Browse results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 265 items for :

  • Primary Source Collection x
  • Slavic and Eurasian Studies x
  • Search level: All x
Clear All
Amnesty International
Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- )

In 1998, Pierre Sané, Secretary General of Amnesty International, described the character and significance of the microfiche edition as follows:
"1998 marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – the bedrock of contemporary human rights – and is a significant year for Amnesty International and human rights organizations throughout the world. The anniversary is a time both to look at what we have achieved, and what challenges lie ahead for the human rights community.
In this half century, Amnesty International has helped to enshrine human rights in international law, raised public and political awareness of those basic rights and the abuses which still take place, and worked with the ever growing number of grassroots human rights groups throughout the world. In marking the anniversary of the Declaration, Amnesty International is focusing on highlighting the risks faced by human rights defenders -- the people on the front line of human rights protection -- and demonstrating the popular support for the Declaration through our worldwide signature campaign. We are looking towards further strengthening the human rights movement in the next 50 years, and to make sure that ignorance of abuses can never again be used as an excuse for inaction.
For this reason, finding out about human rights violations and making those facts public is crucial, and the role of IDC is extremely valuable in making this information available in microfiche editions with comprehensive, annually updated inventories on CD-ROM."


Access
The microfiche edition is annually updated, and made accessible on item level by an online EAD finding aid and a printed guide listing all individual documents in this unique collection. The printed guide is also updated on a yearly basis. The printed guide is cumulated every five years.

Country Dossiers
The information in Amnesty International Reports and Country Dossiers is compiled, analysed and edited by volunteers and members of the staff of Amnesty International. The information comes from diverse sources and is collected on the basis of disciplined research. Background information is sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, press reports, and transcriptions of radio broadcasts. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Exhaustive interviews with former prisoners are conducted by Amnesty International researchers. Details on individual cases are verified by consulting experts and other international organizations. Where possible, Amnesty International sends missions to countries to meet government representatives, visit prisons, and conduct on the spot investigations.

Publications
Once the information has been collected, the details are cross-checked by Amnesty International's Research Department and Legal Office to corroborate individual testimony and ensure the integrity of the final published reports for which Amnesty International takes full responsibility.
Amnesty International

In 1998, Pierre Sané, Secretary General of Amnesty International, described the character and significance of the microfiche edition as follows:
"1998 marks the 50th anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – the bedrock of contemporary human rights – and is a significant year for Amnesty International and human rights organizations throughout the world. The anniversary is a time both to look at what we have achieved, and what challenges lie ahead for the human rights community.
In this half century, Amnesty International has helped to enshrine human rights in international law, raised public and political awareness of those basic rights and the abuses which still take place, and worked with the ever growing number of grassroots human rights groups throughout the world. In marking the anniversary of the Declaration, Amnesty International is focusing on highlighting the risks faced by human rights defenders -- the people on the front line of human rights protection -- and demonstrating the popular support for the Declaration through our worldwide signature campaign. We are looking towards further strengthening the human rights movement in the next 50 years, and to make sure that ignorance of abuses can never again be used as an excuse for inaction.
For this reason, finding out about human rights violations and making those facts public is crucial, and the role of IDC is extremely valuable in making this information available in microfiche editions with comprehensive, annually updated inventories on CD-ROM."


Access
The microfiche edition is annually updated, and made accessible on item level by an online EAD finding aid and a printed guide listing all individual documents in this unique collection. The printed guide is also updated on a yearly basis. The printed guide is cumulated every five years.

Country Dossiers
The information in Amnesty International Reports and Country Dossiers is compiled, analysed and edited by volunteers and members of the staff of Amnesty International. The information comes from diverse sources and is collected on the basis of disciplined research. Background information is sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, press reports, and transcriptions of radio broadcasts. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Exhaustive interviews with former prisoners are conducted by Amnesty International researchers. Details on individual cases are verified by consulting experts and other international organizations. Where possible, Amnesty International sends missions to countries to meet government representatives, visit prisons, and conduct on the spot investigations.

Publications
Once the information has been collected, the details are cross-checked by Amnesty International's Research Department and Legal Office to corroborate individual testimony and ensure the integrity of the final published reports for which Amnesty International takes full responsibility.

This collection includes the sections:
Amnesty International (1962 - 2006)
Amnesty International 2007
Amnesty International 2008
Amnesty International 2009
Amnesty's Country Dossiers (1975- ) and Publications (1962- ).

Collection of documents from Amnesty International's Research Archives, containing Amnesty's Country Dossiers and Publications since 1975 and 1962, respectively, updated on a yearly basis. The reports and dossiers contain a variety of information on each country, sifted from published studies, contemporary archives, and press reports in all media. Legislation pertaining to the administration of justice in each country is quoted from official publications. Also included are interviews with former prisoners and government representatives, as well as reports of on-the-spot investigations of prisons.

