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Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-1: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Minutes of Federal Conferences/BFO (1948-1949)

Short biography
Auke Johannes Vleer was born in Friesland in 1911. After finishing his secondary education he left for the Netherlands Indies in 1930 to follow with success a two-year training course in colonial administration ( bestuursschool). His first assignments were in the residencies of Aceh and Riau from 1932 to 1936. In October 1936 he returned to the Netherlands and studied Indology at the University of Leiden, specializing in Indonesian law ( Indisch recht), obtaining his degree in 1940 (he would later also earn a degree in Dutch law). The outbreak of war in Europe and the German occupation of the Netherlands prevented him from resuming his career in the colony. During the war he worked for the Dutch Red Cross. At war’s end he was among the first group of colonial civil servants to be dispatched to the Indies under the authority of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) to restore order. Posted to Medan on Sumatra’s East Coast he served as liaison officer with the British troops stationed there to supervise the Japanese surrender. In 1946 he was appointed head of the local administration in Banka and Billiton where he first became involved in Dutch attempts to set up a federal United States of Indonesia (see below). In 1948-1949 Vleer assumed the role of secretary at the Federal Conferences (FC) held at Bandung and then that of secretary-general of the Assembly for Federal Consultation ( Bijeenkomst voor federale overleg, BFO). In this capacity he took part in the Round Table Conference held in The Hague from August to November 1949 that finally resulted in the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949.

In 1950 Vleer accepted a position as Commissioner for the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra with Palembang as base until growing political tensions led him to return to the Netherlands in 1956. While in Indonesia he had also taught law and sociology at universities in Jakarta and Palembang. Back in the Netherlands he played a role in setting up a new technical college (now university) in Eindhoven and ended his public career as mayor of Enschede from 1965 to 1977. He died in 1981.

Federalism in the process of decolonization
A persistent Dutch response to the Indonesian revolution that broke out after the Proclamation of Independence by the Republic in August 1945 was to promote the idea of a federal Indonesia, with or without the Republic as one of the states, that would enter a union with the Netherlands under the Dutch queen. On the Dutch side this approach was favored by among others the Lieutenant-Governor-General H. J. van Mook, the highest Dutch official in the Indies since no governor-general had been appointed after the War. In a conference held at Malino in South Celebes in July 1946 the Dutch brought together local rulers from among other places Borneo and eastern Indonesia, as well as representatives of Christian and ethnic groups to make a start on this project. On the Indonesian Republican side, Sutan Sjahrir was willing to cooperate with the Dutch on this plan, which was enshrined in the agreement of Linggajati of November 1946 (see part 3 of this micropublication). When Linggajati proved difficult to implement because of mutual distrust, Van Mook proceeded on his own to set up new states, the first of which was East Indonesia in December 1946. After the first “police action” of July 1947 in which the Dutch regained much territory from the Republic, the move in this direction was accelerated until there were some 15 federal states or regions by late 1948. Representatives of these entities met in a series of Federal Conferences held in Bandung from May 1948 to June 1949. In July 1948 the Dutch further created an Assembly for Federal Consultation (Bijeenkomst voor Federale Overleg, BFO) in which the leaders of these states sat. The BFO sent its own delegation to the Round Table Conference as mentioned above. Federalism was greatly resented by Indonesian Republicans who saw it as no more than a stratagem of the Dutch for holding on to resource-rich parts of the country. Although the Republic accepted a federal structure for the transfer of sovereignty, it was soon dispatched and replaced by a unitary Indonesian state by August 1950.

