includes unique material such as records of the repertoires, biographies of the actors, examples of audience reactions to performances.

Urban Mass Culture at the Turn of the 20th Century
At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, Russian urban culture was enriched by new leisure activities and entertainments. In addition to the existing fair booths for the commoners, popular festivities for the middle classes, and opera, ballet, and theater for the upper classes, other kinds of mass entertainment appeared, for example, circus, sports contests, and horse-races, along with cinema, cabaret, and theaters of miniatures, which became a new mass passion. The cabaret turned out to be a serious competition for the traditional theater. Since cabaret performances were accessible to the general public and their content was quite intelligible, they won audiences from the theater and attracted leading actors and other personnel.

Cinema
By this time the large wave of modernism swept across Europe and affected practically all aspects of life, including new public leisure activities and entertainments. Cinema turned out to be the perfect instrument to mold mass culture. Although the popularity of the screen was all pervasive, the universality of its artistic language was limited by the lack of sound. To compensate this, a number of means were used, varying from imitating and parodying films to combining film performances with ballet, theatrical, or musical sketches in one program. A skillfully staged effect of actual presence was also practiced, for example during the tour by Max Linder - the French "king of the screen" - to Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev in December 1913. The intense drama of the film came to a sudden end when the main character made a live appearance, stunning and disconcerting the audience.

Cabaret and Variety Theaters
Cabaret and variety theaters appeared in Russia in the 1900s, and provided an ideal setting for artistic experiments. At the end of February 1908, the Bat cabaret theater ( Letuchaia Mysh') opened in Moscow under the direction of Nikita Baliev; six months later, The Distorting Mirror ( Krivoe zerkalo) parody-theater founded by Aleander Kugel' and Nikolai Evreinov opened its doors. These experiments were such a success that they immediately became the fashion. Soon, dozens of similar ventures appeared not only in Moscow and St. Petersburg, but also in Odessa, Kiev, Khar'kov, Baku, Rostov-on-Don, Vladivostok, and many other cities. In 1912, there were 125 cabaret or variety theaters performing original sketches and programs every evening in Moscow and St. Petersburg alone. Cabaret mania swept through both literary and artistic circles. Suffice it to mention such famous cabarets of Moscow futurists as Stray dog ( Brodiachaia sobaka) and The Pink Lantern ( Rozovyi fonar'). The symbolist poet Fyodor Sologub intended to open his literary cabaret. Mikhail Kuzmin and Vladislav Khodasevich enjoyed writing musical and theatrical items for cabaret programs. Vasilii Kachalov, Ivan Moskvin, Ol'ga Knipper-Chekhova, and even Konstantin Stanislavskii himself did not mind appearing on the stage of Baliev's theater. Although cabaret culture in Russia remained formally close to its original European concept, it had its own roots. Its stylistic and artistic originality was influenced by the living traditions of intimate gatherings of actors, named kapustniks - literally "cabbage pies", where the actors parodied the highbrow stage practices of the Malyi, Aleksandrinskii, Mariinskii, and Moscow Art theaters.

Mass Media on Popular Entertainment
Starting at the beginning of the 1900s, a large number of daily and weekly illustrated newspapers and journals were published in capitals and provincial cities throughout the Russian Empire. These publications contained the main news related to operetta, farce, variety shows, circus, sports, and other forms of entertainment, and provided insights into various occupations related to acting. When cinema and cabaret spread more widely, news about them was included in these periodicals, thus diversifying them even further.
Several professional publications (e.g., Actor ( Artist) and Actor's Diary ( Dnevnik Artista)) already appeared at the end of the 19th century. They reflected a complex panorama of theater life in the main cities and in the provinces, and carefully recorded all significant premieres, current repertoires, artistic stage tours, innovations, the actions of censors and local authorities, the switching of actors to another stage, etc. Like cinematographic periodicals (e.g., Elektra - the one-off newspaper for cinema, theater, arts, and literature aficionados that appeared in Moscow in 1909), practically all these titles were short-lived. Hardly any of them survived more than a few seasons, and even the most successful lasted only until the new performing arts in the old Russia came to an end. Worth mentioning are Artistic world. Journal for variety theaters, circus, sports and cinematography ( Artisticheskii mir. Zhurnal teatrov-var'ete, tsirka, sporta i sinematografa) (Moscow, 1912-1918), Review of St. Petersburg cinemas, skating rinks, and theaters ( Obozrenie SPB. kinematografov, sketing-ringov i teatrov) (St. Petersburg, 1912-1917), and Theater and cinema. Weekly illustrated publication ( Teatr i kino. Ezhenedel'noe illiustrirovannoe izdanie) (Odessa, 1915-1919).

