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Various Authors & Editors

Various Authors & Editors

Various Authors & Editors

Various Authors & Editors

Various Authors & Editors

Produced mostly by the Central Newsreel and Documentary Film Studio of China, documentary films and newsreels were two of the major mass media and communication channels in China from the 1950’s through the 1970’s. They covered all aspects of social activities, though the emphasis was on developments and achievements in the building of a socialist country. In order to reach even broader public audiences, government agents produced and printed the transcripts and shot lists for the films and sent them to cities and rural areas. The bulk of the items in the collection are transcripts for the documentary films and newsreels from the Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976. Few of these printed materials have survived due to the poor quality of the paper upon which they were printed. All documents in the collection are in Chinese.

• Dates: (inclusive): 1946-1985
• Languages used: Chinese
• EAD finding aids are available

Location of originals: Duke University Library, Durham

Various Authors & Editors

Catalogue of French-language Medieval Manuscripts in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek [Royal Library of the Netherlands] and Meermanno-Westreenianum Museum, The Hague
Compiled by Edith Brayer, Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, Paris

On microfiche

With a printed guide and introduction by Anne S. Korteweg, Curator of Manuscripts, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague

The catalogue
In the early 1950s the well-known Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes (IRHT) in Paris sent its staff researcher Edith Brayer on a mission to describe and analyze medieval manuscripts in the French language held by various libraries in Europe. One of her stops was The Hague, where in 1954 and 1956 she spent months studying, analyzing and describing the relevant manuscripts in the collections of the Koninklijke Bibliotheek (Royal Library ) (112) and the Meermanno-Westreenianum Museum for the History of the Book (19). The manuscripts originated in France, the southern Netherlands (Belgium) and in one case England. Her efforts resulted in a catalogue in French of some 1,500 typed pages kept in the Section Romane of the IRHT and never before published in any form.
In addition to the manuscripts of the two collections above, she further described some 90 transcriptions of medieval French manuscripts made at the end of the eighteenth century by G.J. Gérard (1734-1814), also held in the Royal Library. The historian Gérard was secretary of the Academy of Sciences and Letters in the southern Netherlands (present-day Belgium) and librarian of the famous Burgundian Library in Brussels. Over the years he had made many transcriptions of manuscripts held in that library, in the library of the Chambre des Comptes in Lille and in private collections. Some of these manuscripts can still be traced in the Royal Library in Brussels and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris, but for others Gérard's transcription is all that remains.

Contents of the catalogue
The descriptions in the catalogue consist of:
• an extensive codicological analysis of the manuscript, with collation and description of the decoration and miniatures
• an extensive analysis of the text, with transcription of the rubricated chapter and section headings
• transcriptions of important passages, such as prologues, incipits and explicits, and in the case of manuscripts with poems, sonnets, etc. extensive transcriptions of these as well
• an overview of the history of the manuscript
• an overview of the most important literature on the manuscript
The microfiche edition also contains a complete list compiled by Anne S. Korteweg, Curator of Manuscripts of the Royal Library in The Hague, of all the miniatures found in the illuminated manuscripts to supplement the descriptions made by Mademoiselle Brayer. In addition an article by Mlle Brayer is included that she published in the Bulletin d'information de l'Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes from 1964, in which she analyzed the French texts of some 40 Books of Hours (prayer books for lay people normally written in Latin in France and the southern Netherlands, but usually also containing a number of texts or prayers in French). With the inclusion of this article all the work done by Mlle Brayer in The Hague has been brought together and this important documentation system has been made available to aid scholars in their research.

Printed guide
The microfiches are accompanied by a guide written in English by Anne S. Korteweg, with short-title descriptions of all the manuscripts from the collection of the IRHT, supplemented by some 20 manuscripts for which no description is available, thus providing a complete overview of all the medieval manuscripts in French held by both institutions in The Hague. Furthermore, additional information on the provenance of the manuscripts has been included as well as the most recent bibliographical references, indices of shelf marks, authors and titles, scribes, illuminators, bookbinders, and former owners.

