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Middle Eastern Manuscripts Online 1: Pioneer Orientalists

The Manuscript Collections of Scaliger, Raphelengius and Golius from Leiden University Libraries

The Leiden University Library has a world-famous research collection of Middle Eastern Manuscripts. Its core collection consists of volumes brought together by, among others, the Leiden Orientalists Joseph Justus Scaliger (d. 1609) and Jacobus Golius (d. 1667). Included in the Scaliger collection are about a dozen manuscripts which belonged to Franciscus Raphelengius (d. 1597). These collections consist of extremely rare, sometimes unique, manuscripts.

Brill and the Leiden University Library have joined forces to digitize the Arabic manuscripts from three of the library’s core collections, now published online under the title Pioneer Orientalists: The Manuscript Collections of Scaliger, Raphelengius and Golius from the Leiden University Library. The publication consists of 267 Arabic manuscripts in 303 volumes, consisting of 109.517 pages, in full-colour, high-definition images.
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This online publication consists of 140 volumes from the Warner Collection, totaling 45,809 pages of Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, and Persian texts. All these manuscripts were acquired by the great scholar Levinus Warner during his stay in Istanbul from 1644 until his death in 1665. This selection from the famous Warner Legacy to the Leiden University Libraries includes one autograph (Codex Orientalis 432), 10 unique manuscripts (Cod. Or. 498; 517; 801; 870; 1088; 1090; 1096; 1110; 1143; 1155; and 1175), and 11 manuscripts with unique parts (Cod. Or. 309; 333; 662; 697; 730; 765; 835; 870; 898; 917; and 923). Several manuscripts once belonged to famous owners; for example, Cod. Or. 1122 originates from the private library of the Ottoman polymath and historian Kātib Çelebi (d. 1657). The collection also includes several of Warner's diaries with research notes in various languages.
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Arabic Manuscripts from the manuscript holdings of the Oriental Collection in the Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Budapest. The collection consists of 200 manuscripts with just over 300 works. In addition to 5 autographs, the highlights of the collection include: the earliest dated manuscript in the collection (Arab O. 013) a dated copy of a unique arrangement of a rare treatise written by al-Ṣāḥib Tāǧ al-Dīn (d. 707/1307) produced in the year of the author’s death; two rare Mamluk treatises on horsemanship (Arab F.2); and an anonymous compilation (Arab O. 027) about the lives of the outstanding men who lived in Medina in the 12th/18th century.
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Brill’s Military Architecture 1600-1900 contains a selection of 99 printed works that represents the revolutionary developments in fortification in Early Modern Europe in theory and in practice. Similar to the arts, military architecture was split up in national schools or styles, so called fortification manners. The works of Busca, Cattaneo, De Marchi, Tensini, Theti, Zanchi, reflect the Italian School, Errard and Perret the French one and Specklin’s Architektur von Vestungen is an adaptation of the Italian school in Germany. Stevin’s Sterctenbouwing discusses Cattaneo, Theti and Specklin to assess the benefits of their fortification systems for the Low Countries. The later French school is well represented by Pagan and the works of probably the most famous engineer of all times, Vauban. His various “fortification manners” were applied all over Europe and beyond. The selected works of Menno van Coehoorn reveal how the French system was introduced in the Netherlands, while the works of Paen, Melder, Ruysch and Sturm are illustrative for the heavy debates that resulted from adapting such complex systems to the nordic situation. While these works in Military Architecture 1600-1900 allow for a comparative analysis in text and image of European fortification schools, others focus on more local conditions such as Stevin’s works in Dutch and French on the role of pivoted sluices in the fortifications of various harbor towns. Moreover, Military Architecture 1600-1900 provides insight in the training of fortification in theory and practice for multiple “user-groups”. While the works of the classical authors Caesar, Valturius and Vegetius were used for the philological study of the military arts at universities, the reality of warfare required for training of practical skills for engineers and landsurveyors in the field. Translations of Euclid, works on the practice of geometry and landsurveying (Mallet, Nienrode, Metius, Sems&Dou) were filling that gap.

Although Military Architecture 1600-1900 represents the protagonists of the history of fortification, it also includes lesser known authors such as Bruist, Capo-Bianco, Gaya, Gerbier and Pfeffinger. Moreover, the selection does not limit itself to military architecture, but includes the military arts (artillery, army camps, siege) and history.