Historical Value of the Publications
The historical value of these publications can hardly be overestimated. The researcher will find in them unique and still poorly explored material, including records of the repertoires of cabaret theaters and their evolution, as well as the history of various one-man theatrical undertakings and the biographies of the participants. They also contain examples of audience reactions to cabaret performances. Cinema historians will also profit from this valuable material. The publications will help them to define the functional role of cinema in cabaret practice, to establish the similarities and differences, and to better understand various aspects of the evolutionary esthetic convergence of theater and cinema, and analyze their mutual influence.

Rashit Yangirov, Moscow
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Various Authors & Editors

Early Russian Cinema, Part 1
Russian Cinematographic Press (1907-1918)

Cinema in late-imperial Russia
In a quantitative sense Russia's cinematographic press comprises a modest segment of the general stream of the Russian periodical press at the beginning of the 20th century. However, in the dynamic of its development, the tempo of its reproduction and distribution, it far outstripped publication of all other contemporary genres and directions, and in this fact alone vividly reflected the general popularity of cinema in Russian society. In view of the fact that the documents connected with the history of the early Russian cinema and the overwhelming majority of materials on film have not survived up to this time, these publications constitute a unique collection of testimonials about the general and particular characteristics of the Russian cinematographic press of the 1900s and 1910s.

The art of the new age
The pages of these cinematographic publications have preserved for history not only the first examples of cinema theory, but also a very wide range of reflections of the artistic consciousness of the art of the new age. They chronicled all the variety and individual details of the cinematographic life of the Russian capitals and provinces, recorded consecutively the growth of cinematography in the cultural life of the country. The publications dedicated to the screen carefully documented the dynamic of the development of film production and distribution, traced the actions of the authorities in controlling screenings and noted all other accompanying factors and circumstances affecting the establishment of the new art.

The collection
Examining these sources, the researcher can reconstruct the film repertoire and assemble almost a complete list of domestic and foreign films shown on screens in Russia; he will find in them a detailed description of pictures, reviews by critics, censored materials, etc. In addition, they contain extremely valuable information about other forms of contemporary entertainment culture - the theater of miniatures, cabaret and music hall.
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Edited by L.D. Couprie

Art History

The first systematic catalogue in the field of art and art history. The emphasis has been placed on serials and monographs concerning the history of western art. The monographs are divided over 8 different subjects:
• Reference works;
• Individual artists;
• Iconography and iconology;
• Public festivities and splendid ceremonies;
• Practical handbooks;
• Theory of art;
• Descriptions of collections, Catalogues of museums etc.;
• Miscellaneous.

417 monographs and 100 serials.
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Various Authors & Editors

The Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters

The Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters is a matchless source of material on theater life in Russia, published by the Directors of the Imperial Theaters in St. Petersburg during the period 1892-1915. The Yearbook contains general essays on Russian and foreign theatrical art, critiques of performances and accounts of the actors and repertoires of the Imperial Theaters in Moscow and St. Petersburg. Chronicles of theater life, obituaries, anniversary essays and reports of the activities of the Theater and Literary Committee are also recorded.

