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Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- ).

Collection of documents from Amnesty International's Research Archives, containing Amnesty's Country Dossiers and Publications since 1975 and 1962, respectively, updated on a yearly basis. The reports and dossiers contain a variety of information on each country, sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, and press reports in all media. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Also included are interviews with former prisoners and government representatives, as well as reports of on-the-spot investigations of prisons.

MARC21 collection record available

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Amnesty International

In 1998, Pierre Sané, Secretary General of Amnesty International, described the character and significance of the microfiche edition as follows:
"1998 marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – the bedrock of contemporary human rights – and is a significant year for Amnesty International and human rights organizations throughout the world. The anniversary is a time both to look at what we have achieved, and what challenges lie ahead for the human rights community.
In this half century, Amnesty International has helped to enshrine human rights in international law, raised public and political awareness of those basic rights and the abuses which still take place, and worked with the ever growing number of grassroots human rights groups throughout the world. In marking the anniversary of the Declaration, Amnesty International is focusing on highlighting the risks faced by human rights defenders -- the people on the front line of human rights protection -- and demonstrating the popular support for the Declaration through our worldwide signature campaign. We are looking towards further strengthening the human rights movement in the next 50 years, and to make sure that ignorance of abuses can never again be used as an excuse for inaction.
For this reason, finding out about human rights violations and making those facts public is crucial, and the role of IDC is extremely valuable in making this information available in microfiche editions with comprehensive, annually updated inventories on CD-ROM."


Access
The microfiche edition is annually updated, and made accessible on item level by an online EAD finding aid and a printed guide listing all individual documents in this unique collection. The printed guide is also updated on a yearly basis. The printed guide is cumulated every five years.

Country Dossiers
The information in Amnesty International Reports and Country Dossiers is compiled, analysed and edited by volunteers and members of the staff of Amnesty International. The information comes from diverse sources and is collected on the basis of disciplined research. Background information is sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, press reports, and transcriptions of radio broadcasts. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Exhaustive interviews with former prisoners are conducted by Amnesty International researchers. Details on individual cases are verified by consulting experts and other international organizations. Where possible, Amnesty International sends missions to countries to meet government representatives, visit prisons, and conduct on the spot investigations.

Publications
Once the information has been collected, the details are cross-checked by Amnesty International's Research Department and Legal Office to corroborate individual testimony and ensure the integrity of the final published reports for which Amnesty International takes full responsibility.

This collection includes the sections:
Amnesty International (1962 - 2006)
Amnesty International 2007
Amnesty International 2008
Amnesty International 2009
Amnesty International
Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- )

In 1998, Pierre Sané, Secretary General of Amnesty International, described the character and significance of the microfiche edition as follows:
"1998 marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – the bedrock of contemporary human rights – and is a significant year for Amnesty International and human rights organizations throughout the world. The anniversary is a time both to look at what we have achieved, and what challenges lie ahead for the human rights community.
In this half century, Amnesty International has helped to enshrine human rights in international law, raised public and political awareness of those basic rights and the abuses which still take place, and worked with the ever growing number of grassroots human rights groups throughout the world. In marking the anniversary of the Declaration, Amnesty International is focusing on highlighting the risks faced by human rights defenders -- the people on the front line of human rights protection -- and demonstrating the popular support for the Declaration through our worldwide signature campaign. We are looking towards further strengthening the human rights movement in the next 50 years, and to make sure that ignorance of abuses can never again be used as an excuse for inaction.
For this reason, finding out about human rights violations and making those facts public is crucial, and the role of IDC is extremely valuable in making this information available in microfiche editions with comprehensive, annually updated inventories on CD-ROM."


Access
The microfiche edition is annually updated, and made accessible on item level by an online EAD finding aid and a printed guide listing all individual documents in this unique collection. The printed guide is also updated on a yearly basis. The printed guide is cumulated every five years.

Country Dossiers
The information in Amnesty International Reports and Country Dossiers is compiled, analysed and edited by volunteers and members of the staff of Amnesty International. The information comes from diverse sources and is collected on the basis of disciplined research. Background information is sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, press reports, and transcriptions of radio broadcasts. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Exhaustive interviews with former prisoners are conducted by Amnesty International researchers. Details on individual cases are verified by consulting experts and other international organizations. Where possible, Amnesty International sends missions to countries to meet government representatives, visit prisons, and conduct on the spot investigations.