MARC21 collection record available

Amnesty International receives 30% of the revenues from this publication.

For more details, prices and ordering information, please click here.
Editor: Boris Belenkin
Anti-Semitism and Nationalism at the End of the Soviet Era

Over a thousand pieces of material evidence (leaflets, newspapers, posters, documents, photographs) documenting anti-Semitism and nationalism in the Soviet Union.
Anti-Soviet Newspapers

Civil War
The collapse of the Tsarist regime and the Provisional Government in 1917 left a power vacuum in the former Russian Empire. In the resulting chaos, a number of both real and shadow governments emerged. These ranged from centralist (Bolsheviks, Whites) through separatist-nationalist (Ukraine, Cossack Hosts, Transcaucasian Republics) to peasant-anarchist (Makhno) governments. Although the Bolsheviks had no trouble seizing power in November 1917, they managed to consolidate their new position only after several years of bitter struggle in a major civil war with the counterrevolutionary forces referred to as the "White Movement."

Miraculous survival
Until recently, the sources that could shed new light on Russia's civil war period (1918-1922) were not available to researchers. Because of the instability and constantly changing conditions of the civil war, it was impossible to collect the numerous volatile, short-lived newspapers, which were constantly appearing and disappearing. Daily papers meant for mass consumption were sent to the front line, and over it into the enemy's territory. Once read, they were used either to roll cigarettes or to bind feet, and consequently disappeared without trace.
In the 1920s, 1930s, and early 1950s, there were "ideological purges" of the newspaper stocks held by Soviet libraries. During these purges, many of the White Movement press items that had miraculously escaped destruction were now destroyed, because they were regarded as ideologically harmful and superfluous. Those that were not destroyed were withdrawn from scholarly circulation and packed away in special depositories. All information about them was proscribed, which is why none of the larger archives or libraries possesses a complete list of titles or sets of the White Movement press of the period. This makes any copy of a newspaper - let alone whole sets - of the utmost importance.

Unique Collection
The collection is unique in that its contents reflect all aspects of life in that stormy period, which was replete with revolutionary upheavals and civil strife. The variety of material published in these newspapers is astounding. Alongside material reflecting political issues and the burning topics of the day, the collection presents the widest range and variety of newspapers, from those carrying marriage announcements to a batch titled "On the way: News from Chairman of Revolutionary Council Trotsky's Train." This latter newspaper was dubbed "anti-Bolshevik" after Trotsky's rift with J. Stalin. The IDC collection contains official civic and military documents from the White Movement executive organs, central and local news, news from the civil war fronts, information about the activities of regional and local administrations, and press releases from credit, industrial, and cooperative stablishments and savings banks. Juxtaposed with these are facts about everyday life, reflecting the work of various charitable societies and organizations, theatrical performances, concerts, and other major and minor cultural events. Interspersed with these is a very wide range of advertisements. Thus, the collection will provide researchers with not only a rich store of materials to examine, but also the opportunity to make new discoveries.

Literary Treasures
The collection contains lots of material dealing with belles-lettres and literary criticism that holds indispensable information yet to be assessed by literary critics and scholars. Many prominent Russian politicians, scholars, and writers who later lived in exile, published their works in the newspapers of the period. For example, the well-known writer A.I. Kuprin published the newspaper The Prinevsky Krai; N.V. Ustrryalov - the ideologist of the Smenovekhovstvo - was in charge of the Russian Press Bureau under Admiral A.V. Kolchak's government, and also actively cooperated with a number of White newspapers in Siberia; the fathers of the "White Idea" - namely N.N. Lvov and V.V. Shulgin - were active in the south of Russia; and B.A. Suvorin was the publisher of The Evening Time, the largest White newspaper in southern Russia.
A number of widely known writers and poets - for example, Vs. Ivanov, M. Voloshin, Teffi, A.V. Amphiteatrov, and A.T. Averchenko - published their literary pieces and essays in various White newspapers. These newspapers also contain a great variety of drawings, caricatures, and chastushkii (two- or four-line ditties on some topical or humorous theme).

