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Weapons of Mass Destruction

The Top Secret History of America’s Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Warfare Programs and Their Deployment Overseas

At its peak in 1967, the U.S. nuclear arsenal consisted of 31,255 nuclear weapons with an aggregate destructive power of 12,786 megatons – more than sufficient to wipe out all of humanity several hundred times over. Much less known is that hidden away in earth-covered bunkers spread throughout the U.S., Europe and Japan, over 40,000 tons of American chemical weapons were stored, as well as thousands of specially designed bombs that could be filled with even deadlier biological warfare agents.

The American WMD programs remain cloaked in secrecy, yet a substantial number of revealing documents have been quietly declassified since the late 1970s. Put together, they tell the story of how America secretly built up the world’s largest stockpile of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. The documents explain the role these weapons played in a series of world crises, how they shaped U.S. and NATO defense and foreign policy during the Cold War, and what incidents and nearly averted disasters happened. Moreover, they shed a light on the dreadful human and ecological legacy left by decades of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons manufacturing and testing in the U.S. and overseas.

This collection contains more than 2,300 formerly classified U.S. government documents, most of them classified Top Secret or higher. Covering the period from the end of World War II to the present day, it provides unique access to previously unpublished reports, memoranda, cables, intelligence briefs, classified articles, PowerPoint presentations, military manuals and directives, and other declassified documents. Following years of archival research and careful selection, they were brought together from the U.S. National Archives, ten U.S. presidential libraries, the NATO Archives in Brussels, the National Archives of the UK, the National Archives of Canada, and the National Archives of the Netherlands. In addition, a sizeable number of documents in this collection were obtained from the U.S. government and the Pentagon using the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and Mandatory Declassification Review (MDR) requests.

This collection comes with several auxiliary aids, including a chronology and a historiographical essay with links to the documents themselves, providing context and allowing for easy navigation for both students and scholars.

Highlights:
• The papers in this collection detail how America’s stockpiles of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were developed, the staggering costs that were involved, the network of laboratories where the bombs and their components were designed and developed, new details about the dozens of secret factories spread across the U.S. where these lethal bombs and warheads were built, the sites where they were tested, and even newly released information about some of the storage depots where the weapons were deployed in the U.S. and overseas.
• This collection contains for the first time ever a comprehensive set of declassified documents which quantify the size and destructive power of the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons stockpile throughout the Cold War era, including new details about the many different types of weapons in these arsenals, such as nuclear landmines (Atomic Demolition Munitions) and even a nuclear-capable recoilless rifle system.
• This collection contains hundreds of pages of declassified Defense Department and State Department documents concerning the secret negotiations between the U.S. government and over fifteen foreign governments concerning the deployment of nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries (complete biological weapons were never deployed overseas), as well as the even more difficult task later in the Cold War of trying to get permission to remove these weapons after they had outlived their usefulness. In some instances, the U.S. government deliberately did not inform the host nations that they had deployed nuclear and chemical weapons to their countries, as in the case of Japan, which was shocked to learn in 1969 that the U.S. was storing large numbers of nuclear and chemical weapons on the island of Okinawa without their knowledge or consent.
• Also included are over a hundred declassified documents regarding U.S. nuclear war plans, detailing how the American nuclear, chemical and biological weapons were to be used in wartime, including lists of their targets inside the USSR and the People’s Republic of China; newly declassified documents containing the details of all known nuclear, chemical and biological weapons accidents, some of which produced fatal results; and incidents involving attempts by foreign governments (Greece, Turkey and South Korea) to pressure the U.S. government by threatening to seize American nuclear weapons stored on their soil. Finally, there are recently released files concerning an attempt by a terrorist group to penetrate a U.S. nuclear weapons storage site in West Germany.

Number of documents: 2,374
Number of pages: ca. 21,212

Auxiliary aids:
• Introductory essay
• Glossary of acronyms
• Chronology
• Bibliography
• MARC21 catalog records

Sourcing archives:
• U.S. National Archives, Legislative Archives Branch, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. National Archives. Military Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• U.S. National Archives, Civilian Records Branch, College Park, Maryland
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Archives, Brussels, Belgium
• National Archives of Canada, Ottawa, Canada
• National Archives of the Netherlands, The Hague, The Netherlands
• National Archives of the UK, Kew, Great Britain
• Washington National Records Center, Suitland, Maryland
• Harry S. Truman Library, Independence, Missouri
• Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, Abilene, Kansas
• John F. Kennedy Library, Boston, Massachusetts
• Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Austin, Texas
• Richard M. Nixon Presidential Library, Yorba Linda, California
• Gerald R. Ford Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan
• Jimmy Carter Presidential Library, Atlanta, Georgia
• Ronald Reagan Presidential Library, Simi Valley, California
• George H.W. Bush Presidential Library, Houston, Texas
• William J. Clinton Presidential Library, Little Rock, Arkansas
• Library of Congress Manuscript Division, Washington, D.C.
• DOD FOIA Reading Room, The Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Army Center for Military History, Washington, D.C.
• Naval Historical Center Operational Archives, Washington, D.C.
• U.S. Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB, Alabama
• Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C.
• Douglas MacArthur Library, Norfolk, Virginia (Douglas MacArthur Papers)
• George C. Marshall Library, Lexington, Virginia (George C. Marshall Papers)
• Mudd Library, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (George W. Ball Papers)
• National Security Archive, Washington, D.C. (Chuck Hansen Collection)
• Maryland Historical Trust, Annapolis, Maryland