The papers
Vleer was an excellent and painstaking administrator who left a thorough and well-organized archive behind. Two series from his papers have been selected here for micropublication as part 2.1 and 2.2 of our series:

Part 2.1
Vleer’s archive contains a complete collection, often supplemented by tables of contents he drew up himself, of the minutes and other documents of
• the Federal Conferences at Bandung, May 1948-June 1949, in stencil in Dutch and Indonesian
• the proceedings and appendices of the meetings in Indonesia and The Hague of the Bijeenkomst voor Federale overleg (BFO), July 1948-August 1949 in stencil in Dutch and Indonesian
• the proceedings and appendices of meetings of the BFO delegation with the Netherlands government (“Haags overleg”), September-October 1948

The fact that these series of documents were very incomplete in the archive of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government ( Algemene Secretarie), and therefore not included in the inventory of that body, makes Vleer’s collection indispensable for research into this aspect of the decolonization process.

Sources
Robert Cribb, Historical Atlas of Indonesia (Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 2000).
M.C. Ricklefs, A History of Modern Indonesia (1st edition, London, 1981; 3rd edition, Stanford, 2001).

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-2: Papers of A. J. Vleer (1946-1955): Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra & the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955

Short biography
Auke Johannes Vleer was born in Friesland in 1911. After finishing his secondary education he left for the Netherlands Indies in 1930 to follow with success a two-year training course in colonial administration ( bestuursschool). His first assignments were in the residencies of Aceh and Riau from 1932 to 1936. In October 1936 he returned to the Netherlands and studied Indology at the University of Leiden, specializing in Indonesian law ( Indisch recht), obtaining his degree in 1940 (he would later also earn a degree in Dutch law). The outbreak of war in Europe and the German occupation of the Netherlands prevented him from resuming his career in the colony. During the war he worked for the Dutch Red Cross. At war’s end he was among the first group of colonial civil servants to be dispatched to the Indies under the authority of the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA) to restore order. Posted to Medan on Sumatra’s East Coast he served as liaison officer with the British troops stationed there to supervise the Japanese surrender. In 1946 he was appointed head of the local administration in Banka and Billiton where he first became involved in Dutch attempts to set up a federal United States of Indonesia (see below). In 1948-1949 Vleer assumed the role of secretary at the Federal Conferences (FC) held at Bandung and then that of secretary-general of the Assembly for Federal Consultation ( Bijeenkomst voor federale overleg, BFO). In this capacity he took part in the Round Table Conference held in The Hague from August to November 1949 that finally resulted in the transfer of sovereignty on 27 December 1949.

Work in Sumatra
In 1950 Vleer accepted a position as Commissioner for the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra with Palembang as base until growing political tensions led him to return to the Netherlands in 1956. While in Indonesia he had also taught law and sociology at universities in Jakarta and Palembang. Back in the Netherlands he played a role in setting up a new technical college (now university) in Eindhoven and ended his public career as mayor of Enschede from 1965 to 1977. He died in 1981.

Part 2.2 Documents concerning his tenure as Commissioner of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in South-Sumatra, and the economy of Indonesia, 1950-1955
Vleer’s career spanned the divide represented by the transfer of sovereignty of December 1949 and he continued working in independent Indonesia for another six years in South-Sumatra, parts of which had formed one of the federal states from September 1948. The history of these early years of the Republic is beginning to attract more research attention, but sources have been generally less available than for the preceding period. For this reason this section of Vleer’s archive (inventory nos. 203-234) has also been selected for micropublication. It includes

• incoming and outgoing correspondence, memos and reports on the general and political-social situation in South-Sumatra;
• outgoing monthly economic reports compiled by Vleer on South-Sumatra;
• confidential “economische notities” published in stencil by the Bureau for Research and Documentation of the High Commission on the economic situation in Indonesia, 1950-1955; and others

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-3: Papers of L.L.A. Maurenbrecher (1934-1954): Java/Celebes/New Guinea

