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Sephardic Editions, 1550-1820: Installment 3
Spanish and Portuguese books written and/or published by Sephardic Jews of Early Modern Europe

Library of Jewish heritage
The present selection reflects the impressive cultural achievements of these "New Jews" and former conversos, who are also called Western Sephardim. In communities such as Ferrara, Amsterdam, Hamburg, London, and Bayonne, these Iberians - who had been raised as Catholics, and were largely unaware of Hebrew and formal Judaism - reconnected with their ancestral faith through the creation of an authentic library of Jewish heritage in the Spanish and the Portuguese language.

Modern Jews
Numerous Bibles, prayer books, and a whole range of works on the essentials of Judaism and the duties of a Jew were published in the vernacular. However, book-printing was not limited to re-education in Judaism alone; many of the works written or printed by the former conversos also reflect the broad cultural interest, and the academic background, they had brought with them from Spain and Portugal. Precisely the encounter between Iberian Renaissance culture and the rediscovered Judaism in environments such as the cosmopolitan, tolerant city of Amsterdam, turned these Western Sephardim into the first "modern Jews," as is exemplified by the life and works of such eminent figures as Uriel da Costa, Menasseh ben Israel, and Joseph Penso de la Vega.

Most influential works
This selection comprises the most influential works written or printed by the Iberian Jews in the major centers of the Western Sephardi Diaspora (e.g., the Netherlands, France, Italy, Germany, England); it includes all genres and reflects both their religious and their secular culture. Many of the editions included in Meyer Kayserling's bibliography are exceedingly rare and are available only in specialized collections of Judaica. The aim of the present selection is to make the Sephardi heritage generally available in order to meet the needs of modern scholarship.

Harm den Boer, University of Amsterdam
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Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries
Part 2

The genre of occasional poetry, verse written to celebrate milestones in the life of private citizens, was introduced into the young Dutch Republic in the late sixteenth century. Starting from Leyden academic circles, it rapidly gained popularity among large sections of Dutch society; a poem written on the occasion of a wedding or a funeral must have been a status symbol for the well-to-do citizen. Publication of these virtually unknown poems ensures their survival, but also their availability to scholars all over the world. Together with Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries - Part 1 this collection will constitute a firm base for many kinds of research, for historians, art historians, students of genealogy, musicologists, and students of book history.

This collection is also included in the Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries collection.
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Various Authors & Editors

Early Printed Cyrillic Books
Library of Moscow State University, Belorussian and Ukrainian Publications

National and cultural identity
This collection bears witness to the complex, yet fascinating process of book printing in Belorussia and Ukraine when these countries were still under Polish-Lithuanian rule. Deprived of political rights and freedom of worship, the Orthodox Byelorussians and Ukrainians struggled to preserve their national and cultural identity by printing religious, liturgical, and historical books in the Cyrillic script. Often, these publications had a polemical intent – attacking the Catholics, the Uniates, and the Protestants alike – or propagated an openly nationalist agenda. One of the most popular works included in this collection is the Sinopsis – the first printed book on the history of the Eastern Slavs that promoted the idea of uniting all Slavic peoples. Equally interesting in this respect is the politically charged Trebnik, which was published in 1646 at the instigation of Piotr Mogila, the Metropolitan of Kiev.

The Brotherhoods
The role of the Brotherhoods ( bratstva) was crucial to this process of national emancipation. The Brotherhoods were political organizations that sought to stimulate Belorussian and Ukrainian culture by, for example, establishing schools and printing houses. Alarmed by these initiatives and anxious to curb the activities of the Brotherhoods, the government of the Polish-Lithuanian Union, in tandem with the Catholic and the Uniate Church, banned all politically sensitive publications. However, this did not prevent educated and influential Belorussians and Ukrainians from taking part in printing Cyrillic books. Printing houses specializing in Belorussian or Ukrainian publications existed at some point in time in Kiev, L’vov, Chernigov, Vilnius, Mogilev, and many other places.

Kiev-Perch Laura
The largest and most productive printing house in Ukraine belonged to the famous Monastery of the Caves, in Kiev ( Kieov-pecherskaia lavra). It functioned from 1616 until the end of the 18th century, and is represented in the present collection by 47 titles. These include a 1619 edition of the Anfologion (translated by Iov Boretskii), Pamva Berynda’s Leksikon slavianorusskii (the first Slavic “encyclopedia”), and a number of Besedy (“Conversations” on religious topics) that are especially noteworthy for the exceptionally high quality of the typography. The second largest segment of the collection comprises 20 books printed by the Uspenskii Brotherhood of Lvov, which was one of the most important cultural centers in Ukraine during the 17th and 18th centuries. In Belorussia, the Brotherhoods of Vilna and Eve, as well as smaller printing houses in Mogilev and Kutein, specialized in the printing of Cyrillic books. Among the most valuable of the 23 Belorussian books included in this collection are Kirill Trankvillion Stavrovetskii’s Perlo mnogotsennoe (1699), Akafisty vsesedmichnye (1698) – which was printed by the Brotherhood of Mogilev – and a number of sumptuously illustrated liturgical works and prayerbooks.