Prof.dr. Charles van den Heuvel, Huygens ING and University of Amsterdam

This collection was published earlier in a microfiche collection by IDC Publishers.
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Missionary Archives from Lesotho, 1832-2006 Online

Archives of the Morija Museum Lesotho and Other Documents

Missionary Archives from Lesotho, 1832-2006 contains both the ethnographic and historical archives of the missionary-historian in Lesotho, D.F. Ellenberger, as well as the complete run of the bi-weekly magazine, the Leselinyana, from 1863 till 2006. The collection also includes historical maps, church archives, personal registers (birth, baptism, and marriage), missionaries’ correspondence, and it features the first written documents from the region. The collection is an important source for historians, theologians, anthropologists, ethnographers and linguists, working on Southern Africa or with an interest in Southern Africa. The archives at the Morija Museum are one of the most important resources of the area. In Morija, French missionaries settled at the beginning of the 19th century, influenced by the strong connections at Cape Town with Dr John Phillip, Superintendent of the London Missionary Society. They started a printing press and published, amongst others, a bi-weekly magazine: the Leselinyana, which started its first publications in 1863. A complete run of this publication is available in this archive. The missionaries documented not only the history of Basotho/Lesotho but also created dictionaries, bible translations and linguistic publications in and about the Sesotho language. The collection of mostly unpublished documents by David Frédéric Ellenberger, completed by his son René Ellenberger, covers the history of the Basotho from early times until 1854 and includes handdrawn maps and monographs. Together with church archives and some travel reports, these documents form a unique collection on the history of this region.
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Mobilizing East Asia Online

Newspapers, magazines and books from the 1900s-1950s

Mobilizing East Asia offers a carefully selected collection of extremely rare, many times even unique English-language newspapers, magazines and pamphlets published inside Asia, following the descent into war in East and South-East Asia from the turn of the twentieth century to the 1950s. This exciting collection of newspapers and illustrated magazines, often in colour, is now available online for the first time, exclusively from Brill. The Collection offers access to unique primary source material which can be used to pursue research topics in modern history, Asian studies, politics and war studies. Features and Benefits: -- English-language newspapers and magazines published in East Asia - Approx. 100,000 pages of over 1,200 print items - All content fully searchable - Reproduced in 300 dpi full colour - Sourced from extremely rare, often even unique originals - Brill has the exclusive online rights to this material for years to come - Represents the most complete holdings available of these sources - Updates included, at no additional cost For a detailed list of the contents, please see the links below (online edition)
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One of the greatest Jewish sages of all times, Moses Maimonides, was not only an outstanding legal authority, compelling philosopher, and accomplished physician, but also the most influential Jewish spiritual leader of his age. The present selection of his works is wide in scope, since it embraces virtually the entire spectrum of Maimonides’ literary output. The sources collected here include the newly digitized original Unparalleled Editions collection of 290 microfiches containing 58 titles which are mostly Hebrew printed editions as well as imprints from the 16th up to and including the 20th century and examples of bilingual editions containing Hebrew and either Latin, Judeo-German, or French text. Added to the original collection from the British Library are further incunabula which expand and enhance access to this important leader’s life work.
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• Number of titles: 11 • Languages used: Russian • Title list available • MARC records are available • Location of originals: various libraries This collection introduces the uniquely varied and poorly explored Russian Muslim population during one of the most dynamic periods of their history (1861-1918). Materials published in Russia both at the center and on the periphery reflect the picturesque palette of life of Muslims in the Russian Empire, as well as the positions of their public and political figures. This collection presents works written by and about Muslims. The value of this heritage is especially pertinent now that the historical and spiritual past of Muslims in Russia is being actively reconsidered.
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" Brill’s North-China Daily News database is extremely impressive. It presents very clear scanned images of newspapers on a user-friendly operating system.” -- Xiang Fen Ph.D., Associate Researcher, Journalism and Communication Institute, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

" An invaluable primary source for historical research on the modern period, especially China … This new Online Primary Source will enable far-reaching historical research and encourage the spirit of scholarly enquiry among historians of modern East Asia.” -- Liu Wennan Ph.D., Associate Researcher, Institute of Modern History, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences

" This expanded collection is an essential source for scholars of the history of international relations in pre- and immediate post-war East Asia … This database set provides not only the daily edition, but also substantial holdings of the weekend magazines, supplements, the Municipal Gazette and books and pamphlets from the newspaper’s imprint.” -- Professor Dr. Sven Saaler, Sophia University, Japan

" An excellent additional resource. Its great value lies in the more ephemeral material not included in the Herald: in particular advertisements (of all kinds), and announcements … What you get is much more depth and texture, and also a much firmer sense of key events unfolding.” -- Professor Robert Bickers, University of Bristol

Brill’s relaunched and expanded North-China Daily News is great news for scholars of China and East Asia from the 1860s to the mid-19th century. Except for a wartime break, 1941-45, this was the most influential and informative English-language daily in East Asia. Even though it serves as a catalogue of the sins of the West in the ‘century of national humiliation’, ca.1839-1949, it is the unwitting journal of record for China’s recovery of full nationhood as it struggled against foreign incursions, warlordism, chaos, invasion and civil war to the unification of October 1949.

Extra content
North-China Daily News has a greatly expanded run of the Daily edition from 1869-1949 and some terrific extras, including unique colour holdings of the Sunday Magazine and Special Supplements, a significant run of the Municipal Gazette, organ of the Shanghai Municipal Council from 1908-1940, and a terrific selection of rare books and pamphlets from the imprint of the North-China Daily News and its parent publisher, the North-China Herald.

Uniquely broad and outspoken news coverage
The North-China Daily News is far more than an expanded form of the North-China Herald. This busy daily published around 70 percent more news than the Herald, 70 per cent more pictorial and advertising content, and around 40 percent more textual content overall. But the North-China Daily News was far more than an expanded version of the North-China Herald, because a great deal of the North-China Daily News material was unique and not republished in the Herald.

The social economy
The “Old Lady of the Bund”, as it was known to Shanghai residents, tracked all key news developments and commercial news both in China and throughout East Asia. It recorded the social life of the foreign settlements in photographs and editorial comment. It records the frenetic economy of Shanghai and the ‘Outports’ with hard-working classified ads and Personal and Wanted Notices. It advised its readers on their book choices, ushering in the moves and modern music in the Cinema and entertainment pages. There were Woman’s Pages on Mondays and Thursdays. The full-colour illustrated North China Sunday News Magazines are a unique record of settler China at ease. The Correspondence pages ran excitable and heated reader’s exchanges, most written anonymously.

Published here in full colour 300 ppi scans from original issues and grayscale, this collection offers also offers the only complete run of the works of “Sapajou”, arguably the greatest of all Shanghai’s topical artists, during his tenure at the North-China Daily News, 1923-1941. Sources: Waseda University, British Library, and Private Collection
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In Japan’s network of newspapers presenting the national case for expansion and leadership in Asia, the North China Standard (in Chinese, Huabei zheng bao) stands alongside the Japan Times & Mail as a real newspaper, distributing real news written by real journalists. Derided as a propaganda rag when it first began publication in December 1919, the Standard read better, and investigated and reported better quality news to a steadily growing readership in post-WW1 China and Japan. It was also a representative newspaper chosen for international conferences and delivered gratis to all delegates.
The North China Standard was founded in December 1919 by John Russell Kennedy (1861-1928), Anglo-Irish master architect of Japan’s modern propaganda programmes. Its most immediate functions, in the wake of propaganda failures at the Paris Conference and the Treaty of Versailles granting Japan continuing rights in Shandong Province, was to argue Japan’s claim to special rights and advisory powers in Chinese affairs, to question the ability of the Chinese to govern China, and to maintain British support for the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Throughout the 1920s it served as one of Japan’s representative newspapers at international conferences, delivered gratis to all delegates.
Sticking to Japan’s propaganda mission would have made for a dull read, and the Standard made a slow start under Satoh Kenri, (known as Henry), in 1919. However, the paper improved under the British journalist, John S. Willes in the 1920s. It took the gifted and imaginative Liverpudlian (1888-1956) George Gorman to turn the North China Standard around and make it into a real newspaper. Both Satoh and Gorman were seasoned publicists in the cause of Japan. However, Gorman’s long experience in this role convinced him that the best way to advance Japan’s cause was through polemic and debate. Under Gorman, the North China Standard served Chinese and foreign readerships intelligently and conscientiously, making this title a valuable primary source for scholars of Japan and China.