The periodical was edited in turn by A. Molchanov, S. Diagilev, P. Gnedich and N. Driezen. When Diagilev became Chief Editor of the Year Book of the Imperial Theaters in 1899, he changed its format and invited the best artists from the artistic group Mir Iskusstva to provide illustrations. A new era in the history of this periodical began when Baron Driezen became editor in 1908. Driezen invited contributions from scholars and top theatrical journalists, such as M. Voloshin, V. Briusov, A. Vengerov and A. Koni, and critics E. Stark, Iu. Slonimskaia and N. Efros.

Originally, The Yearbook of the Imperial Theaters was issued once a year, but later became irregular. From the 1893-94 season onwards, supplements were published in addition to the main issue. From 1909, there were several issues a year (up to seven) plus supplements. In total there were 28 issues with 38 supplements in the period 1894-1906, and 44 magazines issues dating from 1909. The magazine closed in 1915. Despite attempts to revive the Yearbook in the early Soviet years, only one issue, prepared in 1920, came out in 1922 under the title Yearbook of the Petrograd State Theaters, but there were to be no further issues.
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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part IV: 1881-1900

Part 4 is based on (the second section of) Volume 3 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 8,885 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 6,664 different Lugt numbers and 227 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.

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Various Authors & Editors

Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900
Part III: 1861-1880

Part 3 is based on (the first section of) Volume 3 of the Répertoire des catalogues de ventes publiques intéressant l'art ou la curiosité … by Frits Lugt. The 5,655 auction catalogues in this microfiche collection represent 4,614 different Lugt numbers and 153 items not listed in the Répertoire.

This collection is part of the Art Sales Catalogues, 1600-1900 set.
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Various Authors & Editors

Early Russian Cinema, Part 3
Russian Cinematographic Press (1907-1918)

Cinema in late-imperial Russia
In a quantitative sense Russia's cinematographic press comprises a modest segment of the general stream of the Russian periodical press at the beginning of the 20th century. However, in the dynamic of its development, the tempo of its reproduction and distribution, it far outstripped publication of all other contemporary genres and directions, and in this fact alone vividly reflected the general popularity of cinema in Russian society. In view of the fact that the documents connected with the history of the early Russian cinema and the overwhelming majority of materials on film have not survived up to this time, these publications constitute a unique collection of testimonials about the general and particular characteristics of the Russian cinematographic press of the 1900s and 1910s.

The art of the new age
The pages of these cinematographic publications have preserved for history not only the first examples of cinema theory, but also a very wide range of reflections of the artistic consciousness of the art of the new age. They chronicled all the variety and individual details of the cinematographic life of the Russian capitals and provinces, recorded consecutively the growth of cinematography in the cultural life of the country. The publications dedicated to the screen carefully documented the dynamic of the development of film production and distribution, traced the actions of the authorities in controlling screenings and noted all other accompanying factors and circumstances affecting the establishment of the new art.

The collection
Examining these sources, the researcher can reconstruct the film repertoire and assemble almost a complete list of domestic and foreign films shown on screens in Russia; he will find in them a detailed description of pictures, reviews by critics, censored materials, etc. In addition, they contain extremely valuable information about other forms of contemporary entertainment culture - the theater of miniatures, cabaret and music hall.
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Edited by E.R.M. Taverne

Architectural History
Military Architecture, Architecture 16th–19th century and Serials and Reference works

A collection of material in the field of architecture and the construction of fortifications. Includes not only a diversity of countries and periods but also works on the theoretical thinking in relationship to both civil and military architecture.
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Edited by Otakar Mácel

Avant-garde and Architecture in Czechoslovakia, 1909-1938

Periodicals and monographs for the study of Czechoslovak avant-garde and architecture in the period before the Second World War. Collection includes monographs by Karel Teige. The periodicals contain articles by international architects and artists like Le Corbusier, Van Doesburg, Mies van der Rohe, Oud, Stam, El Lisitzky, Behne and Neutra.