Short biography
Lucia Louis Angèle Maurenbrecher was born in Java in 1904. He attended secondary school in The Hague and then studied Indology in Leiden in preparation for a career in the colonial administration. On completion of his studies in 1930 he was sent out to the Indies as junior controller in Yogyakarta. In 1933 he was promoted to controller on the island of Banka, where he served until early 1938. He then received training as controller for “Javanese colonization”, that is, the relocation of people from overpopulated Java to remoter and less crowded parts of the archipelago. In that capacity he served in South-Celebes (Sulawesi) from mid-1938 until the Japanese invasion in 1942. During the occupation he was interned at Makassar and other places on Celebes, recording his experiences in a diary, micropublished in this collection. Following a short stay in the Netherlands after the war’s end, he was appointed assistant-resident in the Mandar district of Celebes, where he resumed the work of “colonizing” Javanese. In January 1948 he became assistant-resident in the greater Batavia area ( ommelanden van Batavia), but was later transferred to Purwakarta in the Krawang residency of Java to restore trade, the administration of justice and public health, which had been disrupted by the second “Police action” (December 1948). He remained in that post until after the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic at the end of 1949. From 1950 until 1954 he was assistant-resident in Sorong, West-New-Guinea, over which the Dutch had retained sovereignty.

The papers
His papers are particularly important
• for the efforts to relocate Javanese to Celebes before the war and the attempt to restart this activity after the war
• for details of the Japanese occupation and internment camps
• the political situation in Java in 1948-1949, including relations between the Dutch civil and military authorities
• and plans to colonize New Guinea with Dutch settlers after the loss of Indonesia.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-5: Papers of J. Zwart (1946-1947): Java/NEFIS (intelligence service)

Short biography
Jan Zwart was born in Friesland in 1912. He studied at the famous faculty of Indology at the University of Leiden, where civil servants for the colonial government in the East Indies were trained. In 1939 he was sent out to Java to become a junior controller in Batavia and shortly later controller in Yogyakarta. He spent the Japanese occupation in internment and upon release at the end of hostilities was mobilized and seconded to the Netherlands Forces Intelligence Service (NEFIS), where his assignment was to report on the situation in Central Java, and also to follow developments in the indigenous labor movement and social organizations for the whole island. For his work he could draw on information from the government information agency ( Regeringsvoorlichtingsdienst), Indonesian Republican newspapers and military intelligence. In November 1946 he was demobilized and assigned to the civilian administration in West-Borneo.

The papers
His papers contain notes, memos, reports, clippings and other documents concerning a range of intelligence issues on Java, and to a lesser extent West-Borneo, in the period late 1945-1947, including
• the structure of Japanese administration and support for the Republicans
• the political structure and development of the Republican government
• Republican military organizations
• political developments in the Indonesian forces
• Republican youth-, labor- and women’s organizations
• foreign influences on the Republicans
• the Communist party
• Islamic fighting organizations and others.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-6: Papers of J. van Baal (1934-1964): New Guinea, Lombok/Bali

Early career
Jan van Baal (1909-1992) was a well-known cultural anthropologist who specialized in the study of the peoples of New Guinea. He was born into a strict reformed Protestant family in Scheveningen, the port of The Hague. After studying “indology” (the name then given for the program of study in preparation of becoming a civil administrator in the Netherlands Indies) and obtaining a doctorate at the University of Leiden with a dissertation on the Marind-Anim Papua people, he began his career in the Indies in 1934. He served first as junior controller in Java and Madura before being appointed in 1936 to the post of controller stationed at Merauke in South-New-Guinea, where he was to spend two years. In addition to his administrative duties, which included quelling uprisings, he gathered statistical and ethnographical data on the local population (the Marind of his dissertation) and studied their rituals and religion. In 1938 he was transferred to East Java. He had just commenced a research study of village structure on Lombok when the Japanese invaded in 1942. During the occupation (1942-1945) he was interned in Celebes (Sulawesi) and taught courses in ethnography to his fellow campmates, while working on a carefully concealed manuscript that formed the basis of his 1947 publication Over wegen en drijfveren der religie (On ways and motives of religion). After his release he returned to the Netherlands until posted back to Java in July 1947 arriving the day the “First police action” against the forces of the Republic of Indonesia began (20 July). Subsequently he held the position of assistant-resident in Bali and Lombok, part of the new federal state of East Indonesia, but became disillusioned with the way the local rulers promoted their own interests while neglecting those of the population. He also worked briefly in Medan in Sumatra, where he had contact with the Republicans, whom he thought were better administrators.