Structure of the Collection
The term "anti-Soviet newspapers" embraces all the newspapers containing anti-Bolshevik propaganda published in the territories controlled by the Whites and the Reds in the period 1918-1922. In accordance with the character of its materials, the collection can be divided into three parts.
The first, and largest, part contains 405 White Movement newspapers. This is the periodic press of different White Guard governments, along with press items from various military and civic organs, establishments and organizations of anti-soviet orientation. Also in this category are most newspapers published in the territories that were controlled by White Movement governments. Such newspapers, which on the whole were either neutral to the White governments or showed some respect for them, were delegated to the care of the special depository for the simple reason of having been published in the territories controlled by the Whites. Practically all the newspapers of the White Movement governments are represented in the NLR collection.
The second part, though smaller (287 titles), is also of extreme importance: it comprises the newspapers that were published in the territories controlled by the Soviets but which were opposed to the "Bolshevik commissars state," though some of them supported the idea of keeping the Soviets "without Bolsheviks," and were extremely critical about some of the Bolshevik government's decisions. These included Social Revolutionary (SR) newspapers, newspapers that were dubbed "petty-bourgeois" by the Bolsheviks, and anti-Bolshevik newspapers with different Russian Social Democratic Labor Party affiliations. The "petty-bourgeois" newspapers were primarily meant for various categories of service providers (e.g., small shopkeepers, cooks, etc.), and paid little attention to the "class struggle" or the glorification of the power of the People's Commissars; in fact, they simply ignored this power.
The third, and smallest, part (six titles) comprises émigré newspapers published by Russians in Harbin, China.

Provenance
The history of this collection is connected with the name of N.V. Iakovlev (1891-1981), a well-known literary scholar and a participant in S.A. Vengerov's Pushkin Seminar. In 1919, the Russian (Omsk) government of A. Kolchak created the Temporary Bureau of the Book Chamber and appointed Iakovlev as its director. In Omsk, on August 1, 1919, Iakovlev called for people to collect and preserve any and all printed material, "since the events we are living through have world-wide significance." The result is the world's largest collection of regional White Movement newspapers and leaflets. In 1920, the collection was taken to Petrograd and handed over to the custody of the Petrograd Book Chamber. When, later in the same year, the capital was moved to Moscow , the collection was transferred to the Russian Public Library (now the NLR).

Finding aids
A catalogue of this collection - Nesovetskie gazety 1918-1922. Katalog sobraniia Rossiiskoi natsional'noi biblioteki. Sankt-Peterburg: Rossiiskaia natsional'naia biblioteka, 2003 - was completed by Prof. G.V. Mikheeva and published by NLR. The catalogue provides an alphabetical list of newspapers' indexes of personal names and places of publication. It is available together with the microfiche collection.
Researchers who are interested in the regional spread of the newspapers can get this information from the regional subdivisions of the newspapers in the collection, which groups newspapers territorially (i.e., those published in southern Russia, Siberia, etc.). This list is available on the IDC website.

The National Library of Russia
The National Library of Russia St. Petersburg (www.nlr.ru) is one of the world's largest libraries: its collection numbers more than 32.8 million items, 6 million of which are written in a foreign language. The library possesses one of the largest collections of White Movement materials. Until recently, these newspapers were sealed in a special depository at the NLR and were unavailable to researchers. Until now, neither facsimile nor any other type of reproduction of these
The Archive of the Moscow Printing House

Everyday life in Muscovite Rus'
The archive of the Moscow Printing House is a unique source of information on the history of book printing by the Eastern Slavs, as well as on the significance of printed books in Muscovite Rus' and Petrinian Russia. It provides valuable insights into the way in which books were produced and traded, allowing researchers to establish the paper and the typeset used, and the construction of certain tools and devices. The collection contains data on book stocks and the number of books in circulation, on editions that were not kept, the price of new books, their preparation for printing, the geography of book sales, and the buyers of different types of an edition. The data on the residence and social status of the buyer were almost always recorded in receipt books. The copybooks can even be used to trace the history of each individual edition prepared by the Moscow Printing House.

Gold mine for scholars
At the same time, the collection is a gold mine for scholars studying the social, political, or economic history of seventeenth-century Russia, or more specifically, the history of the Russian Church. It contains huge amounts of information on the restoration of the economy after the Time of Troubles, uprisings, and epidemics in the 17th century, and information on merchants, both Russian and foreign, from whom these or those goods were bought. There are even details of the salary and other payments made to workers of a Printing House, who often were paid in kind, rather than in money. Even more intriguing is the information it contains on such seemingly mundane matters as the yearly prices for bread and salt over several centuries.

The cradle of Russian book printing
The Moscow Printing House was founded in 1553 during the reign of Ivan the Terrible. Because the first few books it published bore neither the date nor place of publication, the official beginning of book printing in Russia is put at 1564 – the year in which Ivan Fedorov and Petr Timofeev Mstislavets printed Russia's first dated book, an edition of the Apostol. The Printing House operated until 1571, when it was destroyed by fire. Ivan the Terrible then ordered the establishment of a new printing press at Aleksandrova Sloboda. Rebuilt in 1589 but destroyed during the Time of Troubles, the Moscow Printing House eventually emerged as the State's leading printing house. In the 1630s it employed some 120 people, and by the middle of the century this number had risen to 150. In 1721 it became the Moscow Synod Typography, which remained in operation until 1918.

