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Philipp Melanchthon Online

Theologian and Humanist

• Number of titles: 31
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
Location of originals: Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München; Herzog August Bibliotek, Wolfenbüttel; Melanchthonhaus, Bretten; Amsterdam University Library, Amsterdam

This collection focuses on three types of literature in the Melanchthon corpus. First, it especially includes works not contained in more recent collections of Melanchthon’s works (i.e., the Corpus Reformatorum, Supplementa Melanchthoniana, and Melanchthon Studien Ausgabe). Second, it preserves important earlier printings of works, which have been hitherto unavailable in modern sources, especially where these differ radically from later editions. Third, it contains a copy of the four volume Opera omnia, both to indicate the materials available immediately after Melanchthon’s death and to give readers access to the only index of his more well-known theological works.
• Number of titles: 529
• Languages used: German and Latin
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
Location of originals: Johannes a Lasco Library at Emden; Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Bremen; Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague; Bibliotheek der Rijksuniversiteit Groningen; Bibliotheek Theologische Universiteit Kampen; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam; Universiteitsbibliotheek Leiden; Universiteitsbibliotheek Maastricht; Universiteitsbibliotheek Utrecht

In the sixteenth century, the seaport town of Emden at the heart of East Friesland grew into the “mother church” of Dutch Calvinism, which was the driving force behind the Dutch Revolt. Concurrently, in neighbouring North-Western Germany the so-called “second Reformation” took place, that is, the calvinizing of Lutheran lands. From 1555 onwards, the Lutheran cities of Bremen and Hamburg became the scenes of sacramentarian controversies which had an impact far beyond their borders. They marked a critical phase in the transition of German left wing Lutherans to (a form of) Calvinism and in the consolidation processes of the Lutheran and Reformed confessions in North-Western Europe. This collection has a strong focus on the cities in which early modern North German Reformed Protestantism was centered: Bremen and Emden. It presents a nearly exhaustive array of sources on their theologians and their works, correspondence and biographies, on the Bremen Academy, the confessionalization process, and the general and ecclesiastical historiography of the region.
• Number of titles: 145 • Title list available • MARC records are available • Location of originals: Zentralbibliothek Zürich This edition presents a broad cross-section of the Wagner literature of the nineteenth century as held by the Zentralbibliothek Zürich, which possesses one of the world’s finest collections of Wagneriana. The collection consists of three parts: - Secondary Literature of the Nineteenth century (129 titles) - Wagner’s Mein Leben, 1870-1880 - Mathilde Wesendonck `s Complete Published Writings (15 titles)
• Number of titles: 193
• Languages used: Western languages, German, French, English
• Title list available
• MARC records available
Location of originals: National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg

Relations between the Ottoman Empire and Russia were no less conflictual in the eighteenth century: they were at war in 1736-39, 1768-74, and 1787. In the infamous Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1774, the Ottomans were forced to acknowledge the independence of the Crimea (under Russian influence) and of the northern coasts of the Black Sea. It was not until the Treaty of Jassy in 1792 that peaceful relations between the Ottomans and the Russians were restored.

Russian-Ottoman Relations Online, Part 4

The End of the Empires, 1857-1914

• Number of titles: 263
• Languages used: Western languages, German, French, English
• Title list available
• MARC records available
Location of originals: National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg

The position of the Ottoman Empire continued to decline during the second half of the nineteenth century. Succumbing to foreign pressure, the sultan had decreed far-reaching reforms in favor of his non-Muslim subjects in 1856. Less than two decades later the Ottoman Empire went bankrupt and had to allow foreign bankers to supervise its finances. The Ottomans found themselves increasingly marginalized in the debate on the Eastern Question of whether the Ottoman Empire should be preserved in some form or divided.

The material in the final part of this series is again highly diverse and multi-faceted. Some works focus on trade, while others portray individual Ottoman or Russian statesmen. Some are personal accounts, whereas others are polemical or propagandistic. The collection is a veritable treasure trove of original sources, personal views, military analyses and national(istic) policy statements, which have never before been published together.

The Reformation in Heidelberg Online

Sources on the Development of the Reformation in Heidelberg in the 16th Century

• Number of titles: 200
• Languages used: mainly Latin and German, also English, Dutch and French
• Title list available
• MARC records are available
Location of originals: Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, München; Bodleian Library, Oxford; Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam; Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart; Zentralbibliothek Zürich

This collection has been gathered for the purpose of illuminating the intellectual and religious developments during the reigns of Ottheinrich (1556-1559) and Frederick III (1559-1576). Its primary goal is to present the complete works of the major Heidelberg figures (Bouquin, Erastus, Olevianus, Ursinus, Zanchi) and a major sampling of the works of many secondary figures. Secondarily, its aim is to illuminate the theological development of the Palatinate including the origins and reception of the Heidelberg Catechism. Here the collection ventures outside the strict bounds of Reformed Protestantism to include attacks on the Palatine confession by Lutheran scholars.