Back to New Guinea
With the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic in December 1949, which he felt came too quickly and irresponsibly under American pressure, he again became increasingly involved in New Guinea affairs. The sovereignty over the western half of that still remote and little-known island had been retained by the Dutch in 1949, but was disputed by the Indonesians. He acted as secretary of the Dutch delegation to the New Guinea/Irian commission to discuss New Guinea’s status with Indonesia in 1950. In 1951 he became the first head of the newly created Kantoor voor Bevolkingszaken (literally Office of Population Affairs, translated at the time as Bureau of Native Affairs), headquartered in Hollandia (now Jayapura), the colonial capital. The bureau’s task was to gather data on all aspects of New Guinea society (its archive is also available through Moran Micropublications). But Van Baal soon relinquished this fascinating work to stand for Parliament for the conservative Protestant Antirevolutionary Party (ARP). Though elected his stay in the Lower House was brief, for the Dutch government convinced him to accept the post of Governor of Netherlands New Guinea in April 1953 for a five-year term.

Governor
Van Baal proved to be a dedicated, hardworking and efficient governor, who authored an important work plan for the development of New Guinea. But he was also forced to spend much time and energy on bureaucratic infighting with the Ministry of Overseas Territories ( Ministerie van Overzeesche Rijksdelen), in particular over his budget. Civil servants at the ministry were still imbued with the classical colonial attitude that New Guinea should not only pay for itself, but also produce benefits for the mother country (the famous “batig saldo”) through, for example, large-scale projects in agriculture and mining. Van Baal, on the other hand, believed in a small-scale approach to agriculture and also that the colony should be led toward a steadily increasing measure of self-rule in keeping with the United Nations charter. Although at times he threatened to resign, Van Baal finished his term of governor as planned in 1958. He then returned to the Netherlands and later that year became professor of cultural anthropology at the University of Utrecht, where he remained until his retirement in 1973. He later published his memoirs of this long career in colonial service in a two-volume work entitled Ontglipt verleden [A past that slipped away](1986-1989).

End of Dutch rule
After Van Baal’s departure the Dutch were only to rule over western New Guinea for a few more years. The Indonesian Republic had always maintained its claim to this territory, which it referred to as Irian Barat (west Irian). Starting in 1960 Indonesian president Sukarno began asserting it more aggressively, even attempting military infiltration from 1961, while at the same time raising the issue several times in the United Nations without being able to obtain a two-thirds majority for the Indonesian position. The Dutch government lacked a concrete plan for independence and first favored uniting western and eastern New Guinea. While the Dutch had made efforts on behalf of economic development and education, it was only in 1961 that a partly-elected New Guinea Council was set up with limited powers. Then the Dutch proposed a plebiscite among the Papuans under international auspices to decide their future status, also without winning the necessary majority in the UN. In the meantime international opinion remained divided on the issue, but the United States, fearing it might “lose” Indonesia to the Soviets, stepped up the pressure on the Dutch. Lacking the will and the means to face a military confrontation with the Indonesians, the Dutch ceded western New Guinea to a temporary UN administration on 1 October 1962. The UN then turned authority over to Indonesia on 1 May 1963 on condition that the population vote on its wishes after five years, a promise only partially fulfilled, according to many, by the still-disputed consultation that took place in 1969 .

The papers
Van Baal’s papers micropublished here concern his career in the colonial civil service from 1934 until 1958. The first part covers his early years in South-New-Guinea, including
• documents concerning the establishment of population registers and dossiers with statistical and ethnographic information on the local population.

The second part of the collection covers the years 1945-1950, especially
• documents of various sorts on the political, economic and social situation on Lombok and Bali.