Publications
Once the information has been collected, the details are cross-checked by Amnesty International's Research Department and Legal Office to corroborate individual testimony and ensure the integrity of the final published reports for which Amnesty International takes full responsibility.
Russian Theater in the Early 20th Century
Material from the National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg

The early years of the 20th century saw the appearance of many new theaters in Russia, as well as an increase in theater audiences and in the activities of professional critics. Theater collectives and experimental theaters flourished throughout Russia, inventing new and highly individual expressive forms and bringing aesthetic elements of symbolism to the Russian stage. The leading role in these innovations belongs to Meierkhol'd who at that time directed his Theater-Studio on Povarskaya Street in Moscow and the Komissarzhevskaya Theater in St. Petersburg. Thanks to Meierkhol'd the repertoire policy of the imperial theaters of St. Petersburg changes radically. In Moscow the Studio is opened as part of the Moscow Art Theater (later becoming MKhT-2), as well as the Chamber Theatre and in St. Petersburg the futurists show their first theater experiments on stage. All of these theater collectives clearly expressed their own creativity and specific aesthetics.
The Russian symbolists published the journal Vesy ( The Scales, 1904-1909) and Zolotoye Runo ( The Golden Fleece, 1906-1909). These magazines looked at the problems of the "new" theater as a reflection of Philosophical or mystical conceptions about life. These publications were succeeded by the monthly Apollon (1909-1917). Apollon reacted to the more important happenings on the scenes of the capital and provincial towns, but most pages was taken up by articles of an analytical nature, devoted to special problems of the theater: decorations, costumes, scenic movement/plasticity, acting schools.
A specific position was taken in by the journal that was published in the Studio of Meierkhol'd: The Love for three oranges: The Journal of Doctor Dapertutto (Petrograd, 1914-1916). This journal published the cultural chronicles and reports of the acitivities of Meierkhol'ds Studio and also poems of contemporary poets. For three seasons (1912/1913 - 1914/1915) Moscow saw the publication of a monthly of theater art: Masks. All magazines are characterized by excellent artistic content and feature contributions from leading writers, poets, literary and artistic critics, such as M.Voloshin, V.Meierkhol'd, V.Bryusov, L.Andreev, A.Blok, F.Sologub, M.Kuz'min, A.Akhmatova, N.Efros; and are illustrated by famous artists such as A.Benois, A.Korovin, K.Somov, A. Golovin and L.Bakst.

The Importance of the Collection
The Collection includes small editions aimed at professionals and mass publications intended for a general audience. These periodicals provide a detailed picture of metropolitan and provincial Russian theater, and reflect cultural life in Russia at the turn of the 20th century. Their pages include theater repertoires, reviews, sharp-tongued articles, documentary materials, librettos, announcements and advertisements. The publications did not limit themselves simply to covering social issues, but also dealt with professional problems, such as the relationship between theaters and their sponsors, or the poor living conditions endured by provincial actors. This collection is a unique source for a wide range of scholars in the fields of history, cultural studies, theater history and sociology, and provides a unique opportunity to savour the distinctive atmosphere of the period revered as Russia's Silver Age.

Main Topics
• Russian culture of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
• Daily life and entertainment in pre-revolutionary Russia
• Theater in capitals and in the provinces
• Modernism
• Futurism

Subject Areas
• Slavic Studies
• History of Culture
• Art History
• Theater
Screen and Stage: The Russian Cinematographic and Theater Press, 1889-1919
Material from the National Library of Russia, St. Petersburg

This collection contains a wide range of information on various forms of mass culture and performance art in pre-revolutionary Russia:
• Cinema
• Theater
• Theater of miniatures
• Cabaret theater
• Circus
• Operetta

The collection includes unique material such as records of the repertoires, biographies of the actors, examples of audience reactions to performances.

Urban Mass Culture at the Turn of the 20th Century
At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, Russian urban culture was enriched by new leisure activities and entertainments. In addition to the existing fair booths for the commoners, popular festivities for the middle classes, and opera, ballet, and theater for the upper classes, other kinds of mass entertainment appeared, for example, circus, sports contests, and horse-races, along with cinema, cabaret, and theaters of miniatures, which became a new mass passion. The cabaret turned out to be a serious competition for the traditional theater. Since cabaret performances were accessible to the general public and their content was quite intelligible, they won audiences from the theater and attracted leading actors and other personnel.

