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Various Authors & Editors

Dutch Trade in Asia
Part 2: Papers of Jan Cock Blomhoff

Short biography
Jan Cock Blomhoff was born in Amsterdam on 5 August 1779. As a youth he served as a cadet in the campaign of 1794 against the French in the Austrian Netherlands (Belgium). After the French invasion of the northern Netherlands in 1795 he fled with his family to Germany where he took service in the regiment organized by the exiled Prince of Orange. He accompanied this unit to England, but returned to the Netherlands after the peace of Amiens with the French (1802) to devote himself to commerce. In 1805 he traveled from Bremen to Java in the Netherlands East Indies. Under the Dutch governor there, Marshall Daendels, he again entered military service in 1808 and was appointed first lieutenant and staff adjutant. In 1809 he assumed the post of pakhuismeester (lit. warehouse master) at the Dutch trading post in Deshima, the artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki where the Dutch had been permitted to stay since 1641. Hendrik Doeff was opperhoofd (head) at Deshima during this period. When the British took control of Java in 1811, their Lieutenant-governor, Thomas Raffles (founder of Singapore), tried the next year to wrest Deshima from the Dutch as well, but Doeff and Blomhoff adamantly refused to cede the post. On a mission to offer a trade agreement to Raffles in Java in 1813 he was instead made a prisoner of war and transferred to England. Liberated in 1815 he was promoted to opperhoofd of Deshima to succeed Doeff, but the return of Napoleon from exile compelled him to postpone his journey. He then served as chief administrator of a military supply depot in Dordrecht. In 1816 he was able to depart for the Indies, but only succeeded in gaining his post in Japan and relieving Doeff in 1817. Against the prevailing rules in Japan, he was accompanied by his young wife Titia and their infant son Johannes, she thus becoming “the first Western woman in Japan”, though not for long (see Bersma below, Literature) . Refused permission to stay at Deshima she returned to the Netherlands in December that same year and died without ever seeing Blomhoff again in 1821.

As head of Deshima, Cock Blomhoff vigorously promoted Dutch commercial interests, twice undertaking the strenuous hofreis (journey to the court of the shogun in Edo, now Tokyo). His account of this voyage in 1818 has recently been republished in an annotated edition (see Literature below). Besides his activities as a merchant, he was an avid collector of Japonica, assembling a significant collection of art and artifacts on behalf of the Royal Cabinet of Curiosities, which he took with him upon leaving Japan in 1823 for Batavia. The collection was later purchased by King William I (1826) and is now divided between the National Museum of Ethnology (Museum Volkenkunde) in Leiden and the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. In 1824 he returned to the Netherlands, for good as it turned out. He remarried in 1827 and lived in various places in the Netherlands before building the manor Birkhoven near Amersfoort where he died in 1853.

The archive
This small, but interesting collection of papers includes Dutch translations of dispositions and other official documents issued to him by the Japanese authorities in Nagasaki, more than 100 letters to him in Dutch from Japanese people (inventory number 4), bills and other documents concerning goods handled by the factory and repairs to its buildings and notes concerning customs and mores in Japan and other places (no. 13). Worth noting also are a catalogue of objects sent to Blomhoff by the shogun’s chief botanist in Edo (no. 6) and the extensive list of gifts required by the shogun for 1824 (no. 7). An intriguing part of the collection is formed by the letters written to Blomhoff in Japanese (almost completely in hiragana script) (no. 14) by (or for) a woman, presumably his mistress, a woman called Hana, who addressed him as “Captain” (“Kapitan” or “Mr. Ka” (see Legêne below, pp. 244-247) and the illustration on p. 13 below.

This archival collection was acquired by the National Archives of the Netherlands in 1907. An important addition to the original collection is the account made by E.H. Bergsma, Titia’s father, for Blomhoff and Titia’s son Johannes written around 1827 (no. 15), a photocopy of which was donated to the National Archives in 1996.

Literature

Bersma, René P. Titia: The First Western Woman in Japan. Amsterdam: Hotei Publishing, 2002.
De hofreis naar de shogun van Japan. Naar een persoonlijk verslag van Jan Cock Blomhoff, bezorgd door F.R. Effert, ingeleid en geannoteerd door Matthi Forrer. Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2000.
Legêne, Susan. De bagage van Blomhoff en Bruegel. Japan, Java, Tripoli en Suriname in de negentiende-eeuwse Nederlandse cultuur van het imperialisme. Amsterdam: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, 1998.
Nieuw Nederlandsch biografisch woordenboek. Vol. I, pp. 374-375. Leiden: A.W. Sijthoff, 1911.