The third part, by far the most extensive, concerns New Guinea in general from 1945 until the early 1960s. It can be subdivided as follows:
• reports and other documents from the period 1945-1950, including incoming reports on discussion of the New Guinea question at the Round Table Conference, 1949
• discussions in the ministers’ conference of the Netherlands-Indonesian union in early 1950 and in the New Guinea/Irian commission, 1950
• international correspondence 1950-1964, organized by year, conducted in several languages with a great many people, both inside and outside the government, in New Guinea, the Netherlands and other countries concerning a broad range of subjects, both official and unofficial, political as well as scientific
• documents concerning New Guinea as an international question 1950-1961 (especially 1951-1952), among others, reports from international bodies, such as diverse United Nations commissions
• documents concerning the internal administration of New Guinea in the most diverse sense, 1950-1958, including information on political, social, cultural and economic developments, agricultural and infrastructural projects, relations with Catholic and Protestant missions, education, republican sympathizers and Indonesian activities, cooperative organizations and organizations for the development and colonization of New Guinea, the situation of Indo-Europeans, anthropological and scientific reports, and many others.

Sources
J. van Baal, Ontglipt verleden (vol. 1, Franeker: Wever, 1986; vol. 2, Franeker: Van Wijn, 1989)
Reviews in NRC Handelsblad (27 September 1986; 23 September 1989) and De Volksrant (24 September 1986; 16 September 1989).

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 3-1: The General-Commission for the Netherlands Indies: Papers of W. Schermerhorn (chairman)

Short biography
Willem Schermerhorn was born in 1894 in the province of North Holland, the Netherlands. He studied civil engineering and went on to become a professor of surveying and geodesy at the famous technical college in Delft. Later he became known worldwide as a pioneer in the techniques of aerial photography and aerial surveying, undertaking for example the mapping of New Guinea in 1936. Politically Schermerhorn belonged to the radical liberal tradition represented by the Vrijzinnig-Democratische Bond (VDB). During World War II he was first held hostage by the German occupiers and during confinement took part in discussions on how to renew the country’s political system. After his release he was active in the Resistance, editing an underground newspaper. In the war’s aftermath he became prime minister of the first cabinet of “recovery and renewal” from June 1945 until July 1946 and joined the new Labor Party ( Partij van de Arbeid), which resulted in February 1946 from a merger of the prewar Social Democratic Workers Party, the VDB and others. As chairman of the Commissie-Generaal voor Nederlandsch-Indië he set a determined but realistic anticolonial course that was very unpopular in the country, but led to the signing of the agreement of Linggajati in November 1946 by himself and Sutan Sjahir for the Republic of Indonesia. In the months that followed, talks on carrying out the agreement were pursued by the Commission to no avail and Schermerhorn himself came to accept military action as inevitable.

Schermerhorn remained in politics until 1965 serving as member of the lower and upper houses of Parliament, although he no longer played a decisive role. In 1970 he published his diary covering the above period ( Het dagboek van Schermerhorn, 2 vols., Groningen: C. Smit, 1970). He died in 1977.

The papers
Schermerhorn’s papers micropublished here concern first and foremost his chairmanship of the Commissie-Generaal (1946-1947). They include
• extensive correspondence with Dutch political figures during and about this period
• minutes of meetings between the commission and the prime minister and minister of the colonies
• copies of telegrams sent and received by the commission
• minutes of “political discussions” with Indonesian delegations
• memos and bulletins of the Government Information Agency, and others.

In addition, there are also many files containing correspondence, memos and notes, articles and press clippings on the Indonesian and New Guinea questions more generally. Finally there is a manuscript of and correspondence on the publication of his diary of the period.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 3-2: The General-Commission for the Netherlands Indies: Papers of M.J.M. van Poll (member)

Short biography
Maximus Josephus Maria (Max) van Poll was born in North Brabant, the Netherlands in 1881 as son of an officer in the Dutch colonial army ( Koninklijk Nederlandsch-Indisch Leger, KNIL). After secondary school he embarked on a career in journalism, eventually founding his own daily newspaper De Morgen (Morning). He published numerous articles on political, economic and cultural topics.