Cinema
By this time the large wave of modernism swept across Europe and affected practically all aspects of life, including new public leisure activities and entertainments. Cinema turned out to be the perfect instrument to mold mass culture. Although the popularity of the screen was all pervasive, the universality of its artistic language was limited by the lack of sound. To compensate this, a number of means were used, varying from imitating and parodying films to combining film performances with ballet, theatrical, or musical sketches in one program. A skillfully staged effect of actual presence was also practiced, for example during the tour by Max Linder - the French "king of the screen" - to Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Kiev in December 1913. The intense drama of the film came to a sudden end when the main character made a live appearance, stunning and disconcerting the audience.

Cabaret and Variety Theaters
Cabaret and variety theaters appeared in Russia in the 1900s, and provided an ideal setting for artistic experiments. At the end of February 1908, the Bat cabaret theater ( Letuchaia Mysh') opened in Moscow under the direction of Nikita Baliev; six months later, The Distorting Mirror ( Krivoe zerkalo) parody-theater founded by Aleander Kugel' and Nikolai Evreinov opened its doors. These experiments were such a success that they immediately became the fashion. Soon, dozens of similar ventures appeared not only in Moscow and St. Petersburg, but also in Odessa, Kiev, Khar'kov, Baku, Rostov-on-Don, Vladivostok, and many other cities. In 1912, there were 125 cabaret or variety theaters performing original sketches and programs every evening in Moscow and St. Petersburg alone. Cabaret mania swept through both literary and artistic circles. Suffice it to mention such famous cabarets of Moscow futurists as Stray dog ( Brodiachaia sobaka) and The Pink Lantern ( Rozovyi fonar'). The symbolist poet Fyodor Sologub intended to open his literary cabaret. Mikhail Kuzmin and Vladislav Khodasevich enjoyed writing musical and theatrical items for cabaret programs. Vasilii Kachalov, Ivan Moskvin, Ol'ga Knipper-Chekhova, and even Konstantin Stanislavskii himself did not mind appearing on the stage of Baliev's theater. Although cabaret culture in Russia remained formally close to its original European concept, it had its own roots. Its stylistic and artistic originality was influenced by the living traditions of intimate gatherings of actors, named kapustniks - literally "cabbage pies", where the actors parodied the highbrow stage practices of the Malyi, Aleksandrinskii, Mariinskii, and Moscow Art theaters.

Mass Media on Popular Entertainment
Starting at the beginning of the 1900s, a large number of daily and weekly illustrated newspapers and journals were published in capitals and provincial cities throughout the Russian Empire. These publications contained the main news related to operetta, farce, variety shows, circus, sports, and other forms of entertainment, and provided insights into various occupations related to acting. When cinema and cabaret spread more widely, news about them was included in these periodicals, thus diversifying them even further.
Several professional publications (e.g., Actor ( Artist) and Actor's Diary ( Dnevnik Artista)) already appeared at the end of the 19th century. They reflected a complex panorama of theater life in the main cities and in the provinces, and carefully recorded all significant premieres, current repertoires, artistic stage tours, innovations, the actions of censors and local authorities, the switching of actors to another stage, etc. Like cinematographic periodicals (e.g., Elektra - the one-off newspaper for cinema, theater, arts, and literature aficionados that appeared in Moscow in 1909), practically all these titles were short-lived. Hardly any of them survived more than a few seasons, and even the most successful lasted only until the new performing arts in the old Russia came to an end. Worth mentioning are Artistic world. Journal for variety theaters, circus, sports and cinematography ( Artisticheskii mir. Zhurnal teatrov-var'ete, tsirka, sporta i sinematografa) (Moscow, 1912-1918), Review of St. Petersburg cinemas, skating rinks, and theaters ( Obozrenie SPB. kinematografov, sketing-ringov i teatrov) (St. Petersburg, 1912-1917), and Theater and cinema. Weekly illustrated publication ( Teatr i kino. Ezhenedel'noe illiustrirovannoe izdanie) (Odessa, 1915-1919).

Historical Value of the Publications
The historical value of these publications can hardly be overestimated. The researcher will find in them unique and still poorly explored material, including records of the repertoires of cabaret theaters and their evolution, as well as the history of various one-man theatrical undertakings and the biographies of the participants. They also contain examples of audience reactions to cabaret performances. Cinema historians will also profit from this valuable material. The publications will help them to define the functional role of cinema in cabaret practice, to establish the similarities and differences, and to better understand various aspects of the evolutionary esthetic convergence of theater and cinema, and analyze their mutual influence.