Note on the microfiches
The microfiches were made by Moran Micropublications by first filming on 35 mm microfilms the original documents made available by the National Archives and then reformatting these to 105 mm format (microfiche). The microfiches are numbered consecutively from 1 to 24. The headers are in Dutch and give the inventory numbers found on the fiche, among other information.

A great effort was made to film the documents in the appropriate text direction. For documents in Dutch this is of course left to right; for documents in Japanese right to left. For Japanese documents too long to be filmed in a single exposure (especially in inventory number 14, but also elsewhere), first the right side was filmed and then the left side with a significant overlap between the two shots to avoid loss of text. At times it was necessary to film the reverse of documents to capture small fragments of text. Again, especially in inventory number 14, but also in numbers 11-13, documents contained both Japanese and Dutch texts written in different directions. In these cases the documents were filmed twice, rotating the document as appropriate to achieve easy legibility for both languages. Inevitably perhaps in this complicated process a tiny number of filming errors were made, for which the publisher apologizes.

Acknowledgment
The publisher wishes to thank Dr. Matthi Forrer, head of the Research Department at the National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden, for his help and advice with the Japanese texts in this collection. Any errors are of course the responsibility of the publisher.

Various Authors & Editors

Dutch Trade in Asia
Part 1: Papers of Hendrik Doeff

Doeff in Japan
The name Hendrik Doeff (1777-1835) is a celebrated one in the history of Dutch cultural and commercial relations with Japan and the East. As a young man of nineteen he went out to the Indies to work in Batavia for the East India Company. In 1799 he was assigned to the Dutch trading post on the artificial island of Deshima in Nagasaki harbor, working his way up from clerk to director by 1803. During his stay in Japan he acquired a vast amount of knowledge of the country, its people, culture and language.

He saw to it that the Dutch maintained their monopoly of trade with Japan, which they had held as the only western power since the closing of the country in 1639. During the French annexation of the Netherlands (1810-1813) Deshima was one of only two places in the world where the Dutch flag continued to fly (the other was Elmina on the Gold Coast in West Africa). When the English took possession of the Dutch colony of Java in 1811 during the Napoleonic wars, the lieutenant-governor of the East Indies, Thomas Stafford Raffles (founder of Singapore) made attempts to take over Deshima as well, sending out ships that year and the following to persuade Doeff to strike the flag in favor of the English. Whatever offers they made, he adamantly refused and the English left empty-handed: “it was easy to say, but not so easily done, as the governor of Java found out”, Doeff later noted in his memoirs Herinneringen uit Japan (Haarlem 1833, p. 225*). On 6 December 1817, Doeff turned over control of the post to his successor Jan Cock Blomhoff and said farewell to “Japan, where I had spent half my life” (p. 254).

Scholarly pursuits
In addition to his commercial talents, Doeff had a keen scholarly interest in Japan and undertook research into Japanese customs, mores and religion. He learned the language quickly and worked almost daily with the Japanese interpreters to teach them Dutch, which they used as a vehicle to gather knowledge of the West (so-called rangaku “Dutch learning”). These linguistic exchanges resulted in a manuscript for a Dutch-Japanese dictionary, which he hoped to have published in Europe. The Japanese authorities, however, forbade him to take his work with him. He managed to make a copy in secret and smuggled it out of Deshima when he left, but this text and his entire collection of artifacts and scientific papers were all tragically lost in the shipwreck of the Admiral Evertsen during his return voyage to the Netherlands from Batavia in 1819. The ship had gotten into trouble in the Indian Ocean and though for a tense moment all on board “looked death in the eye” (p. 256), they were ( continued on reverse) rescued by an American sealer, the Pickering, off Diego Garcia. His pregnant wife survived the wreck, but died soon after on the next leg of the homeward journey.

Activities in the Netherlands
Back home Doeff remained occupied for the rest of his life with the Japanese and East Indies trade, acting as an advisor to the government and various merchants and commercial enterprises. He played a role in the founding of the “Nederlandsche Handel¬maatschappij” (NHM) (Netherlands Trading Society) in 1824 under the patronage of King William I, which was intended to exploit the East Indies colony and develop trade with it and with Asia more generally. He also pursued his scholarly interests, engaging in a controversy with P.F. Von Siebold over the authorship of the Dutch-Japanese dictionary claimed by the latter. His memoirs of Japan cited above have recently been translated as Recollections of Japan (2003). He died in Amsterdam in 1835.

