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This collection consists of 267 printed works by and on the great Dutch humanist and jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), published between 1609-1941, that are kept at the Peace Palace Library in The Hague. 205 of these titles have been published on microfiche before in the collections on international law and jurisprudence. 18 more titles have been digitized from microfiche, that have not been published before. 44 more titles have been newly scanned and added to this online collection. Including one of only three known copies of the rare first state of the first edition of De Iure Belli ac Pacis, purchased in 2012 by the Peace Palace Library. The result is an indispensable source of information covering a wide range of disciplines. From law, jurisprudence and diplomacy to philosophy, history and theology. This collection enables scholars to examine the work of Hugo Grotius, quickly and efficiently online.
The titles in this collection can be divided into a few subject categories and are written in several languages.

Subject categories
Écritures: Works on Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
History: Works by Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
International Law: Works on Hugo Grotius - 165 titles
Jurisprudence: Works by Hugo Grotius - 84 titles
Poesie: Works by Hugo Grotius - 2 titles
Theology: Works on Hugo Grotius - 11 titles
[no subject] - 1 title

Languages
Dutch - 88 titles
English - 33 titles
French - 19 titles
German - 13 titles
Italian - 3 titles
Latin - 108 titles
Polish - 1 title
Spanish - 1 title
various languages - 1 title

The collection at the Peace Palace
In 1914, the Hague publisher Martinus Nijhoff donated to the recently established library of the Peace Palace a collection comprising 55 editions of De Iure Belli ac Pacis ( On the Law of War and Peace), the most famous work by the great Dutch humanist and jurist Hugo Grotius (1583-1645). The Nijhoff collection comprised editions in Latin, the original language of the publication, as well as in French, English, German and Dutch. Imprints ranged from 1625 to 1901.

De Iure Belli ac Pacis
The gift from Nijhoff was singularly appropriate because De Iure Belli ac Pacis is a milestone in the history of international law. In this work, Grotius lays out his doctrine of natural law as the basis for the justifiable war. For a long period, De Iure Belli ac Pacis was granted such high significance that its author was regarded as the father of international law. The work aroused much interest at the very beginning of the period between the two World Wars because the conviction gained ground that Grotius's body of thought could provide an answer to the question of how to clear away the violence of war and cultivate a lasting peace.

Largest collection in the world
Using the gift from Nijhoff as foundation, subsequent librarians of the Peace Palace have strived to expand the collection: many other works of Grotius were added, or obtained in photocopy-form from other libraries, with the aim of bringing together as complete a corpus as possible. The Grotius Collection at the Peace Palace Library holds approximately 200 editions of De Iure Belli ac Pacis (in all languages imaginable), and 100 other legal works including Mare Liberum and Inleidinghe tot de Hollandsche Rechts-geleerheid, as well as Grotius’ contributions to history, theology, philology, and poetry – a total of more than 1200 volumes spanning 50 meters of shelves. The collection of Grotiana in the library of the Peace Palace is the largest anywhere in the world.

Jacob ter Meulen
Hence, the Peace Palace can function as a home for research into the life and work of Hugo Grotius. In this respect, Jacob ter Meulen is worthy of special mention. Ter Meulen, librarian at the Peace Palace from 1924 until 1952, has been of immeasurable service to the field of Grotius research. Following years of intensive bibliographical investigation, in 1950 he published, together with his colleague P.J.J. Diermanse, the Bibliographie des écrits imprimés de Hugo Grotius (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), which contains an exhaustive description of every known edition of Grotius's works. The book, known by Grotius specialists simply as TMD, is an indispensable work of reference for any serious researcher into the life and work of Grotius. In 1961, Ter Meulen and Diermanse published another edition of Bibliographie des écrits sur Hugo Grotius, imprimés a u XVII siècle (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff), a bibliography that includes all minor seventeenth century literature devoted to Hugo Grotius. Both bibliographies were used as a frame of reference for this online collection.

For an overview of more Brill publications on Grotius, please click here.

Weapons of Mass Destruction

The Top Secret History of America’s Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare Programs and Their Deployment Overseas

At its peak in 1967, the U.S. nuclear arsenal consisted of 31,255 nuclear weapons with an aggregate destructive power of 12,786 megatons – more than sufficient to wipe out all of humanity several hundred times over. Much less known is that hidden away in earth-covered bunkers spread throughout the U.S., Europe and Japan, over 40,000 tons of American chemical weapons were stored, as well as thousands of specially designed bombs that could be filled with even deadlier biological warfare agents.

The American WMD programs remain cloaked in secrecy, yet a substantial number of revealing documents have been quietly declassified since the late 1970s. Put together, they tell the story of how America secretly built up the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. The documents explain the role these weapons played in a series of world crises, how they shaped U.S. and NATO defense and foreign policy during the Cold War, and what incidents and nearly averted disasters happened. Moreover, they shed a light on the dreadful human and ecological legacy left by decades of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons manufacturing and testing in the U.S. and overseas.