Various Authors & Editors

Freemasonry
Early sources, 1717-1870, from the Grand Lodge Library in The Hague

The collection documents the history and literature of European Freemasonry in the period from its official founding until the Paris commune of 1870. The Kloss collection, which contains the private library of the 19th century German Freemason and masonic scholar, Georg Kloss, forms the nucleus of the collection.
French Revolutionary Periodicals

The first politicians
Half a century after the outbreak of the revolution of 1789, when the French historian Alexis de Tocqueville was searching for the causes of this epochal event, he concluded that the French writers of the middle of the 18th century had become the first politicians of their country – a fact which, as we know, would have deep repercussions for the history of France, and even the whole world. In fact, we can extend de Tocqueville's observation by stating that the political journalist, publicist and pamphletist were as essential to the French Revolution, as the philosophical writer was for the phenomenon of the Enlightenment. No other profession had such a profound influence on the development of the revolution. This is a fact of paramount importance, as the historical research of recent years has increasingly stressed.

Usteri
For this reason, we have not only completed our previous edition of reproductions of sources of the French Revolution, but also enlarged it with a new series. Besides the Usteri pamphlet collection, which has recently been edited, the Zentralbibliothek in Zürich houses another very precious and rare collection periodicals from the time of the French Revolution. A selection of 31 of these titles is now accessible to the scientific public for the first time. Like the pamphlets, these journals formed part of the private library of Paul Usteri, a Swiss enthusiast of the revolution, who had also been an editor for a brief time after the Jacobin dictatorship.

Important journals
The collection constitutes the most important journals from the revolutionary centre in Paris. It also contains a significant example of the liberal-conservative press from the periphery: the virtually complete collection of the Strassburger Kurier (1793-1798).

Many of the 31 French periodicals are completely preserved. They cover the whole range of the political and ideological opinions held by the different groups and parties during the revolutionary decade. Apart from one exception, the Mercure Britannique, which was edited in London by the exiled Swiss Mallet du Pan, all journals were edited in Paris. At the time of the Constituante and the Legislative, official, patriotic and liberal papers (the Journal des Droits de l'Homme, and Louis-Marie Prudhomme's Révolutions de Paris) dominated not only the Feuillants' press ( Le véritable Père-Duchêne by Lemaire), but ultimately the press of the radical Jacobin Club: for example, the L'Ami des Citoyens by the later thermidorian Tallien, and the famous journal Le Défenseur de la Constitution by Robespierre, including his Lettres àses commettans. The decidedly anti-royalist papers like the Orateur du Peuple by Freron, and the numerous Courriers by Gorsas (who later became a Girondist), refer to early forms of radicalism in the political debate. After the fall of the monarchy, Republican papers dominate, like Labenette's Journal de la Savonette républicaine, or Le Républicain, along with some papers agitating for the radical Montagnards: for example, Marat's Ami du Peuple, ou Le Publiciste parisien and Desmoulins' Le Vieux Cordelier.

Reviving the spirit
After the fall of Robespierre, censorship became more relaxed and, by the end of 1794, the press was trying to regain its dynamic: by reviving the spirit of the beginning of the revolution ( Le Rédacteur by Thuau-Granville), by reviving revolutionary republicanism ( Le Bulletin politique by Antonelle), or by condemning the rule of the Jacobins ( Journal des Patriotes de 89 by Réal and Méhée de La Touche, and Dusaulchoy de Bergemont's La Fusée volante).

True rarities
The moderate press of the time of the Directory is very well documented, partly because of L'Esprit public by Toulongeon, but also because of the fact that liberal-bourgeois publicists like Usteri himself no longer just collected revolutionary articles, but became actively involved in the discussion. Thanks to this new commitment, the collection now boasts almost complete copies of true rarities like the journal L'Historien by Dupont de Nemours, the Journal d'économie publique by Pierre-Louis Roederer, and substantial coverage of the neo-royalist papers ( L'Accusateur public by Richer de Sérizy and Paris pendant l'année 1795[-1797] by Jean-Gabriel Peltier).

Prof. Erich Pelzer, University of Freiburg, Germany

Publisher’s notes
1. The editor and IDC Publishers have aimed to limit this microfiche edition to periodicals that are not otherwise available (in microform, or as reprints).
2. The periodicals cover the whole range of political and ideological positions of different factions throughout the revolutionary decade:
- patriotic and liberal papers;
- early radicalism, anti-royalist;
- radical Jacobin;
- (revolutionary) republican;
- liberal bourgeois;
- neo-royalist.
3. The material has been collected by the 18th-century Swiss editor Paul Usteri. A liberal-bourgeois publicist, he became actively engaged in public debates. He has collected a large number of revolutionary pamphlets that have also been released on microfiche by IDC Publishers ["French Revolutionary Pamphlets"].