Rashit Yangirov, Moscow
Muslims in Russia

Muslims in Russian History
Muslim peoples played an important role in the creation of the multinational Russian state. The process took several centuries and was completed only when Central Asia was annexed in the 1860s. Russian power had confronted a huge Muslim world, and the Muslim question became one of the major factors in both the internal and the external policy of Russia's tsars. According to the first general census (1897), by the end of the nineteenth century the Muslim population amounted to approximately 14 million, representing almost 11 percent of the total population of Imperial Russia.

The Muslim Question
The attitude of the Russian state to the Muslims changed more than once. Down to the time of Peter the Great, Russian policy combined the merging of the Muslim elite with the top of Russian society, with the forced, gradual Russification and Christianization of the general population. Starting with Ekaterina II, all-Russia imperial policy changed from that of suppressing the Muslims to that of legitimizing them. When Alexander III became tsar in 1881, he started to pursue a policy of the increased administrative prosecution of religious nonconformity, and discrimination against non-Christians (including Muslims), thus increasingly separating Muslims from Russian society.

The Wind of Change
New forces entered public life at the beginning of the twentieth century. In Russia, there was a powerful outburst of Muslim nationalism, based on religious reformism, traditionalism, and liberal ideas. During the First Russian Revolution of 1905-1907, there were great changes in the state and in society linked to the creation of the State Duma (parliament), the proclamation of civil freedom, and the possibility to form political parties and alliances, and to relatively independently express political opinion. It was then that the traditional worldview was shaken and the foundation for the secularization of the social conscience was laid.
The Union of Muslims of Russia ( Ittifak-Al-Muslimin) - which was created at the 1905-1906 congresses of Muslim representatives from throughout Russia - became the Muslims' most powerful political organization. The Union survived until 1917 and had branches in the lands along the Volga and in the Crimea, the Urals, the Caucasus, Siberia and Turkestan.
This period saw an increase in the number of Muslim intellectuals searching for their national identity. The Muslims of Russia showed a great interest in the legacy of the past, in their national roots, and in their spiritual, religious, and ethnic traditions. Periodicals widely discussed the understanding of the Muslims’ cultural heritage and of the East-West problem.
During and shortly after the February and October Revolutions of 1917, nationalist movements grew rapidly. Finding themselves with a degree of freedom they had formerly thought impossible, many in Russia - including Muslims - were for the first time able to clearly express their problems and the ways to solve them. After they took power on October 25, 1917, the Bolsheviks started to pursue a national policy that in reality never considered the true interests of the Muslims. Thus, the Muslims' attitude toward the new authority worsened dramatically. From the summer of 1918 onward, most Muslims felt negative toward the Soviet authorities and the communists who restricted their religious freedom.

The Muslim Press
Until the first Russian revolution (1905-1907), the problems of Russian Muslims were extremely poorly reported in the Russian press. This is why Muslim public figures time and again tried to obtain permission to publish their own newspapers and magazines. The Buku paper Kaspij was the first Muslim paper to be printed in Russian (1881). Its publisher was an Azerbaijanian politician, Ali-Mardan Topchibashev. He was the first deputy of the State Duma and one of the Muslim leaders in the Russian Empire. Kaspij was published by Muslim journalists for Russian readers. The revolution led to the appearance of many periodicals, including Muslim ones, of numerous ideological persuasions: from monarchist to socialist, and from patriotic to "pan-Turkist" and "pan-Islamist."
These publications were intended to acquaint the Russian and European public with the problems of the Muslims of the Russian Empire, and represented the interests of various groups within the Muslim community. They published official orders related to the Muslim population, documents, resolutions, appeals made by Muslim congresses, the protocols of sessions of Muslim organizations, materials on the most urgent problems of the Muslim population, reviews, letters from Muslims, etc. The notion was spread in society that the Muslim press, especially in 1909-1912, was thoroughly infected by the "viruses" of pan-Turkism and pan-Islamism. For example, the Parisian magazine Musul'manin ( Muslim), which was printed in Russian in 1908-1911, was considered a locus for the distribution of these ideas, as were the St Petersburg publications V mire musul'manstva ( In the Muslim World) and Mususul'manskaia gazeta ( Muslim Newspaper).
After the collapse of the monarchy in March 1917, many Muslim papers and magazines appeared, including some in Russian. The most precious and the rarest is News of the All-Russian Muslim Council. It was published in Petrograd in the second half of 1917 by the All-Russian Muslim Council, the highest executive body of the country's Muslim population. The Council comprised such well-known and established representatives as Zakhid Shamil, the grandson of Imam Shamil. Zakhid Shamil was a journalist, a member of the editorial board of the Petersburg magazine Book Chronicle, and an officer in the Chief Administration of Press in Petersburg.