Contents of the collection
The papers in this collection cover the following subjects:
• several episodes during his tenure at Deshima, including the visit to Japan of the Russian ambassador in 1804
• his commercial activities and advice in the Japan and Indies trade after his return (1819-1835) including
• much incoming and outgoing correspondence with political and commercial figures, firms and organizations
• documents concerning the selection and sending of gifts for the Shogun and the governor of Nagasaki
• many documents concerning the founding and functioning of the Nederlandsche Handelmaatschappij (NHM) (1824-1835)
• documents of a personal nature concerning among others his pension and claims against the English government, is role as curator or manager in various property questions and legacies, and an article and newspapers clippings on his life and work
• his scholarly writings and other documentation, including manuscripts of “Herinneringen uit Japan”, correspondence concerning his lost dictionary and that compiled by J.F. Overmeer Fisscher, the controversy with Von Siebold, various reviews, notes and comments, and others.

Various Authors & Editors

Nineteenth-Century Dutch-Japanese / Japanese-Dutch Manuscript Dictionaries and Related Documents: The J.K. van den Broek Collection

edited by Dr. Herman J. Moeshart

on microfiche

Introduction
Dr. Jan Karel van den Broek (1814-1865) was a Dutch physician who spent four years in Japan on the island of Deshima near Nagasaki from 1853-1857. During these four years he instructed many Japanese pupils in the use of western technology and science. In this period and earlier the Japanese rangakusha (students of western sciences) made extensive use of imported Dutch books and magazines as sources. The need for a teacher who could explain the texts and solve problems for the Japanese technicians was great. Van den Broek, who had been one of the foremost members of the learned society Tot Nut en Vergenoegen [For benefit and pleasure] in the town of Arnhem, played the role of a living encyclopedia in Japan.

Van den Broek in Japan
From August 1853 till November 1857 he made himself indispensable to the director of the Dutch trading post at Deshima by his demonstrations for high placed Japanese visitors and even more so by repairing the royal present to the shogun of Japan - an electromagnetic telegraph that arrived damaged there in 1854. Year after year the number of his Japanese pupils and the number of questions posed by the Japanese grew steadily.

Origin of the dictionary project
In December 1854, he started to compile Japanese-Dutch and Dutch-Japanese dictionaries. His motivation for undertaking this project, which would keep him occupied for the rest of his life, was a quarrel with one of the Japanese interpreters. At the request of the Daimyo of Hizen, Nabeshima Naomasa, Van den Broek, gave a talk on the harbour defences of Nagasaki, explained that the fortresses this daimyo had erected were of little value in defending against an attack by a modern western fleet. The interpreter, fearing angering his lord, did not want to translate this into Japanese. When ordered all the same to translate Van den Broek's words, the ruler was not angered but simply asked Van den Broek to explain what was wrong. Van den Broek concluded from this incident that his words were not always rendered correctly into Japanese and started the compilation of his dictionaries. He continued to work on them the rest of his life and at his death in 1865, he left a legacy of many Japanese books brought back from Japan and a great number of large-format manuscript volumes in which he compiled his dictionary and kept his notes and drafts. This work was never to be published. The Japanese-Dutch dictionary was completed before his death, but he did not live to finish the Dutch- Japanese volumes.

Dictionaries rediscovered
After his death his books, notes and the manuscripts of his dictionaries found their way to the municipal library at Arnhem where Herman Moeshart rediscovered them in 2001.

Importance for research
Among the dictionaries made by the Dutch in Japan those of Van den Broek merit a special place. He was the only one who compiled a complete Japanese-Dutch dictionary to which he added a thick volume with "conversations", illustrating the use of Japanese and providing a conversation handbook for the Dutch in Japan. The availability of Van den Broek's work in microform will be of great interest to students of the development of the Japanese language in the nineteenth century and historical philology, among others.

Other works in the collection
In addition to the manuscripts of the dictionaries, the Van den Broek collection also includes: a 13-volume Chinese encyclopedia from 1705; an eighteenth- or nineteenth-century Chinese dictionary; an illustrated Japanese guide to flower arranging; a similarly illustrated guide to martial arts; a Japanese book of epigrams; a nineteenth-century Japanese guide to "rangaku"; an 1861 Japanese map of Edo; and a few other assorted volumes.

Various Authors & Editors

Colonial-Period Korea
Japanese Works

During the period of Japanese influence and rule, large numbers of Japanese diplomats, officials, and scholars went to Korea. Many went to rule of course, but many also went to study the country and its culture. This resulted in a substantial body of both official and scholarly Japanese publications on Korea. The publications included here cover a broad range of subject matter, from art and archaeology to the sciences, and including education, natural history, religion, rural conditions, and more. Not surprisingly, a particularly large number of the publications relate to Japan's involvement with Korea. General works on Korean history and culture are also represented in substantial numbers. The publications present a thorough insight into colonial Korea from the colonizers' point of view.