Cultural and intellectual center
The Printing House performed a variety of important functions in the cultural life of seventeenth-century Russia. It helped to spread the official ideology and the liturgical revisions that would lead to the schism of the Orthodox Church. It also served as Russia's first bookshop, a book repository, and a training school for future book printers. In the course of the seventeenth century, the Moscow Printing House amassed an enormous library and printed a total of ca. 350,000 copies – an impressive figure by any standard. A vast number of books were on religious topics, such as Bibles, prayer books, and liturgical material. However, the Printing House also produced educational literature (readers, grammars) and juridical codices ( ukazy, decrees).
"Ordered by His Imperial Highness the Tsar, blessed by His Holiness the Patriarch"
The Moscow Printing House was a well-organized State institution that enjoyed the inviolable position of a monopolist: This was the only place in Muscovite Rus' were printed books were produced. The activities of the Printing House were supervised by the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church, whose explicit permission was required for every book. Consequently, the title page of each one bore the words: "Ordered by His Imperial Highness the Tsar, blessed by His Holiness the Patriarch." The actual printing was invariably preceded by a service attended by the Patriarch. Determining the price of a book was left to none other than the Tsar, who was solemnly presented with the first copy.

Church history
The first printed Cyrillic books were not only the fruit of intellectual progress and enlightenment, but also the immediate product of historic decisions taken by Ivan the Terrible and his successors. The centralization of government and the need to regulate a number of religious matters induced the Council of Hundred ( Stoglavyi sobor) to issue a decree on the unification of church books – a goal that could only be achieved through book printing. The new technology gave the State an enormous advantage in imposing its religious and political views on the more unwilling elements of the population. Book printing was not only instrumental to the conversion of the Tatars in the recently reconquered Khanate of Kazan, but was also an important asset in the fight against religious dissent during the Time of Troubles. Moreover, Moscow book printing helped to preserve Slavic and national traditions outside Russia: The Slavic peoples of the Balkan were under Ottoman rule, while the territory of Ukraine and Belarus belonged to the Rechi Pospolita, where the printing of Cyrillic books was a complicated matter. Thus, Moscow book printing was vital to the entire Orthodox community.

The IDC collection
The archive of the Moscow Printing House consists of three parts – described in three inventories – comprising a total of 606 items from the period 1620-1722. The present collection contains 104 items (books detailing income and expenditure, inventory lists, etc.) that furnish meticulous information on the workers' wages, and the amounts paid for equipment and other material in the period 1620-1700. Most of the documents from this unique archival collection, which is held in the Russian State Archive of Early Acts (RGADA, fond 1182), are previously unpublished. This makes it a unique source of information for Slavists, historians, book historians, and medievalists. In the near future, IDC will make available archival materials from the eighteenth century, as well as the priceless library of the Moscow Printing house, which contains books printed by such trailblazers as Ivan Fedorov, Andronik Nevezha, and Nikita Fofanov.

Russian State Archives of Early Acts (RGADA)
The material comprising the present collection is stored in the Russian State Archives of Early Acts (in Moscow), which holds over 3.3 million documents covering more than nine centuries of Russian writing and book printing. The Archives contain documents issued by the highest government organs as well as those issued by the local authorities of the Russian empire up to the beginning of the nineteenth century. RGADA also stores the papers of the most prominent noble families of Russia, and various priceless collections of manuscripts and early printed books.
Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR

Collection of finding aids and other reference literature covering archives and other manuscript collections in Russia, the Baltic States, Belorussia, Ukraine and Moldavia. The selection is based on Patricia Grimsted's Archives and Manuscript Repositories in the USSR.

Content note
Series 1: Moscow and Leningrad (631 titles);
Series 2: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Belorussia (385 titles);
Series 3: Ukraine and Moldavia (450 titles).

Guide
Printed catalogue with author/title list for each series.

Language note
Texts primarily in Russian.

Bibliographical note
All of the archives listed in the catalogue are described in more detail in the ABB printed directory, Archives of Russia: A Directory and Bibliography Guide to Holdings in Moscow and St Petersburg. English-language edition edited by Patricia Kennedy Grimsted; with a preface by the Russian Editor-in-Chief, Vladimir Petrovich Kozlov (Armonk, NY, and London: M.E. Sharpe Publishers, 2000), 2 vols.
Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belorussia
Collection of finding aids and other reference literature covering archives and other manuscript collections in the Baltic States and Belorussia.

This collection is also included in the collections Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR and Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belorussia.
Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belorussia
Collection of finding aids and other reference literature covering archives and other manuscript collections in the Baltic States and Belorussia.

This collection is also included in the collections Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR and Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belorussia.
Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belorussia
Collection of finding aids and other reference literature covering archives and other manuscript collections in the Baltic States and Belorussia.

This collection is also included in the collections Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR and Archives and Manuscript Collections in Russia and former USSR: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Belorussia.