A Unique Source
Practically all these publications have yet to be thoroughly studied and are practically unknown to foreign researchers. Nevertheless, they are a unique source. They provide familiarity with a very heterogeneous and unknown world that lasted for more than 50 years, namely from 1861 to 1918. Materials published both at the center and on the periphery reflect the picturesque palette of life of Muslims in the Russian Empire, as well as the positions of the public and political figures of different layers of Muslim society.
This collection presents works written by and about Muslims. It includes publications that present the point of view of outsiders regarding the Muslim press. Inorodcheskoe Obozrenie (Foreigners' Overview, a supplement to Pravoslavnyj Sobesednik [Orthodox Collocutor]) is a publication about Muslims in Russia. In addition to articles of a missionary character about Muslims, it contains translations and annotations of numerous Muslim books, magazines, and newspapers. The publications made an essential contribution to the process of overcoming the old religious and national estrangement of the Muslim population.
In the pages of these editions, for the first time on such a scale, intelligent arguments were presented in support of rejecting national self-isolation, the need to familiarize other peoples with Muslim achievements in the fields of science, culture, industry, and agriculture, and the idea of the mutual understanding between and the cultural rapprochement with all peoples.
The discussion was directed at both Western and Russian culture, and showed a significant understanding of the need to become familiar with the achievements of a world civilization. The publications strengthened progressive tendencies by responding forcefully to current political events. The value of this heritage is especially clear now that the historical and spiritual past of Muslims in Russia is being actively reconsidered.
Early Russian Cinema, Part 1
Russian Cinematographic Press (1907-1918)

Cinema in late-imperial Russia
In a quantitative sense Russia's cinematographic press comprises a modest segment of the general stream of the Russian periodical press at the beginning of the 20th century. However, in the dynamic of its development, the tempo of its reproduction and distribution, it far outstripped publication of all other contemporary genres and directions, and in this fact alone vividly reflected the general popularity of cinema in Russian society. In view of the fact that the documents connected with the history of the early Russian cinema and the overwhelming majority of materials on film have not survived up to this time, these publications constitute a unique collection of testimonials about the general and particular characteristics of the Russian cinematographic press of the 1900s and 1910s.

The art of the new age
The pages of these cinematographic publications have preserved for history not only the first examples of cinema theory, but also a very wide range of reflections of the artistic consciousness of the art of the new age. They chronicled all the variety and individual details of the cinematographic life of the Russian capitals and provinces, recorded consecutively the growth of cinematography in the cultural life of the country. The publications dedicated to the screen carefully documented the dynamic of the development of film production and distribution, traced the actions of the authorities in controlling screenings and noted all other accompanying factors and circumstances affecting the establishment of the new art.

The collection
Examining these sources, the researcher can reconstruct the film repertoire and assemble almost a complete list of domestic and foreign films shown on screens in Russia; he will find in them a detailed description of pictures, reviews by critics, censored materials, etc. In addition, they contain extremely valuable information about other forms of contemporary entertainment culture - the theater of miniatures, cabaret and music hall.
Faces of Eurasia

Crossroads between Europe and Asia
For centuries, Eurasia was a crossroads between Europe and Asia. In the twentieth century, the Russian Empire – and later the USSR – embraced about one third of the continent of Asia, including its entire northern region (Siberia), the western section of Central Asia, and part of the Middle East in the region of the Caucasus. This huge territory is inhabited by various peoples (Kyrgyzs, Tatars, Uzbeks, and many others) with rich historical, cultural, and religious traditions. There are also some Muslim groups in the European part of Russia, namely in the Volga and Ural regions. Eurasia has a remarkably interesting history and for centuries has been a meeting place for different cultures, religions, languages, and peoples. The geographical and strategic position of these regions, in which the interests of almost all the great powers contended, was of immense value. The history of the exploration and the colonization of these regions is full of dramatic and sometimes controversial events. Siberia, for instance, was not only a place of exile and concentration camps, but also a mysterious land offering the chance to escape from the burden of the authoritarian state.