This collection is also included in the Colonial-Period Korea collection.

Various Authors & Editors

Comintern Archives: Files of the Communist Party of Japan

"General Staff of the World Revolution"
The Communist, or Third, International (Comintern) was founded in early 1919 as an international revolutionary proletarian party. For more than a quarter of a century, the Comintern deeply influenced the political life of many countries. The semi-legal and clandestine activities instigated by the Comintern made this federation of about 70 parties in Europe, Asia, and America one of the most cloistered societies of recent centuries. In practice, the Comintern was a Soviet-sponsored agency designed to coordinate the overthrow of the capitalist system worldwide, acting thus as the "General Staff of the World Revolution."

Rumours and myths
As with all such semi-secretive organizations, the Comintern soon became a source of rumors and myths that were perpetuated over the years. For a long time, historians could only speculate on the reality behind these myths, as they had no access to the Central Party archive in Moscow where the Comintern archives were stored. This situation is now changing and new areas of historical research are being opened up.

Top secret
After the Comintern was dissolved in 1943, its archives were transferred to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the USSR, and later to the Central Party Archive of the Institute of Marxism-Leninism. Classified as top secret, the Comintern archives were inaccessible to researchers until late 1991, when the archives were opened to the public. However, even though they are now public, the archives are still difficult for researchers to access. The archives contain 220,00 files (15 linear kilometers of shelving) in almost 90 languages, and are divided into 521 documentary units (files). The Comintern archives contain 55 million pages of original documents from seven Congresses, thirteen ECCI Plenums, and over 70 communist and socialist parties, and other international organizations. The archives cover the whole period during which the organization was active, namely 1919-1943. As a result of the increasing international tension in the 1920s and 1930s, the documents of the communist parties of Germany, Italy, France, and other countries were stored for safekeeping in the Moscow-based archive. Many materials were received directly from the national communist parties or from representatives of the Comintern. Hand-written amendments and other personal corrections made by various figureheads of the communist movement make this material even more valuable.

The Communist Party of Japan
Initially a distinct group within the Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA), the CPJ was founded in 1922 and remained an underground organization until the end of WW II. During these years, many CPJ leaders were imprisoned in Japan or fell victim to the 1937-38 purges in the Soviet Union. Today, the CPJ has about 400,000 members and is represented in Japan's upper house of parliament.

The CPJ files
The CPJ files cover the period 1919-1941 and include extensive documentation on the relations between the Soviet Communist Party and its counterparts in Japan, the Far East, Europe, and America. The collection contains, for example, the proceedings of CPJ conferences, the plenums of the Central Committee, and records of local organizations; documents of the Executive Committee of the Comintern (ECCI) and correspondence between the leaders of the CPJ and the ECCI and its Shanghai- and Vladivostok-based Bureaus; materials about the labor history of Japan, trade unions, and youth organizations; and many periodicals and newspapers produced by the CPJ and trade unions.
Herbarium P.F. von Siebold, 1796-1866
National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden University Branch

The Siebold collection
The Leiden branch of the National Herbarium of the Netherlands (NHN), formerly the Rijksherbarium, houses many important botanical collections. One of these is a 19th century collection of Japanese plants, generally referred to as the "Siebold" collection. The plants belonging to this collection were gathered during a period in which Japan was still closed to all western nations except the Netherlands. A considerable number of the c. 12,000 specimens, which include phanerogams as well as cryptogams, were brought together by the famous German physician P.F. von Siebold (1796-1866). In 1823 the Government of the Dutch East Indies sent him to Japan as the physician of the factory on Deshima, an artificial island in the Bay of Nagasaki. He also had the task of collecting information about the various aspects of Japan.
Von Siebold thought himself very lucky to go to Japan. Almost nothing new had been learned about the Japanese flora since the publication of Thunberg's Flora Japonica in 1784. For Von Siebold this meant that there were many opportunities to make new discoveries. Even before he arrived on Deshima, he planned to describe the fauna and flora of Japan as completely as possible and to collect all the species to be found there. In 1823 he wrote that he would not leave Japan before he had collected all the material needed for the preparation of a Flora Japonica (Schmid, 1942).