Unique collection
The present collection consists of 109 rare or otherwise valuable Belorussian and Ukrainian books printed in the 17th century. As well as having an historical value, the combination of luxurious design and sophisticated typography makes these works stand out as true landmarks of early book printing. The books were often embellished by professional artists, who added illustrations and designed the title pages. Ukrainian and Belorussian books differed from those printed in Moscow in both style and content. Whereas the latter were funded by the government and meticulously censored by the Metropolitan and the Tsar, the printing in the Ukraine and Belorussia was supported primarily by private donations. Their repertoire was also much more diversified. The books’ more colorful design, their covers, dedications, coats of arms, and spectacular illustrations contribute to the uniqueness of this material.

Moscow State University Library
Moscow State University Library (founded 1756) is one of the biggest libraries in Russia. Today, it stores more than 8 million volumes and owns many rare books and manuscripts. The most valuable part of its holdings is in the Rare Books and Manuscripts section, which accommodates over 200,000 items, including unique Western, Oriental, and Slavonic manuscripts, archives, incunabula, prints, and other early works. The unique collection of early printed Slavonic books was obtained largely through donations, purchases, transfers from other libraries, and the work of the Archeographical Expedition (which spent over 30 years working among Russian Old Believers in different parts of the former Soviet Union). Nowadays, the Slavonic collection comprises 2,170 items dating from the 1400s to the 1900s.
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Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries
Part 1

The genre of occasional poetry, verse written to celebrate milestones in the life of private citizens, was introduced into the young Dutch Republic in the late sixteenth century. Starting from Leyden academic circles, it rapidly gained popularity among large sections of Dutch society; a poem written on the occasion of a wedding or a funeral must have been a status symbol for the well-to-do citizen. Publication of these virtually unknown poems ensures their survival, but also their availability to scholars all over the world. Together with Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries - Part 2 this collection will constitute a firm base for many kinds of research, for historians, art historians, students of genealogy, musicologists, and students of book history.

This collection is also included in the Dutch Occasional Poetry of the 16th through 18th Centuries collection.
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A. H. van den Baar and Hilda Meijer

Slavic Palaeography

Works on Slavic palaeography as well as material useful for the analysis or comparative study of old handwritten texts, such as reference material, diplomatics, computistics, and printed liturgics.
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Various Authors & Editors

Russian Symbolism
Including Futurism, Acmeism and Imaginism

All items in this collection are connected with Symbolism, Acmeism, Futurism, and other movements of the aesthetic revival in Russia which began around 1890. Collection includes works representing the "silver age" of Russian literature. Authors such as A. Blok, A Akhmatova, K. Bol'mont, V. Briusov, A. Belyi, S. Esenin, Z. Gippius and many others are included.
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Romance Linguistics and Dialectology

Serials on the subject of romance linguistics and dialectology.
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Various Authors & Editors

Irish Pamphlets, c. 1700-1850
The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C.

Pamphlets documenting the range of popular literature during the early stages of Ireland's Campaign for Parliamentary Reform and the first appearance of the Catholic Question. In addition to sources on the Catholic Question, the collection, by way of personal correspondence, parliamentary proceedings, journalistic and committee reports and creative writing, provides insight into issues such as the connection between the Volunteer movement and the struggle for Catholic emancipation; the significance of land policy and structure in rural Ireland; and the influence of nutritional and educational guidelines stipulated by various societies upon the lifestyles of the Irish poor.
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Various Authors & Editors

This collection includes Hebrew Bibles, Polyglots, Hebrew Grammars and Dictionaries.
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Girolamo Savonarola, Religious and Political Reformer
The Incunable Collection of the Württembergische Landesbibliothek, Stuttgart

Biography
Girolamo Savonarola came from a respected and affluent family that had originally resided in Padua. He was born on 21 September 1452 in Ferrara, where his grandfather Michele Savonarola was a physician at the court of the Este and a Professor of Medicine at the university. Encouraged by this grandfather, who until his death in 1468 was consistently involved in the raising of his grandson, Girolamo decided after finishing his liberal arts schooling to study medicine.
When he was around twenty, however, he developed an aversion to secular life. In the spring of 1475, he secretly left the house of his parents and joined the Dominican monastery in Bologna. In 1479, his superiors sent him back to Ferrara to study theology and subsequently (1482) to Florence to preach. In the years that followed there, he wrote his first sermons, which were never published. After a few years absence from Florence Savonarola's historic career began in July 1491 when he was elected prior at the monastery of San Marco. He soon became highly respected among the lower and middle classes in Florence for his rousing penitential sermons. Following the death of Lorenzo de'Medici in April 1492, Savonarola became politically prominent in Florence and started to consider setting up a theocratic regime in this city.