See also the companion collections Cold War Intelligence, U.S. Intelligence on Asia, 1945-1991, U.S. Intelligence on Europe, 1945-1995, and U.S. Intelligence on the Middle East, 1945-2009.
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Various Authors & Editors

Herbarium A. Michaux (1746-1803)
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris

The North American herbarium, mainly collected by Michaux himself, is in Paris, kept separately as an herbier historique,/i> and consists of 2,192 species. This type herbarium contains the Flora boreali-americana. On his return form North America in 1769, Michaux was shipwrecked on the Dutch coast, causing part of his collection to be lost.

2,192 species
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Hymns of Spiritual and Social Revival in the Early United States
Books and Music from the Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection

Historical context
This careful selection from the Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection at the Boston University School of Theology Library reflects the enormous changes that were taking place during the formative years of the United States, that is, in late eighteenth and throughout the nineteenth century. The age was to witness the rapid development of urban centers and industry, along with all the consequent social benefits and ills: the Temperance Movement, the abolition of slavery, the Civil War, the growth of literacy, and improved education and technological advances that would make written materials much more widely available than before. Early in the nineteenth century, Protestant churches in the northeast were to experience the Second Great Awakening. Both "back east" and on the rapidly expanding frontiers of the Old West and the Southwest, burgeoning populations would see the rise of camp meetings, religious revivals, and new initiatives for foreign missions and education, including the establishment of the American Bible Society, American Tract Society, American Board of Foreign Missions, Sunday School Union, and YMCA.

The role of hymns
A great number of hymns and tunes were composed because of, and in their turn contributed to, the enthusiasm of this age. Works for congregational singing were both more numerous and available farther afield by the mid-nineteenth century than ever before. Also, thanks to the efforts of composers, compilers, and publishers, participation in and expectations for such hymn-singing were rising. By the second half of the century, thousands of original hymns and tunes had become mainstays of congregational worship in North America. Significantly, this repertoire came to include items for specific audiences, such as children and youths, soldiers and sailors, and abolitionists. Patriotic and even nationalistic or secular "hymns" became common in increasingly ecumenical, compendious, and widely-marketed collections.

The collectors
The Nutter-Metcalf collection is an amalgamation of hymnological works donated separately by two alumni of Boston University. Charles Sumner Nutter (1842-1928) graduated in 1871, the year in which the Boston Theological School merged with the University. Nutter, a Methodist minister, collected hymnals and wrote both hymns and authoritative books on hymnology. He was Librarian of the New England Methodist Historical Society from 1915 until his death. In 1913, he was appointed Lecturer on Hymnology and Church Music at Boston University School of Theology, and presented his "hymnic library" to the school. The other Boston University alumnus, Frank Johnson Metcalf (1865-1945), gradated in 1886 and went on to work in the U.S. War Office. He, too, collected hymn books and wrote valuable books on hymnology. Metcalf was an avid historian and a member of the American Historical Association. He collaborated on An Index of Revolutionary War Pension Applications, and made contributions to the study of local history in Massachusetts.

Scope of the collection
The core of the Nutter-Metcalf collection is composed of hymnody of the First and Second Great Awakenings, and of subsequent, nineteenth-century revivals in the United States. The holdings comprise some 2,500 items from the period 1566-1940, including psalm and hymn books, sacred poetry, religious biography, histories of hymnology, a sampling of reference works, and accounts of particular hymns, denominational or other compilations, and hymn writers. The collection represents a broad array of Christian communities, and is particularly rich in Methodist holdings. The books chart the evolution of the modern, Protestant English hymn - from translations of the Psalter to Watts's lively paraphrases, from the Wesleys' vigorous works to the flowering of hymnody during the Evangelical Revival and the First and Second Great Awakenings, and Victorian retrospection and enthusiasm. Many of Nutter's books bear their owner's valuable inscriptions concerning individual hymns, stanzas, authors, and composers.