Von Siebold's collaborators
Von Siebold not only collected specimens himself, but also obtained many specimens from his Japanese students and collaborators, such as Mizutani Sugerok (1779-1833), Ohkôchi Zonshin (1796-1882), Ito Keiske (1803-1901), and Katsuragawa Hoken (1797-1844), one of the physicians to the Shogun. There are also Japanese plants present which, although not collected by Von Siebold personally, are counted as being part of the "Siebold" collection in the widest sense. These include plants collected by Von Siebold's assistant and successor on Deshima, H. Bürger (1806?-1858) who stayed on Deshima in the period 1825-1832 (and for some months in 1834); and the dried plants assembled by collectors Von Siebold sent out to Japan after his own departure.

Von Siebold's society
In 1839 Von Siebold established a society in the Netherlands for the introduction and cultivation of Japanese plants. To collect living plants for this society, Von Siebold sent J. Pierot (1812-1841) to Japan in 1840. Pierot, however, died on his way there, but while on Java (together with G. Bisschop) he bought a collection of dried Japanese plants that may have been collected by Bürger. C.J. Textor (1816-x) succeeded Pierot as a collector for Von Siebold's society. The dried plants he collected were sent directly to the Rijksherbarium.

O.G.J. Mohnike
The first physician on Deshima after Von Siebold was O.G.J. Mohnike (1813-1887). He stayed in Japan from 1848 to 1851. As the official in charge of the natural sciences he oversaw the study and collection of natural history materials. Although there is no direct relationship between the plants collected by Mohnike and Von Siebold, these have been added to the collection for the sake of completeness.

Largest collection of Japanese plants
The plants Von Siebold collected during his stay in Japan (1823-1829) were not the first Japanese plants to have reached Europe. E. Kämpfer (1651-1716) and C.P. Thunberg (1743-1828) had collected specimens in Japan in the 17th and 18th century respectively. However, the herbarium Von Siebold assembled was the largest collection of Japanese plants at that time. According to a catalogue of plant names it covered some 2,200-2,300 species of phanerogams (Hoffmann & Schultes, 1853). Publication on the Japanese flora at that time was impossible without consulting the Japanese collections in Leiden. Publications on the Japanese collections ( Flora Japonica) By 1829 Von Siebold had published on the Japanese Hydrangeas, a genus in which he was very interested (Von Siebold, 1829). Together with the German botanist J.G. Zuccarini (1797-1848) he started the publication of his Flora Japonica in 1835. After the death of Zuccarini in 1848 this project came to a halt. Also with Zuccarini, Von Siebold described many new genera and species based on the herbarium collections (Von Siebold & Zuccarini, 1843; 1845; 1846). The last two publications were intended to be as complete a representation of the Japanese flora as possible.
F.A.W. Miquel (1811-1871), director of the Rijksherbarium from 1862, was also very interested in the Japanese collections. After Von Siebold died in 1866, he published some new parts of the Flora Japonica. He also published on the Japanese collections in the Annales Musei Botanici Lugduno-Batavi (1863-1870), in which he described many new taxa, and in his Prolusio florae Japonicae (1866-1867). The latter is mainly a reprint of the Annales. In 1871 W.F.R. Suringar (1832-1898) succeeded Miquel as director of the Rijksherbarium. He was especially interested in the Japanese algae and published on them in the Algae Japonica (1870) and in the first two volumes of the Musée botanique de Leide (1871-1875).

Type specimens
The "Siebold" collection therefore contains many type specimens - specimens to which a certain plant name will always be linked. Many of the type specimens of plants named by Von Siebold, or by Von Siebold and Zuccarini, can be found here. Furthermore, many names created by Miquel and Suringar are based on this collection. However, the Japanese collections were not only studied in the past. In recent times they have been the subject of ongoing research. From a source of new species they have become important in the study of the history of early Japanese botany. Since 1995 T. Yamaguchi and N. Kato have visited the NHN many times to study the Japanese collections. The results of their extensive studies have been published amongst others in the Japanese periodical Calanus (Yamaguchi, 1997; 1998; 2003).

Gerard Thijsse, Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Universiteit Leiden branch

Various Authors & Editors

Von Siebold, 1796-1866
Collection of rare Japanese books: National Museum of Ethnology at Leiden, the Netherlands

Most of the rare books in this collection are in Japanese, collected by Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796-1866) in Japan during his stay in Decima and Tokyo after 1822. A printed list of the Japanese titles (20 pp.) reprinted from the Catalogus librorum et manuscriptorum Japonicarum by J. Hoffmann comes free with the microfiche.

Various Authors & Editors

Japanese manuscripts
School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

32 Japanese manuscripts housed at the SOAS. Manuscripts include poems, stories, treaties and other official records, the earliest from ca. 1300.