In 1929 Van Poll was elected to parliament as representative of the Catholic party ( Rooms-Katholieke Staatspartij, RKSP, later Katholieke Volkspartij, KVP), where he specialized in social-economic issues, becoming as well the party expert on questions concerning the Indies. In 1935 he took a stand in favour of “imperial self-sufficiency” through intensification of the trade relations between the Netherlands and the East Indies. Several years later he opposed, along with the entire Catholic faction, a proposal to speed up the granting of autonomy to the colony. After the war he was a member of the permanent parliamentary committee for Indies affairs. In January 1946 he proposed and subsequently chaired a parliamentary commission to investigate the situation in Indonesia ( Commissie van Poll). He resigned from parliament in September 1946 to become a member of the Commissie-Generaal. His appointment was meant by the KVP to act as a brake on the progressive course planned by Commission chairman Schermerhorn and Lieutenant-Governor-General Van Mook, but in practice he became increasingly alienated from his faction. Van Poll served on the Commission until it was honorably discharged in October 1947. He died the following year.

The papers
The papers micropublished here chiefly concern the Indonesian question in the years 1945-1948 and in particular the work of the Commissie-Generaal in 1946-1947. They include
• a very extensive correspondence concerning Indonesia organized alphabetically and indexed
• official papers of the Commission received by or authored by Van Poll, organized chronologically
• printed parliamentary documents concerning Indonesia and the actions of the Commission, some with marginal notes by Van Poll
• notes, memos and reports concerning the proposed federal government for Indonesia, in particular the state of East Indonesia, and the Netherlands Indonesian Union
• printed documentation on Indonesia and New Guinea, such as newspaper and magazine articles, brochures, clippings, etc.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 3-3: The General-Commission for the Netherlands Indies: Papers of P. Sanders (secretary)

Short biography
Pieter Sanders was born in Schiedam in 1912. He studied law and then went into private practice. In July 1945, Prime Minister Willem Schermerhorn brought him into the government as secretary-general of the war ministry, a position he held for a year. In September 1946, Schermerhorn, no longer prime minister, asked Sanders to become secretary-general of the Commissie-Generaal voor Nederlandsch-Indië, which Schermerhorn has been called upon by parliament to form in order to negotiate with the Indonesians. He fulfilled this function until his resignation in July 1947. Returning first to a private law practice made difficult by his association with Schermerhorn’s Indonesian policy, he later entered higher education, becoming professor of civil law at the Economische Hogeschool in Rotterdam, predecessor of the Erasmus University of that city.

The papers
The most important document among his papers is his diary covering the period of his tenure on the commission from September 1946 until July 1947. Cast in the form of letters sent to his wife back in the Netherlands, it is in fact a report on the vicissitudes of the Commission written for himself and a few close relations. It is published here for the first time in any form. In addition to the diary, his papers contain contemporary correspondence with prominent Dutch politicians and others, and various other documents.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 1. Documents from the Secret Archives of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor General

Introduction
The end of the Second World War in August 1945 sounded the death knell of Dutch colonialism in Indonesia. The proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia by Sukarno and Hatta on 17 August 1945 ushered in a confusing and complicated period of anticolonial struggle, civil war, military action by the Dutch and negotiations between the parties that ultimately led to the transfer of sovereignty to the Republic on 27 December 1949.

New series
This collection forms the first part in a new series of micro-publications on the end of Dutch colonialism in Asia being planned and carried out in cooperation with the National Archives in The Hague. It can be regarded as the continuation of the now dormant series "War and Decolonization" by MMF Publications, with which it does not overlap. The five parts of that series are also available from Moran Micropublications.