Selection
The books selected for this project begin chronologically with late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth-century collections of the Second Great Awakening, which moved beyond the influential works of Watts, the Wesleys, and their successors to adopt words and tunes by new authors and composers. These are followed by camp-meeting compilations, school songbooks, temperance hymnals and other gatherings of revival and patriotic music, and gospel hymns, up to and beyond the Civil War.
However, also included are many works falling outside these parameters, which nonetheless increase the scope of our selection and provide a fair picture of the Nutter-Metcalf collection, as well as a few books from Boston University School of Theology Special Collections. Thus, on the one hand, we have chosen notable treasures showing the transition from early British to American, and from psalmodic to hymnodic, practice. On the other hand, we have gathered productions of a traditionalist bent, such as hymn books inspired by the Oxford Movement, collections seminal to new denominations and sects, and a few later nineteenth-century revivalistic compilations.
In contrast, poetic and other anthologies have largely been omitted - unless they are deeply significant - as have scholarly discussions, unless they are short and unique, or biographical. A few books that are atypical of the world represented here have been included (e.g. vernacular, congregational Catholic hymn books), so as to suggest the collection's fuller contours and limits.

Local connection
The Nutter-Metcalf collection notably contains many books produced in New England by such well-known publishers as Isaiah Thomas. These oblong songsters preserve early hymns and tunes (the latter often in several voices) of many British and American authors and composers. Many are prefaced by materials that provide musical instruction and directions for congregational singing, affording a yet wider perspective on the devotional world of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Several of these, and other items in the selection, are titles occurring in Early American Imprints. Pertinent pre-1820 musical publications have been submitted to the RISM project ( Répertoire Internationale des Sources Musicales) at Harvard University.

The project
This selection of works from the Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection represents a retrospective cataloging and preservation project conducted in the period 1997-2000. The aim was to provide our online library database with Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2r) and Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books (DCRB)-compliant, Library of Congress Machine-Readable Catalog (MARC) bibliographic descriptions at as full a level as possible for each work described. The aim was also to offer richness in subjects, uniform titles, and other access points, particularly in name headings (for authors, composers, printers, stereotypers, engravers, and others), which were to be Library of Congress Name Authorities Cooperative (NACO)-authorized wherever feasible. The success of the project has afforded scholars the opportunity to obtain deeper levels of information, by means of which significant variations between editions of a given work might be perceived at the initial stages of research. It has also more fully exploited the potential of online catalogs as research tools (i.e. as a means of performing sophisticated electronic searches) than has oftentimes been the case.
The Nutter-Metcalf Hymnological Collection project was generously funded by the Lilly Endowment, and academically approved by Boston University School of Theology and the Trustees of Boston University. We gratefully acknowledge our debt to them, and, in addition, give sincere thanks to the Hymn Society in the United States and Canada, and to the staff of IDC for their encouragement and assistance.

Raymond Van De Moortell, Boston University, School of Theology Library; Brian Frykenberg, James Ford Bell Library; and Dawn Piscitello, Boston University, School of Theology Library
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Various Authors & Editors

Missionary Travels
North America

Travel accounts and travelogues dating from the 16th to 19th centuries. Collection includes reports of missionary reports, accounts of pilgrimages, educational voyages, artisan's wanderings, concrete data and statistics, descriptions of resorts, spas, courts and curiosities, anecdotes and social commentaries. The literature documents European mentalities and the dynamics of intercultural encounters (that sometimes resulted in collisions).

This collection is also included in the Missionary Travels collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Social and economic development plans
Africa

The largest and most complete file of recent national development plans in existence (available by region). Reports come from a variety of collections.

Language note
Texts primarily in English, but can also be in languages native to the country in question.

This collection is also included in the National Development Plans collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Social and economic development plans
Australia

The largest and most complete file of recent national development plans in existence (available by region). Reports come from a variety of collections.

Language note
Texts primarily in English, but can also be in languages native to the country in question.

This collection is also included in the National Development Plans collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Social and economic development plans
East Asia

The largest and most complete file of recent national development plans in existence (available by region). Reports come from a variety of collections.

Language note
Texts primarily in English, but can also be in languages native to the country in question.

This collection is also included in the National Development Plans collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Social and economic development plans
Eastern Europe

The largest and most complete file of recent national development plans in existence (available by region). Reports come from a variety of collections.

Language note
Texts primarily in English, but can also be in languages native to the country in question.

This collection is also included in the National Development Plans collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Social and economic development plans
Europe

The largest and most complete file of recent national development plans in existence (available by region). Reports come from a variety of collections.

Language note
Texts primarily in English, but can also be in languages native to the country in question.

This collection is also included in the National Development Plans collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Social and economic development plans
General

The largest and most complete file of recent national development plans in existence (available by region). Reports come from a variety of collections.

Language note
Texts primarily in English, but can also be in languages native to the country in question.

This collection is also included in the National Development Plans collection.