This collection contains more than 2,300 formerly classified U.S. government documents, most of them classified Top Secret or higher. Covering the period from the end of World War II to the present day, it provides unique access to previously unpublished reports, memoranda, cables, intelligence briefs, classified articles, PowerPoint presentations, military manuals and directives, and other declassified documents. Following years of archival research and careful selection, they were brought together from the U.S. National Archives, ten U.S. presidential libraries, the NATO Archives in Brussels, the National Archives of the UK, the National Archives of Canada, and the National Archives of the Netherlands. In addition, a sizeable number of documents in this collection were obtained from the U.S. government and the Pentagon using the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) requests.

This collection comes with several auxiliary aids, including a chronology and a historiographical essay with links to the documents themselves, providing context and allowing for easy navigation for both students and scholars.

Highlights:
• The papers in this collection detail how America’s stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were developed, the staggering costs that were involved, the network of laboratories where the bombs and their components were designed and developed, new details about the dozens of secret factories spread across the U.S. where these lethal bombs and warheads were built, the sites where they were tested, and even newly released information about some of the storage depots where the weapons were deployed in the U.S. and overseas.
• This collection contains for the first time ever a comprehensive set of declassified documents which quantify the size and destructive power of the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons stockpile throughout the Cold War era, including new details about the many different types of weapons in these arsenals, such as nuclear landmines (Atomic Demolition Munitions) and even a nuclear-capable recoilless rifle system.
• This collection contains hundreds of pages of declassified Defense Department and State Department documents concerning the secret negotiations between the U.S. government and over fifteen foreign governments concerning the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries (complete biological weapons were never deployed overseas), as well as the even more difficult task later in the Cold War of trying to get permission to remove these weapons after they had outlived their usefulness. In some instances, the U.S. government deliberately did not inform the host nations that they had deployed nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries, as in the case of Japan, which was shocked to learn in 1969 that the U.S. was storing large numbers of nuclear and chemical weapons on the island of Okinawa without their knowledge or consent.
• Also included are over a hundred declassified documents regarding U.S. nuclear war plans, detailing how the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were to be used in wartime, including lists of their targets inside the USSR and the People’s Republic of China; newly declassified documents containing the details of all known nuclear, chemical and biological weapons accidents, some of which produced fatal results; and incidents involving attempts by foreign governments (Greece, Turkey and South Korea) to pressure the U.S. government by threatening to seize American nuclear weapons stored on their soil. Finally, there are recently released files concerning an attempt by a terrorist group to penetrate a U.S. nuclear weapons storage site in West Germany.

Number of documents: 2,374
Number of pages: ca. 21,212

Auxiliary aids:
• Introductory essay
• Glossary of acronyms
• Chronology
• Bibliography
• MARC21 catalog records

Sourcing archives:
• U.S. National Archives, Legislative Archives Branch, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. National Archives. Military Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• U.S. National Archives, Civilian Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives, Brussels, Belgium
• National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
• National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands
• National Archives of the UK, Kew, Great Britain
• Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
• Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
• Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
• John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
• Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
• Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California
• Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
• Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia
• Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California
• George H.W. Bush Presidential Library, Houston, Texas
• William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas
• Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
• DOD FOIA Reading Room, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Army Center for Military History, Washington, D.C.
• Naval Historical Center Operational Archives, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
• Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
• Douglas MacArthur Library, Norfolk, Virginia (Douglas MacArthur Papers)
• George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (George C. Marshall Papers)
• Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (George W. Ball Papers)
• National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. (Chuck Hansen Collection)
• Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, Maryland

See also the companion collections Cold War Intelligence, U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991, U.S. Intelligence on Europe, 1945-1995, and U.S. Intelligence on the Middle East, 1945-2009.
Prize Papers Online 3 contains approximately 4,000 interrogations of members of the crew of ships taken during the First, Second and Third Anglo-Dutch Wars (ca. 1652-1674) and the War of the Spanish Succession (ca. 1701-1733). It shows images of each interrogation (of two, three, sometimes even six or more pages). Answers to the fourteen most researched questions are transcribed and stored in a searchable database.

The Anglo-Dutch Wars (First: 1652-1654; Second: 1665-1667; Third: 1672-1674) were a series of wars fought between the English (later British) and the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries for control over the seas and trade routes. The Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784) is part of PPO 1.

This collection is part of Prize Papers Online (PPO).

Edited by Andre Bouwman

Codices Hugeniani Online (COHU) offers the fully digitized archive of Christiaan Huygens (1629 - 1695), held at Leiden University Library. The archive includes notebooks and loose leafs with texts in the field of astronomy, mechanics, mathematics and music, as well as correspondence and annotated books.

Huygens was a prominent Dutch mathematician, astronomer and physicist. He published major studies on mechanics and optics, and a pioneer work on games of chance. He is famous for his discovery of the rings of Saturn and its moon Titan, and for inventing the pendulum clock.

Shortly before his death in 1695 Huygens bequeathed a large part of his scholarly papers to Leiden University Library. After 1800, the legacy was further enriched by manuscripts and letters from family property, amongst others a large number of letters from Huygens' father Constantijn (1596 - 1687).