Focus
The new series has as theme "the Dutch political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" not only in the pivotal years 1945-1949, but also extending into the early 1960s in order to cover the process of decolonization of Netherlands New Guinea, over which the Dutch had refused to transfer sovereignty at the end of 1949. It will also reach back into the 1930s and the years of war and occupation (1942-1945) to provide the necessary background to the crisis that ensued on 17 August 1945.

Part 1: Secret Archive
In consultation with archivists at the National Archives the first documents chosen for micropublication are from the Secret Archive of the General Secretariat of the Netherlands Indies Government and the Cabinet of the Governor-General (in Dutch: Geheim archief van de Algemene Secretarie en van het kabinet van de gouverneur-generaal).

The General Secretariat
The General Secretariat was the administrative apparatus that assisted the Governor-general in his task from 1816 until its dissolution in 1950. Its archives, formed in Indonesia, contain a virtually complete account of the
political activities and statecraft of the Netherlands Indies Government. The secret archives of the Algemene Secretarie were brought to the Netherlands after Indonesian independence and are now in the National Archives. The public part of its archive was transferred to the Republic of Indonesia and is housed in the Arsip Nasional in Jakarta.

Documents
The documents reproduced in the present collection concern the "Political conflict with the Republic of Indonesia" from the end of the Second World War until the transfer of sovereignty at the end of 1949. They trace the development of events in great detail and allow the study of this conflict in all its aspects. The documents include many secret intelligence reports, captured Republican papers, political memoranda and many others.

Inventory
The collection has been completely inventoried by archivists of the National Archives and is now available from Moran Micropublications. The inventory is available for consultation free of charge from Moran and is also posted on our website (see right column).

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Political Conflict with the Republic of Indonesia, 1945-1949
Part 2-4: Papers of A.J. Piekaar (1933-1955 [1959]): Sumatra

Short biography
Arie Johannes Piekaar was born in Rotterdam in 1910. He studied Indology at the University of Leiden, obtaining a doctorate there in 1933 with a dissertation entitled Moederland en Overzeesche Financiën, studie van vergelijkend staatsrecht (Mother country and Overseas Finances, a study in comparative constitutional law). From 1934 until 1949 he worked for the Dutch colonial administration in the Indies, beginning his career in the Residency of Aceh in Sumatra, where he perfected his knowledge of the local language. He was interned during the Japanese occupation of World War II (1942-1945). After the war he served in Borneo and the “Great East” ( Grote Oost) before becoming secretary to the High Representative of the Crown from 1948 until the transfer of sovereignty in December 1949. From 1950 until he repatriated in 1953 he worked for the Netherlands High Commission in Jakarta. After his return to the Netherlands he held various positions at the Ministry of Education, rising to become a director-general. In addition, he was a member of the boards of several organizations, especially the Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde (KITLV) (Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies) in Leiden. Piekaar was a widely acknowledged expert on Aceh and his book Atjeh en de oorlog met Japan (Aceh and the War with Japan) (The Hague: Van Hoeve, 1949) is regarded as a standard work. He died in 1990.

The papers
The papers micropublished here concern Piekaar’s career in the Netherlands Indies and early independent Indonesia until the mid-1950s. The collection is divided into two parts
• the first covering his work and developments in Aceh from 1933 until 1953
• and the second relating to the process of decolonization more generally and the first years of the 1950s.
There are many documents in the Indonesian and Acehnese languages, including folk tales.
For Aceh there are
• extensive materials on the Japanese invasion and occupation, including
• the structure of Japanese rule
• the internment camps
• economic policy
• and the capitulation and its aftermath
• on religious movements during the war and the struggle between secular and religious powers in the postwar period
• and on economic policy and political developments after the transfer of sovereignty.
The second part of the collection includes
• memos from Piekaar to the High Representative of the Crown and his staff, 1948-1949
• missives sent by the High Representative, with appendices, 1949
• notes containing advice and recommendations to the High Representative in reaction to documents received, 1949
• incoming and outgoing correspondence after the transfer of sovereignty, 1950-1953
• proceedings of the Indonesian parliament, 1953-1954 and others.