Various Authors & Editors

Archive of former Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, 1918-1941

At the end of the First World War in November 1918 the German Empire found itself in a crisis situation. On the western front the army had for all practical purposes already been defeated in September and in Germany itself a mood of imminent revolution, mutiny and disintegrating authority reigned. As early as October Kaiser Wilhelm II felt compelled to take a step in the direction of democracy by appointing a parliamentary government under prince Max von Baden as Imperial Chancellor. His strategy of trying to preserve the monarchy through the abdication of the Kaiser and Crown Prince in favour of a regent failed due to the Kaiser’s indecisiveness. As the news from Berlin worsened, the Kaiser, who was in Spa in Belgium at the time, finally announced his willingness to abdicate as German Emperor, but wished to remain King of Prussia in order to lead his armies back to the fatherland. His troops, however, would no longer follow him. Since the Kaiser could neither return to a Berlin grown unsafe through the threat of revolution nor remain with his unreliable forces in Spa, he had no other choice than to flee to the nearby and neutral territory of the Netherlands, where he arrived with his suite on 10 November 1918, the Dutch government arranging for hospitality. On the 11th the Kaiser signed the instrument of abdication. This was the start of his long exile in the Netherlands that would last until his death on 4 June 1941. Most of his stay was spent at the castle-like residence he had purchased known as Huis Doorn.

Plans to return
From the moment he had set foot on Dutch soil until his death in 1941, the Kaiser himself remained convinced that he would some day be able to return to Germany. Through invitations, for example, to Herman Göring, who visited Doorn twice, and by publishing books and pamphlets himself or having them published, the Kaiser tried to justify his period of rule and prepare his return to Germany as monarch. All these efforts, however, yielded very few results, for only a small part of the people wanted him back as ruler and with the rise of National Socialism the ranks of those loyal to the Kaiser thinned even more.

National Socialism
The Kaiser himself always maintained an ambivalent attitude toward the Nazis. In one of his archaeological studies, for example, he treated the origin of the swastika: one version with the arms facing left was said to symbolize the sun, happiness and prosperity, whereas, the other, the one adopted by the Nazis, symbolized misfortune and decline. The Kaiser’s negative attitude toward the Nazis seems attested to by the fact that he sheltered refugees from their regime. Nevertheless he sent Adolf Hitler his congratulations on the capitulation of France in 1940. Such contradictions were typical of the Kaiser’s character.

Pastimes
In addition to his activities in the political sphere, the Kaiser now had time to devote to his hobbies. In the early years of his stay in the Netherlands, he chopped wood on an almost daily basis; he often also took long walks. It was archaeology, however, that proved to be his greatest and most productive hobby. In addition, the Kaiser also composed and delivered many religious sermons.

Finances
At first the Kaiser’s financial situation was anything but rosy since the new government in Germany had confiscated a large part of his personal fortune. Nonetheless the Kaiser possessed sufficient funds to purchase Huis Doorn and to furnish the interior with 20 boxcars of furniture brought from imperial possessions in Germany. His various revenues allowed the Kaiser to maintain a reasonable-sized court, including a fleet of automobiles and staff for handling correspondence and the household.

Social life
Daily life at Huis Doorn centered around the Kaiser, who invited a steady stream of guests to visit him. High point of the social year was the Kaiser’s birthday on 27 January at which many princely personalities from Germany were often present. The Kaiser in exile turned out to be a more human figure than had been supposed during his reign, though he remained a man torn by inner conflicts, oscillating between hope and despair concerning his eventual return to Germany as monarch. As time passed, the Kaiser became more and more a tragic figure until death took him at the age of 82. He was interred in the garden of Huis Doorn.
British Intelligence and Policy on Persia (Iran), c. 1900-1949
Gazetteers and Handbooks, 1906-1948 (BIP-1)

By the late nineteenth century, Persia became the playground of both British and Russian interests for almost half a century. The British, with their immensely valuable oil concessions in the south, emerged as the dominant foreign partner. The strategic planning and policy formulation of British India and London required information to provide “background” for political relations and practical “know-how” for military operations and clandestine activities.

This collection is also included in the British Intelligence and Policy on Persia (Iran), c. 1900-1949 collection.