For over three centuries, many scholars have made the Codices Hugeniani the object of their research. The contents of the archive have been made partly accessible through the well-known Oeuvres complètes (a 19-volume 19th Century reference work). More recently, the Codices Hugeniani were described in detail by Dr. Joella Yoder in her Catalogue of the Manuscripts of Christiaan Huygens (Brill, 2013). With COHU the full archive's contents are now easily accessible for the first time.

Features and benefits

Sections COHU is logically organized in the same way as the original archive, i.e. 52 codices as main entrances, enabling an overview of the archive as a whole.

Advanced search options In each codex the scans are offered in smaller groupings ranging from 1 to several dozen folios each. These groupings are all described with detailed metadata. This offers the possibility of an advanced search for specific topics, etc.

Rich metadata
For a large part the metadata are taken from Joella Yoder’s catalogue. This is the most authoritative overview and the outcome of 20+ years of hard work. The book contains valuable information about the archive that is not in the Leiden University Library's catalogue.

Direct link between famous Oeuvres complètesand archive
The COHU metadata offer a concordance between the physical archive and the Oeuvres complètes.

Various Authors & Editors

Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- ).

Collection of documents from Amnesty International's Research Archives, containing Amnesty's Country Dossiers and Publications since 1975 and 1962, respectively, updated on a yearly basis. The reports and dossiers contain a variety of information on each country, sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, and press reports in all media. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Also included are interviews with former prisoners and government representatives, as well as reports of on-the-spot investigations of prisons.

MARC21 collection record available

Amnesty International receives 30% of the revenues from this publication.

Various Authors & Editors

Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- ).

Collection of documents from Amnesty International's Research Archives, containing Amnesty's Country Dossiers and Publications since 1975 and 1962, respectively, updated on a yearly basis. The reports and dossiers contain a variety of information on each country, sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, and press reports in all media. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Also included are interviews with former prisoners and government representatives, as well as reports of on-the-spot investigations of prisons.

MARC21 collection record available

Amnesty International receives 30% of the revenues from this publication.

For more details, prices and ordering information, please click here.

Edited by Jean-Claude Lizé

Human Rights Documents
Supplements 2009

The collection is updated regularly. Typically, an update includes both supplemented and new titles. A detailed IDC guide, providing easy access to the microfiche collection, comes with every supplement and is cumulated regularly.
The material is organized into seven main sections:
• General
• Africa
• Asia
• Europe
• Middle East
• North America
• Latin America and the Caribbean

Human Rights Internet receives 30% of the revenues of this microfiche publication.

Various Authors & Editors

Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- ).

Collection of documents from Amnesty International's Research Archives, containing Amnesty's Country Dossiers and Publications since 1975 and 1962, respectively, updated on a yearly basis. The reports and dossiers contain a variety of information on each country, sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, and press reports in all media. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Also included are interviews with former prisoners and government representatives, as well as reports of on-the-spot investigations of prisons.

MARC21 collection record available

Amnesty International receives 30% of the revenues from this publication.

For more details, prices and ordering information, please click here.
Sephardic Editions, 1550-1820: Installment 3
Spanish and Portuguese books written and/or published by Sephardic Jews of Early Modern Europe

Library of Jewish heritage
The present selection reflects the impressive cultural achievements of these "New Jews" and former conversos, who are also called Western Sephardim. In communities such as Ferrara, Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, and Bayonne, these Iberians - who had been raised as Catholics, and were largely unaware of Hebrew and formal Judaism - reconnected with their ancestral faith through the creation of an authentic library of Jewish heritage in the Spanish and the Portuguese language.

Modern Jews
Numerous Bibles, prayer books, and a whole range of works on the essentials of Judaism and the duties of a Jew were published in the vernacular. However, book-printing was not limited to re-education in Judaism alone; many of the works written or printed by the former conversos also reflect the broad cultural interest, and the academic background, they had brought with them from Spain and Portugal. Precisely the encounter between Iberian Renaissance culture and the rediscovered Judaism in environments such as the cosmopolitan, tolerant city of Amsterdam, turned these Western Sephardim into the first "modern Jews," as is exemplified by the life and works of such eminent figures as Uriel da Costa, Menasseh ben Israel, and Joseph Penso de la Vega.

Most influential works
This selection comprises the most influential works written or printed by the Iberian Jews in the major centers of the Western Sephardi Diaspora (e.g., the Netherlands, France, Italy, Germany, England); it includes all genres and reflects both their religious and their secular culture. Many of the editions included in Meyer Kayserling's bibliography are exceedingly rare and are available only in specialized collections of Judaica. The aim of the present selection is to make the Sephardi heritage generally available in order to meet the needs of modern scholarship.

Harm den Boer, University of Amsterdam

Various Authors & Editors

This part of the archives of the Gujarat Diocese of the Church of North India contains minutes of meetings, correspondence and other documents of the Irish Presbyterian Mission Council in Gujarat and relevant local committees.