Theocracy
After the de'Medicis were driven out of Florence in November 1494, Savonarola and his supporters obtained political control over Florence. Under his aegis, a new constitution was already drafted for Florence in 1494. Savonarola planned comprehensive public and private reforms. In his sermons he fulminated primarily against the rampant extravagance in Florence and against the general moral decadence. When he then denounced the moral misdemeanors of the church and especially of the contemporary pope in his speeches and writings, he was dismissed by the Church of Rome and excommunicated by Pope Alexander VI (1492-1503) on 13 May 1497.
Thanks to his many supporters, however, he nonetheless remained in office until the spring of 1498. On 8 April of that year he was arrested. He was tried in Florence and sentenced to death. On 23 May Savonarola was publicly hanged in Florence and burned at the stake. Although his personal conduct was beyond reproach, he became a victim of his own doing because of his misassessment of his power and of the forces against him in the Church of Rome and in Florence.

Savonarola's Works
Savonarola published extensively in the few years since his election as prior of San Marco and especially since the start of his rule over Florence. Savonarola was among the first authors of the late 15th century to acknowledge the importance of printing as a means of propagating his ideas. From 1492 until his death, nearly every word he expressed in public and every text he wrote was printed immediately.
In barely eight years of working in Florence, Savonarola became by far the most widely published 15th-century author during his lifetime. At his peak from 1494 until the spring of 1498, no fewer than 100 editions of his sermons and tracts were published in Florence alone. Virtually all late 15th-century Florentine printers disseminated his writings, most of all Bartolomeo de'Libri, who was responsible for about half of all editions, as well as Francesco Bonaccorsi, Antonio Miscomini, Lorenzo Morgiani, Johannes Petri and Piero Pacini - the latter solely as a publisher.
Printing helped spread Savonarola's message well beyond Italy during his lifetime. Savonarola's own Latin version of one of his most influential works, originally composed in Italian as Compendio di rivelazioni (1495), was reprinted successively in Paris and Ulm by August 1496.The rise of Florentine book illustrations is closely linked with the dissemination of Savonarola's writings, since most contemporary editions feature at least one decorative woodcut.

Inspiring Luther
One generation after Savonarola, the reformation movement instigated by Martin Luther in Germany also made extensive use of printing to disseminate its doctrine and ideas. To this day, Savonarola is regarded in many respects as one of Luther's predecessors (albeit an unsuccessful one). Whereas Savonarola tried to gain political control of his immediate surroundings as well - and ultimately failed - Luther pursued religious-theological ambitions that were all the more effective in this respect. One sign that Luther regarded Savonarola as a kindred spirit and champion of the same cause despite all the differences was that he arranged a reprint (Wittenberg, 1523) of Savonarola's last two psalm interpretations written immediately before his conviction and execution. Luther added a very favorable preface to it. The reformation movement certainly helped some of Savonarola's writings (including his psalm interpretations) remain especially popular outside Italy well into the 16th century and keep being reprinted.

Collectors
Although Savonarola's writings were banned by the Catholic Church and placed on the Index of Rome (which explains why some are so rare), the original Florentine editions, generally decorated with woodcarvings, interested book collectors very early on. The Florentine scholar Antonio Magliabechi (1633-1714) was one of the first private book collectors to own a vast collection of early Savonarola editions, most of which became part of the Biblioteca Magliabechiane that he founded in what is now the Florentine National Library.

The Stuttgart collection
The first person who tried systematically to obtain a complete collection of contemporary Savonarola editions was undoubtedly the Abbé de Rulle from Nancy. His collection of largely Italian incunabula, which aside from the Savonarola collection comprised a substantial collection of Dante's and Petrarca's works, was acquired by Duke Carl Eugen von Württemberg in 1786 for the ducal public library he opened in 1765 (now the Württembergische Landesbibliothek).
To this day, de Rulle's collection remains the core of the Stuttgart Savonarola collection, which has expanded to twice the size of de Rulle's collection thanks to the purchase of the Savonarola collection of the Florentine Ginori Conti family and several individual purchases since the 1960s. The Stuttgart Savonarola collection is the largest and most significant in the world after the Savonarola collection of the national library in Florence. It features early editions of all Savonarola's writings and sermons published during his lifetime and shortly thereafter. In addition to the Florentine collection, the Stuttgart collection comprises most editions of Savonarola's work published outside Italy in the 15th century. The collection of writings by Savonarola's supporters and opponents is nearly complete and includes a great many very rare and even unique editions. The entire collection features several extremely rare editions, such as the complete series of the richly illustrated incunabular edition of the Predica dell'arte ben morire (Giovannozzi 183-186).

This edition
This microfiche edition contains the complete incunabular section of the Stuttgart collection, including all multiple copies, which in this case are not superfluous padding but are a true complement. After all, many early editions were mutilated by the religious censor. These alterations are identifiable only by comparing several copies with small variations and deviations within the same edition. This collection also comprises the post-incunabula of the Savonarola collection, which are still described in the literature as incunabula, as well as writings attributed to Savonarola, such as Il novo cortegiano. Thus, the collection offers primary sources of relevance to theologians, historians, art historians, and book historians.

Dr. Peter Amelung, Stuttgart