Travel accounts
For centuries, these regions aroused the wildest speculations among Europeans. Like Russia before the reforms of Peter the Great, these regions were perceived as mysterious worlds blessed with unheard-of wealth and inexhaustible natural resources, yet inhabited by barbarians who lived at odds with the most sacred values of humanity. Rumors about giants, cynophales, and other monsters continued to tickle the European imagination until more reliable accounts became available and pushed the frontier of modern civilization further east. Since the sixteenth century – the beginning of the modern period of expansion – travel literature has recorded what was seen, mapped, and could be useful for the world. These sources are especially valuable because the detached stranger was able to observe many of life's details and nuances of which the local residents were not aware. These scientists, diplomats, businessmen, spies and adventurers who traveled through these new cultures were there both novel and little known. The collection includes, for instance, material written by the Americans Lieutenant Richard Bush and journalist George Kennan – participants in the 1865-1867 Siberian "telegraph expedition", which was organized by the Western Union telegraph company – and by the English priest Henry Lansdell, who went to Russia with mainly philanthropic purposes (he distributed the Gospel and other religious literature en route from Petersburg to Vladivostok).

The mysterious world of wildness
The first descriptions to convey travelers' impressions first hand were perhaps less spectacular than the sometimes bizarre accounts that we find in Herodotus or Pliny the Elder. However, they were not necessarily more favorable. Adam Olearius – the Holsteinian ambassador who traveled several times to Moscovia and Persia between 1633 and 1639 – was appalled by the Russians who, in his eyes, "had no civility" and were "marvelously well versed in the quality of cheating and lying." Still more barbaric, according to the Dutch painter and traveler Cornelis de Bruin, were the Samoyeds (Lapps) who lived on the northern shore and still worshipped idols. In highly developed Persia, de Bruin was shocked by the population's "infidelity and ingratitude."
As Russia's contacts with Western Europe intensified as a result of the reforms under Peter the Great, the Western image of Russia and Eurasia in general became somewhat more balanced. Though travel accounts stressing Russia's backwardness and despotic government continued to appear well into the nineteenth century, other descriptions – such as John Bell's Travels from St Petersburgh in Russia, to Various Parts of Asia (1763) – took a more benevolent view that was more in line with the regime's enlightened and civilized self-image. At the same time, the empire's military expansion toward the east and south during the eighteenth and the nineteenth century created the conditions for further exploration of the Russian hinterland and its neighboring regions. With the annexation of large parts of the North Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Far East in the second half of the nineteenth century, the Russian Empire became home to Persian-speaking Jews, Turkic-speaking nomads, and a large population of Muslims. On the eve of World War I, Russia had acquired a cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity that only its equally expansionist successor – the Soviet Union – would surpass.

Indispensable sources
The works in the present collection were once important sources of information that helped European and American governments to formulate their foreign policy toward the Russian Empire. These sources were especially significant for foreign policy departments and politicians, because the majority of the works describe the Russian expansion in Asia. Scholars who are interested in the colonization of Eurasia and the geopolitical strategies employed in that process will certainly find something to their taste here. The collection will also be a gold mine for those studying the origins and the development of national stereotypes, and will contribute to our understanding of the ways in which European travelers perceived the Russian Orient.

This collection includes the sections:
Faces of Eurasia – General
Faces of Eurasia – Caucasus
Faces of Eurasia – Central Asia
Faces of Eurasia – Siberia
Faces of Eurasia
Caucasus

Together with its three counterparts ( Faces of Eurasia: General, Faces of Eurasia: Central Asia, and Faces of Eurasia: Siberia), this exciting collection of travel accounts, notes, diaries, and ethnographic descriptions dating from the seventeenth through the early twentieth century, features the vast region of "Eurasia" as seen through the eyes of Western travelers. It offers a unique opportunity to experience some of the awe and bewilderment that these explorers must have felt, while simultaneously inviting one to take a critical look at the cultural and national stereotypes on which they relied. The collection will appeal to historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, linguists, and all scholars interested in the clash between Western civilization, the world of Islam, and the many different cultures that existed in the Asian parts of the Russian empire.

This collection is also included in the Faces of Eurasia collection.
Faces of Eurasia
Central Asia

Together with its three counterparts ( Faces of Eurasia: General, Faces of Eurasia: Caucasus, and Faces of Eurasia: Siberia), this exciting collection of travel accounts, notes, diaries, and ethnographic descriptions dating from the seventeenth through the early twentieth century, features the vast region of "Eurasia" as seen through the eyes of Western travelers. It offers a unique opportunity to experience some of the awe and bewilderment that these explorers must have felt, while simultaneously inviting one to take a critical look at the cultural and national stereotypes on which they relied. The collection will appeal to historians, ethnographers, anthropologists, linguists, and all scholars interested in the clash between Western civilization, the world of Islam, and the many different cultures that existed in the Asian parts of the Russian empire.

This collection is also included in the Faces of Eurasia collection.